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  • Combination of discrimination, unequal relations and power and negative beliefs and attitudes
    Prejudice – style of thinking which relies heavily on stereotypes – usually factually incorrect, exagerrated and distorted
    Discrimination – prejudice put into practice – in regard to jobs, housing, racial attacks and perhaps even policing
    Institutional racism – the idea that racial assumptions are built into the rules and routines of Britain’s social institutions, so that the specific needs of ethnic minorities are neglected.
  • But are likely to face prejudice and discrimination from the white working class because they suffer from status inequality as well as class inequality
    In the form of prejudicial attitudes held by members of both the white middle and working classes
    The primary sector is characterised by secure, well paid jobs with long term promotion prospects (dominated by white men) , and the secondary sector is characterised by low-paid, unskilled and insecure jobs (dominated by women and black people)
    Because employers may subscribe to racist beliefs about their unsuitability, and even practise discrimination against them either when they apply for jobs or by denying them responsibility and promotion
    The race relations act, which is supposed to protect them from discriminatory practices is generally thought to be feeble. Trade unions are generally white-dominated and tend to favour white workers.
    A black underclass may exist which is marginalised, alienated and frustrated, and which sometimes erupts in the form of inner city riots if young blacks feel, for example, that they are being harassed by the police.
  • E.g. young Africa-Caribbeans are workshy and welfare-dependant. This is despite the fact that surveys indicate their norms and values with regard to work are no different from mainstream society.
  • Thus ensuring that employers can treat black people as a reserve army of labour, to be hired when the economy expands and laid off when the recession sets in
    So that employers can use the threat of cheaper black workers to control their workforce – especially if there are hints that white workers are planning to strike for higher pay. This tactic ‘divides and rules’ the black and white working class, as white workers are encouraged to see black workers as a greater threat to their position than the organisation of capitalism.
    Black people can be scapegoated for unemployment (through beliefs such as they’ve come over here to take our jobs) or inner city decline (this was a nice neighbourhood before they moved in)
  • It may benefit capitalism in the long term but this is not evidence that it functions exclusively as an ideological apparatus
    No evidence to suggest that capitalist class is responsible for its existence or maintenance
    Although ethnic minorities are part of the working class there are significant cultural differences between them and the white working class which result in them stresing aspects of their ethnic identities
    Although there is some evidence that they often end up in the lower-middle class, where status and pay are not as high, or in lower and middle management rather than top management poisitions
  • Resourcd File

    1. 1. Starter  Have you ever experienced racism or discrimination? If so, in what way?
    3. 3. Lesson Objective  To develop knowledge of ethnic inequalities
    4. 4. Definitions  Racism  Prejudice  Discrimination  Institutional racism  Create your own definition for the above key terms. (5mins) A system of beliefs and practices that exclude people form all aspects of social life on the grounds of ethnic or cultural background. Racism expressed through opinion, attitude or fear rather than action. Racial discrimination put into practice. This could be through name-calling or violence. Racism as a basic feature within institutions such as the police, the courts, the media, employment or the education system.
    5. 5. Homework – due Friday  Collect at least one piece of evidence that relates to the key concepts of racism, prejudice, discrimination and institutional racism in the contemporary UK. The evidence could take the form of newspaper articles, research, interviews and so forth.
    6. 6. Activity – Independent Work 30 mins  Write a newspaper article that outlines the various types of inequalities that people will suffer in the UK due to their race. You must include the four key concepts that you have just defined, and sociological evidence form the textbook (pages 281-284)  Extension – read over the getting you thinking activity on page 280.
    7. 7. Theories of ethnic inequalities  Weberian  Marxist  Postmodernist
    8. 8. Weberian explanations  Weber argues that modern societies are characterised by class inequality and ethnic inequality, but status and power are in the hands of the majority ethnic group. This makes it difficult for ethnic minority groups to compete equally for jobs, housing etc…  Ethnic minority workers do not share the same status as White workers.  Ethnic minorities are likely to experience discrimination from the White working class as they compete for jobs. Therefore they suffer from status inequality as well as class inequality.
    9. 9. Weberian explanations 1. Ethnic minority members who do manual jobs are technically part of the working class 2. Even middle-class Asians doing professional jobs may experience status inequality 3. The Weberian dual labour market theory of Barron and Norris argues that there are two markets for labour – the primary sector and the secondary sector 4. Ethnic minorities are less likely to gain primary sector employment 5. The legal and political framework supporting black people is weak 6. Some Weberians, especially Rex and Tomlinson, argue that ethnic minority experience of both class and status inequality can lead to poverty which is made more severe by racism
    10. 10. Weberian Evaluation  Commentators such as Murray and Marsland blame the culture of some ethnic minorities for their poverty and unemployment  The existence of a black underclass has not been proved – there is considerable overlap between the white and black population in terms of poverty and unemployment  However, the concept of status inequality may help to explain some apparent divisions between the white and black working class, in terms of unemployment and promotion into white collar work
    11. 11. Research
    12. 12. Group Work  Your group have been tasked with designing a piece of research into racism in contemporary Britain. You have unlimited resources at your disposal, and may use any methodology (including mixed) that you can justify. The moral implications of your work must be weighed against the ethical considerations of your research.
    13. 13. Marxist explanations  Marxists are adamant that black people are part of the exploited working class and they generally see status inequality as less important than class inequality.
    14. 14. Marxist explanations They do acknowledge that racism is a powerful influence in modern society – it’s used as an ideological weapon in order to attain three objectives: 1. Racism means that black unemployment, low pay and poor conditions in the workplace do not generate controversy 2. Marxists argue that white workers are encouraged to perceive black workers as a threat to their jobs 3. Social problems caused by the mismanagement of capitalism can also be blamed on visible ethnic minorities.
    15. 15. Marxist Evaluation  It is difficult to prove that racism is a capitalist ideology  Marxists tend to talk about racism as if the capitalist class had deliberately constructed it to control both black and white workers  Miles says we should see ethnic minorities as members of ‘racialised class fractions’  There is evidence that increasing numbers of ethnic minorities are entering the ranks of the professional middle class
    16. 16. Exam Planning  You have twenty minutes to plan an answer to the following question:  Outline the evidence that people from ethnic minority groups in the UK suffer from inequality. [20]  Peer assessment – go over your partner’s answer and highlight key terms, sociologists and statistics in different colours.
    17. 17. Stuart Hall – Racism in the media
    18. 18. Starter  You are the Prime Minister, with unlimited power over the state apparatus. How will you empty our society of racist views?
    19. 19. Ethnicity and Stratification Using Empirical Evidence
    20. 20. Using Statistics  For each slide, write a paragraph explaining what it shows, and then use your synoptic skill to link the data to theory, studies, approaches and key concepts.
    21. 21. Exemplar The graph clearly shows that there is inequality in terms of unemployment by ethnicity. Seven point three percent of people from a ‘white’ ethnicity were show to be unemployed, which is the lowest of any ethnic group. People from mixed heritage and Pakistani backgrounds had the highest unemployment figures (17.3% and 16.8% respectively.) There are various possible sociological explanations for this. Weber argued that ethnic minority people will suffer from both class inequality and status inequality, as they often experience prejudice and discrimination from both the managerial class, and the white working class. Marxists such as Miles would agree, arguing that the capitalist classes, or the bourgeoisie, will divide the working class, or proletariat. Miles would call ethnic minorities part of the racialized class fractions – meaning that the white working class are socialised into discrimination and into seeing ethnic minority people as a threat to their jobs. A further explanation of these figures could be employer racism – a BBC experiment found that job applicants with ‘Asian sounding names’ had only a 9% chance of being given an interview compared to tradition ‘white’ names.
    22. 22. Twenty Minutes  Extension – Take one piece of empirical evidence from the textbook (284) and attach at least three sociological explanations.
    23. 23. Homework  Complete the data task, and memorise two pieces of data from each area.
    24. 24. Activity  In pairs you will be given a particular area. You must gather empirical evidence, and then use studies, approaches and so forth to explain one piece of empirical data. This will be presented in poster form.
    25. 25. Starter  One the key knowledge check provided, write down two key statistics for each of the areas of social life. You will get one point for each stat, and one extra point for the source of each stat.
    26. 26. FOLDERS!
    27. 27. Host-Immigrant model (assimilation theory)
    28. 28. The host-immigrant model (assimilation theory)  Patterson (1965)  When large numbers of immigrants moved from the old colonies during the 50s and 60s, the value consensus of British society was broken  The ‘host’ community (British people) were understandably fearful of the newcomers  Patterson used the example of West Indian people who were ‘noisy and boisterous’ compared to British people who were ‘quiet and private’
    29. 29. Host-immigrant continued  Patterson argued that British people were not racist, just unsure about how to communicate  Three causes of racial discrimination: 1. The hosts culture’s fear of social change and difference 2. Resentment at having to compete for jobs (esp. the WC) 3. The failure of ethnic minorities to assimilate e.g. living in segregated communities and not learning the language
    30. 30. Continued  Patterson believed that eventually immigrants would become ‘more British’ and would then ‘fit in’ just fine  Labour argued that there were cultural ghettos, and this caused the ‘white flight’  Labour introduced the 45 minute citizenship test and many politicians and media outlets have argued that immigrants should have to learn the language
    31. 31. Activity  In pairs, think of five criticisms of the host-immigrant model of ethnicity and inequality
    32. 32. Evaluation  It is generally the immigrant (victim) who is blamed for the racism and discrimination that they suffer  The Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) found that segregation is a result of discrimination and poverty, not choice and that councils will often actively segregate communities (giving ethnic minorities the worst housing)
    33. 33. Evaluation continued  Segregation makes politicised racism easy – in Oldham the BNP stirred tension by saying the Asian communities were getting all of the houses, in reality 9% of Asians lived in council housing, 25% of whites  CRE also pointed out that ‘white flight’ is due to whites not wanting to mix with Asian, not the other way round
    34. 34. Evaluation  Supporters of multiculturalism (esp. Hall) would argue that we are a culturally diverse community and so should celebrate diversity, rather than assuming that white culture is superior  H-I model fails to recognise that most West Indian already speak English  Many Asians share British values due to colonialism  Patterson predicted that racism would stop. It has not, and many ethic minority groups suffer many forms of discrimination
    35. 35. Activity  Create a poster that outlines H-I model, and then criticises it. Use empirical evidence, newspaper cuttings and evaluation points. You should also be thinking synoptically.
    36. 36. Starter  You have five minutes to note down ten sociologists that apply to ethnicity and inequality, including what they have found, researched or believe.
    37. 37. Recent approaches  Recent approaches – Owen and Green (1992) note that Indians and Chinese are two ethnic groups that have made significant progress in the British labour market since the 1980s.  More ethnic minorities are entering middle class  However, they may experience the ‘glass ceiling’ as White workers progress further in companies
    38. 38. Postmodernist approaches  Modood (1992) reject Marxist and Weberian explanations of ethnicity and inequality  Ethnic-minority groups are characterized by difference and diversity  The experience of racism is different for all – stop and search  Responses to racism are also different
    39. 39. Postmodernist approaches  Focus on ‘culture and identity’ rather than racial inequality  White and ethnic-minority identities are being eroded by globalization and consumption  Therefore less likely to have their identity shaped by their ethnic group  In the 21st century, young people have started to ‘pick and mix’ their identity  This has created new hybrid identities  Identity has become a matter of choice  This will therefore reduce racism Task: Note down the criticisms of the postmodernist approach
    40. 40. Week 4  Starter – Complete your article which details the inequalities for ethnic-minority groups within society. (15mins)
    41. 41. Re-cap of the Key Terms  Racism  Prejudice  Discrimination  Institutional racism Task – Complete the ‘Getting you thinking’ activity. (10mins) What are your key findings regarding racism?
    42. 42. Racism  Miles (1989) argued that ethnic-minority groups are more likely to be found at the bottom of the stratification system in society.  This is therefore seen as racism.  Racism has 3 key elements: prejudice, racial discrimination and institutional discrimination.
    43. 43. Prejudice  Racial prejudice is a type of racism that is expressed through opinion, attitude or fear rather than action.  Based on stereotypes.  Opinion that is incorrect, exaggerated or distorted.  Heath and Rothon (2003) found that 35% of adults described themselves as prejudice against people of other races. Rose to 37% in 1987, before falling to 25% in 2000 and 2001.  In 2002 however the figure rose to 31%.
    44. 44. Prejudice  Connolly and Keenan (2000) completed a survey in Northern Ireland which found that 25% were unwilling to accept other ethnicities in their local area. 2 out of every 5 people were unwilling to accept particular ethnicities as a friend and 54% were unwilling to accept a person of South Asian origin as a relative by way of marriage.  In 2006, a Channel 4 survey ‘How racist is Britain?’ found that 84% said they were not prejudiced and only 1% admitted to being very prejudiced.  The most prejudiced group at 45-65 year olds.  v=6MYHBrJIIFU&safe=active
    45. 45. Prejudice  Prejudice is passed down through the process of socialization.  Education is responsible however for teaching young people not to be prejudice. 18% of graduates admit to be prejudiced in comparison to 35% of those who have no qualifications.  Complete the ‘Focus on research’ activity on Page 282. (10mins)  What do White teenagers do with their prejudicial attitudes?  Feedback your answers to the rest of the group.
    46. 46. Increase in prejudice in modern society  Rotton and Heath argue that the medias coverage of asylum seekers and immigration has sparked prejudice in modern day society.  The same can be said for terrorism.
    47. 47. Racial Discrimination  This is prejudice put in to action.  Can you think of any examples?  Racist name-calling or bullying  Connolly and Keenan found that 21% said that their friends had called someone a name due to their colour or ethnicity.  The DfE (2002) found that 25% of pupils from minority-ethnic backgrounds in mainly White schools had experienced name calling in the last 7 days due to their race or ethnicity.
    48. 48. Racial Attacks  Between 1991 and 1997 there have been over 65 murders in Britain with suspected or known racial motive.  The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 states that if a crime has a racial element then punishment will be increased.  Racist chanting at football grounds has been banned.  61,000 complaints of racially motivated crime in 2006/07  However the number of racial attacks are only a proportion of the amount of actual attacks that take place.  Chahal and Julienne (1999) found that racism was part of everyday life for Black and ethnic-minority people.
    49. 49. Employer racism  Read over this section of the text book.  Make your own revision notes regarding employers and racism.  What have been the findings in relation to experiences of racism within the work place?
    50. 50. Institutional racism  Policing – The Macpherson’s report 1998 in to the murder of Black teenager Stephen Lawrence by White youths in 1993 found that the Metropolitan Police were guilty of institutional racism.  v=ekvneQE9A8k&safe=active
    51. 51. Dual-labour market  Barrron and Norris 1. Primary labour market – secure, well paid jobs with long term prospects 2. Secondary labour market – low paid, insecure and unskilled Activity – who dominates each labour market, and why may this be?
    52. 52. Homework  You are to complete your notes for the topic ‘ethnicity and stratification’ over the half term break.  Complete the research activities and exam questions at the end of the chapter.