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  1. 1. AS Psychology Revision Notes: Social & Cognitive Unit 1 Miss Russell Memory
  2. 2. Social & Cognitive Unit 1 : Contents Within this booklet you should have revision notes on each of the following: (Tick off when complete!) MEMORY RESEARCH METHODS 1) What is Cognitive Psychology & Memory? 1) Experiments Lab, Field, Natural 2) Models of Memory Multi store Model Levels of Processing 2) Hypotheses Experimental, Null Directional (1 tailed), Non Directional (2 tailed) 3) Theories of Forgetting Cue Dependent Theory Trace Decay 3) Variables Independent & Dependent variables Extraneous Variables Situational Variables Participant Variables 4) Key Studies Craik & Tulving (1975) Godden & Baddeley (1975) 5) Key Issue: Is Eye Witness Testimony Reliable? Leading Questions Weapon Focus Other Factors 4) Participant Design Repeated, Independent & Matched Order Effects/Counterbalancing 5) Glossary of additional key terms.
  3. 3. 1) Cognitive Psychology & Memory
  4. 4. 2) Theories of Memory: Multi-store Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) E.g. ‘Outline & Evaluate the Multi-store Model of Memory’ (12 Marks) Practical Applications: Methodology: Comparison with LOP theory: Other Strengths/Weaknesses:
  5. 5. 2) Theories of Memory: Multi-store Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Supporting  and Challenging  Studies Study What does it show in relation to the theory…? GRAVE
  6. 6. 2) Theories of Memory: Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) E.g. ‘Describe & Evaluate Levels of Processing as a theory of memory’ (12 Marks) Practical Applications: Methodology: Comparison with MSM: Other Strengths/Weaknesses:
  7. 7. 2) Theories of Memory: Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972) Supporting  and Challenging  Studies Study What does it show in relation to the theory…? GRAVE
  8. 8. 3) Theories of Forgetting: Cue Dependent Forgetting E.g. ‘Outline & Evaluate the Cue Dependent theory of forgetting’ (12 Marks) Practical Applications: Methodology: Comparison with Trace Decay: Other Strengths/Weaknesses:
  9. 9. 3) Theories of Forgetting: Cue Dependent Forgetting Supporting  and Challenging  Studies Study What does it show in relation to the theory…? GRAVE
  10. 10. 3) Theories of Forgetting: Trace Decay E.g. ‘Describe and evaluate Trace Decay as a theory of forgetting’ (12 Marks) Practical Applications: Methodology: Comparison with Trace Decay: Other Strengths/Weaknesses:
  11. 11. 3) Theories of Forgetting: Trace Decay Supporting  and Challenging  Studies Study What does it show in relation to the theory…? GRAVE
  12. 12. 4) Key Studies: Godden & Baddeley (1975) E.g. ‘Describe and evaluate Godden and Baddeley’s (1975) study of cue dependent forgetting’ (12 marks) AIM: PROCEDURE RESULTS CONCLUSION Which theory does this relate to and why? Strengths and Weaknesses Remember GRAVE
  13. 13. 4) Key Studies: Craik & Tulving (1975) E.g. ‘Describe and evaluate Craik & Tulving’s (1975) study.’ (12 marks) AIM: PROCEDURE RESULTS CONCLUSION Which theory does this relate to and why? Strengths and Weaknesses Remember GRAVE
  14. 14. 5) Key Issue: Is Eye Witness Testimony Reliable? Leading Questions – Loftus Practical Applications: Methodology: Other Strengths/Weaknesses:
  15. 15. 5) Key Issue: Is Eye Witness Testimony Reliable? Leading Questions Studies Study What does it show? GRAVE
  16. 16. 5) Key Issue: Is Eye Witness Testimony Reliable? Weapon Focus Practical Applications: Methodology: Other Strengths/Weaknesses:
  17. 17. 5) Key Issue: Is Eye Witness Testimony Reliable? Weapon Focus Studies Study What does it show? GRAVE
  18. 18. 5) Key Issue: Is Eye Witness Testimony Reliable? Other factors that might influence Eye Witness Testimony Factor What does it show? Supporting Study
  19. 19. Memory: Past Exam Questions Describe the Levels of Processing Model (5 marks) You will have learned about a number of studies from the Cognitive Approach. Answer the following questions using one study you have learned. (a) Identify one study from the Cognitive Approach. (1 mark) (b) Describe the findings (results and/or conclusions) of the study you identified in (a). (4 marks) (c) Outline one strength of the study you identified in (a).(2 marks) (a) Describe one theory of forgetting you have studied other than cue dependency theory.(4 marks) (b) Evaluate one theory of forgetting. You may wish to include: • comparison with other theories • looking at the methods used to study the theory • assessing evidence. (5 marks) (a) You will have studied a key issue from the Cognitive Approach. Describe one key issue from the Cognitive Approach. (4 marks) (a) Describe the aim of Godden and Baddeley’s (1975) study. (2 marks) (b) Using figures/data, outline the results of Godden and Baddeley’s (1975) study. (2 marks) You and a friend are queuing up at the local supermarket when you hear cries of ‘Thief! Stop! Help!’ and look around to see a man running off with a bag. The next day you and your friend go back to talk to the store manager and find that you recall things differently. Using theories of forgetting and/or memory, explain these differences in your recollections. (5 marks)
  20. 20. Research Methods 1) Experiments Experiment Type Lab Natural Field Definition Strengths Weaknesses
  21. 21. Research Methods 2) Hypotheses Experimental Hypotheses Directional Hypotheses (one tailed) Example Example Null Hypotheses Non Directional Hypotheses (two tailed) Example Example
  22. 22. Research Methods 3) Variables Variable Independent Variable Dependent Variable Extraneous Variable Participant Variable Situational Variable Description Examples
  23. 23. Research Methods 4) Participant Design Design Definition Strengths Independent Measures Repeated Measures Matched Pairs Order Effects Counterbalancing Weaknesses
  24. 24. Research Methods 5) Glossary Key Term Objectivity Subjectivity Generalisability Validity Ecological Validity Reliability Experimental effects Demand characteristics Definition
  25. 25. Research Methods: Past Exam Questions Laboratory experiments have strengths and weaknesses. (i) Outline one strength of a laboratory experiment. (2 marks) (ii) Outline one weakness of a laboratory experiment. (2 marks) (iii) You will have studied two other types of experiment apart from laboratory experiments. Name these two types of experiment. (2 marks) (a) You want to investigate gender differences in the speed of texting on mobile phones in order to see who are the fastest, males or females. Cognitive psychology would suggest you use a laboratory experiment for this kind of investigation. (i) Identify the independent variable (IV) and the dependent variable (DV) in this case. (2 marks) There are three types of experiments (natural, field and laboratory).Compare field experiments and laboratory experiments. Comparisons involve looking at similarities and differences. You may wish to include strengths and weaknesses such as: • validity • reliability • ethics (5 marks) Explain why in psychology using a research method that produces quantitative rather than qualitative data might be preferable. (4 marks) (c) The students used an opportunity sample in their Levels of Processing study. State one strength and one weakness of opportunity sampling in general. (2 marks) (d) (i) Identify the participant/experimental design being used in this Levels of Processing study. (1mark) (ii) Evaluate the design you have identified in (d) (4 marks)
  26. 26. Watch the clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=x5KSnccS2CY Fill in the boxes to show how each of the theories we have studied would explain Mr. Forgetful’s memory loss. Multi-Store Model Levels of Processing Cue Dependent Forgetting Trace Decay

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