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Resourcd File

  1. 1. DATE:
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. SOCIAL EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME • • IDENTIFY risk factors in childhood that may contribute to whether a person turns to crime EXPLAIN why these factors may influence criminal behaviour This explanation suggests that rather than being born bad, we are ‘made’ bad as a result of our childhood experiences. Research in this area focuses on the effects of divorce, maternal deprivation, family size and the weak link with parental occupation. Make a list of potential risk factors that could contribute to a child turning to crime
  3. 3. Look at each risk factor and write down your thoughts around the image. Consider the following questions; • • • • • Does it affect gender differently? How? What facts do you know? Are the any strengths/weaknesses to the situation? Are there any exceptions? To what extent will this lead to criminal behaviour? Be prepared to feedback to the rest of the class EXAMPLE Maternal deprivation Divorce Family Size Parental Occupation Childrearing EL
  4. 4. Bowlby’s 44 Thieves study (1946) • 44 juvenile male ‘criminals questioned about their crimes AND the relationship they had with their parents • 14 of the boys felt no guilt about crime committed or their victims • The other 30 did feel guilt about the crimes they had committed • 12/14 had experienced maternal deprivation before age 2 • BUT only 5/30 had experienced maternal deprivation before age 2 What conclusion can you draw from these findings? SOCIAL EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME 1. What is a longitudinal study? 2. Research suggests that a. A study that takes a short time a. Lots of arguments in a home and prolonged separation from a caregiver can produce a criminal b. A study that tracks changes of behaviour over a long period of time c. A study that is compared to a shortitudinal study b. Negative childhood experiences increases vulnerability to a life of crime c. Divorce is the main contributor to turning a child to crime 3. An Australian study suggests that children are more likely to turn to crime if 4. According to Farrington how many children in a family is more likely to be linked to criminality? a. Dad works in a factory a. 6 b. Mum works in a factory b. 4 c. Dad is unemployed c. 2 5. Hoffman identified 3 different childrearing strategies, which one is more likely to lead to criminality? 6. Sharon’s caregiver said she was stupid in front of her friends. Which childrearing strategy is being used? a. Induction a. Induction b. Love withdrawal b. Love withdrawal
  5. 5. c. Power assertion c. Power assertion 7. Eulalee’s mum made her understand that shouting was not appropriate behaviour in class. Which childrearing strategy is being used? 8. Sita’s dad said he did not like her when she was being difficult. Which childrearing strategy is being used? a. Induction b. Love withdrawal a. Induction b. Love withdrawal c. Power assertion c. Power assertion CASE STUDY 1 Marta has a son Lee, who has hit a child at school. Marta deals with Lee’s behaviour by smacking him and shouting at him. Lee is sent to bad and is not allowed to eat with the rest of the family. Marta continues to shout at Lee throughout the evening. Lee’s father disagrees with Marta’s parenting strategy and argues with her openly. He gives Lee a hug and explains that his mum is wrong to hit him. The next day Lee hits another child. This time Marta refuses to talk to Lee all afternoon and his father smacks him and puts him to bed. a. How might Marta have dealt with Lee using love withdrawal as a childrearing strategy? [3]
  6. 6. b. How might Marta use induction as a childrearing strategy? [3] CASE STUDY 2 Carl has been arrested for a number of crimes, such as joyriding and assault. Using your knowledge of childrearing strategies, explain why Carl might have turned to crime. [6 marks]
  7. 7. 12 LEARNING OBJECTIVES: DATE: 2. SOCIAL EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME • • EXPLAIN what is meant by Self Fulfilling prophecy OUTLINE how criminality is caused by the way we are treated by others SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY as an explanation for criminality
  8. 8. Self-fulfilling prophecy is: when our behaviour changes in line with the way how we think others expect us to behave. In the box below write down some words that you think others would use to describe you. (eg good listener, talkative etc) Highlight the words that you think have had an influence on your behaviour. How much are you influenced by what other people think? This theory has been linked to criminality as it suggests that criminal behaviour is a result of the way others expect them to behave. So they conform to this expectation. If we are seen as or expected to be a criminal, then we will behave as one. 1. What are the effects of giving someone a ‘label?’ a. labels can affect an individual’s _________ __________ b. Labels can affect the way _____________ treat you c. ___________ may label people according to the way others treat you 2. Write your own example here of how a negative belief predicts a negative behaviour 2. What is the Pygmalion effect?
  9. 9. Low expectations: if a teacher thinks you will fail in an exam you probably will. Rosenthal & Jacobsen (1968): can achievement be self-fulfilling? TRUE OR FALSE? (pg173) 1. Teachers were given an IQ test 2. Teachers were told which children would be average and which would be ‘bloomers’ 3. The two groups were identified from the results of the IQ test 4. The teachers expected more effort from the average children and so paid more attention to them
  10. 10. 5. The same children were retested a year later and the IQ of the ‘bloomers’ had increased 6. This study supports the theory that expectations affect behaviour Extension – can you think of any ethical issues with this study? All in a name: Which names do you think are ‘criminal’ names? Jahoda (1954): • Study of Ashanti people in Africa who name their children after the day of the week that they are born • Believed that names of boys are linked to their temperament • Boys named Kwadwo (Monday) seen as calm & peaceful • Boys called Kwadku (Wednesday) seen as aggressive & angry
  11. 11. Summarise Jahoda’s findings (pg 173) 1. Using your knowledge of SFP explain why this might be the case 2. Stretch and challenge: can you think of any criticisms for this kind of research method? EXAM FOCUS 1. What is meant by the term Self-fulfilling prophecy? [4]
  12. 12. 2. Discuss (with examples) how SFP may account for some instances of crime [8] LEARNING OBJECTIVES: DATE: 3. SOCIAL EXPLANATIONS OF CRIME • • • DESCRIBE how and why Madon conducted her study ASSESS whether the findings support the theory of SFP EVALUATE the study MADON 2004: SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY AND DRINKING BEHAVIOUR
  13. 13. Read the study on page 180. Identify the AIM, PROCEDURE, RESULTS, CONCLUSION and CRITICISMS 1. What was the research question? [1] 2. Madon questioned 115 children aged between 12 – 13 yrs old and their parents. a. What were the parents asked to do? [1] b. What were the children asked to do? [1] 3. What is the outcome if one parent has a negative opinion about a child’s drinking habits? [1] 4. What is the outcome if both parents hold negative beliefs about a child’s drinking habits? [1] 5. Outline a problem with correlation studies. [2] 6. Give two reasons why the parents and children might not tell the truth when answering questions about drinking alcohol. [2]
  14. 14. 7. Write TWO conclusions [2] 8. What other explanation could there be for the findings? [2] 9. What do people need to be aware of when using the findings of this kind of research to advise parents? [2] 10. Janek was arrested for being drunk and disorderly after a night out clubbing. His parents were not surprised when the police phoned them. Use the theory and Madon’s study to explain Janek’s behaviour. [4]
  15. 15. HOMEWORK Create a précis of the study (ONE SIDE OF A4) OR Write a poem to summarise the study