SCLY2: key terms 1
Explain what is meant by the term ‘ethnocentric’.
These are all two mark questions. You will need to know the
definitions of all key terms for the exam.
Explain what is meant by the term ‘bourgeoisie’.
Explain what is meant by the term ‘cultural deprivation’.
Explain what is meant by the term ‘Hawthorne
Explain what is meant by the term ‘compensatory education’.
9 Explain what is meant by the term ‘feminism’.
Explain what is
meant by the
Explain what is meant by the term ‘meritocracy’.
Seeing or judging things in a biased way
from the viewpoint of one culture; e.g.
the National Curriculum has been
described as an ethnocentric curriculum
since it tends to value white, western
literature, languages, history, religion and
disregards or does not value black or Asian
The theory that many working class and
black children are inadequately socialised
and therefore lack the ‘right’ culture for
educational success; e.g. their families do
not instil the value of deferred gratification.
The process whereby schools sort pupils into
‘hopeless cases’, ‘those who will pass anyway’, and
‘those with the potential to pass’, and then
concentrate their efforts on the last of these
groups as a way to boost school’s exam league
Government education policies such as
Pupil Premium, that seek to tackle the problem
of underachievement by providing extra
support and funding to schools and families
in deprived areas.
Poverty. A lack of basis necessities such as
adequate diet, housing, clothing or the money
to buy these things. In education material
deprivation theory explains working class
underachievement as the result of lack of
resources; e.g. parents are unable to afford
education aids, or students have nowhere to
do their homework.
A Marxist term for the capitalist class, the
owners of the means of production
(factories, machinery, raw materials, land).
Marx argues the bourgeoisie’s ownership
of the means of production also gives them
political and ideological power.
Where the subjects of a research study know
they are being studied and begin to behave
differently as a result, therefore undermining
the studies validity.
An educational or social system where
everyone has an equal opportunity to
succeed and where individuals’ rewards
and status are achieved by their own efforts
rather than ascribed by their gender, class or
A sociological perspective and political
movement that focuses on women’s oppression
and the struggle to end it. Feminists argue that
sociology has traditionally taken a ‘malestream’
viewpoint that ignores women. Instead they
examine women’s experiences and study society
from a female perspective.