Rahe, Mahan and
Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from
subject’s preceding life changes
Physiological ...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Context
O Se...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Aims
O To co...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Procedures
O...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Findings
O P...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
Decile group N...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Conclusions
...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Evaluating t...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Reliability
...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Validity (do...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Sampling (op...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Ethics
O Inf...
Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970)
Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes
O Alternative ...
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  1. 1. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes Physiological Psychology
  2. 2. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Context O Selye’s GAS model. O Hawkins et al. (1957) linked admission of patients for TB with ‘disturbing occurrences’ in the 2 years prior. O Schedule of Recent Experiences (SRE) developed using life change units (LCU). O Most studies at the time were retrospective.
  3. 3. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Aims O To conduct a prospective study using a normal population to investigate if there is a relationship between life events and illness.
  4. 4. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Procedures O Participants O 2,644 male naval personnel on 3 US ships with an average age of 22.3 years from a range of backgrounds. O They did not know the reason for the study (passive deception) O Measuring life changes O Completed a military version of the SRE every 6 months for 2 years prior to a tour of duty. O Measuring illness O On return a research physician reviewed the well- kept medical files of each person.
  5. 5. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Findings O Positive correlation of .118 between the 6 months prior to the cruise and the cruise period illness (this was significant at a probability of less than 1%).
  6. 6. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes Decile group No of sailors Mean illness rate 1 258 1.434 2 268 1.377 3 268 1.583 4 258 1.543 5 273 1.489 6 260 1.685 7 269 1.651 8 274 1.693 9 277 2.083 10 261 2.049 Mean illness rates during the cruise period for each decile group
  7. 7. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Conclusions O Supports a linear relationship between stress and illness (Selye?) and agrees with other research O The correlation is small but it is still there. These participants didn’t get particularly ill and their life changes were small. Noticing any correlation was suprising. O Cruiser 2 – had the most stressful tour and the link between TLCU and illness was weakest. Environmental factors had a bigger impact. O TLCU a better predictor for older and married men.
  8. 8. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Evaluating the methodology O Method O Questionnaires O Intervening variables – anxiety
  9. 9. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Reliability O How reliable is the SRE? O How easy is it to categorise life events? Do all people interpret their lives in the same way? O Can you remember everything that’s happened to you in the last 2 years? BUT – they did test-retest it!
  10. 10. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Validity (does it measure what is sets out to measure?) O People all interpret and deal with stress differently. The SRE measures someone’s subjective perception of their own stress rather than an objective view.
  11. 11. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Sampling (opportunity sample) O 2,664 males from US Navy with an average age of 22.3 years – problems?
  12. 12. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Ethics O Informed consent? O Confidentiality? O Passive deception? O Right to withdraw? O Debriefing?
  13. 13. Rahe, Mahan and Arthur (1970) Prediction of near future health change from subject’s preceding life changes O Alternative evidence O Findings back up by Rubin et al. (1972) who looked at naval aviators. O Cohen et al (1991,1993) gave participants cold virus. Those with high stress levels more likely to become ill. O DeLongis et al. (1998) link between daily hassles (weather, physical appearance etc) and next-day health problems (headaches, sore throats O Moos and Swindle (1990) Social resources available mediates stress O Kielcolt-Glaser et al (1984) immune system weakened in students taking exams O Evans et al (1994) more infection protection in reaction to short term stress but this depletes if stress extends long-term.

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