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  1. 1. Cognitive Psychology Memory Key Issue: Eye Witness Testimony Miss Russell
  2. 2. Godden & Baddeley (1975) Craik & Tulving (1975) 1) What was the aim? 2) What was the procedure? Can you describe it in detail? 3) What were the results? 4) What did they conclude? 5) What are the advantages and disadvantages?
  3. 3. Key Question: Is Eye Witness Testimony Reliable?
  4. 4. How many passes to the players in What white make? does this show us? How might this link to our work on memory? Awareness Test
  5. 5. We can apply this same idea to a crime scene… Whodunnit Awareness
  6. 6. Mr Bean Clip
  7. 7. Imagine you were watching that incident in real life... The police were called and wanted to investigate the crime. What is your role in their investigation? What would you have to do? What is the term for someone who has watched a crime?
  8. 8. An „eyewitness‟ is someone who has seen or witnessed a crime, usually present at the time of the incident. They use their memory of the crime to give their testimony or a „reconstruction‟ of what happened. „Eyewitness Testimony‟ = the evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identifying the perpetrator.
  9. 9. Thinking Ladder… To & what Eye Witness Testimony (EWT) is & the role of Leading Questions in EWT. To & Loftus & Palmer‟s study in detail. To knowledge of Cognitive Psychology to understanding the issue of EWT.
  10. 10. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to describe Eye Witness Testimony (EWT). C Will be able to explain Loftus and Palmers study and the role of leading questions in EWT. A Will be able to apply knowledge of cognitive psychology to understanding the reliability of EWT.
  11. 11. You have just been a witness to a crime, and the police want you to recall as many details as you can remember. Using your knowledge of Psychology, what factors will influence how accurate your memory is? HINT: think about the theories of memory and forgetting we have looked at.
  12. 12. I saw a skinhead trying to steal a man’s briefcase If it wasn’t for that bloke, the old man could’ve been killed! I saw a young man running up to an old lady. She looked really scared! o How often do we get the whole picture? o How accurate is Eye Witness Testimony/ reconstructed memories? o What might affect the accuracy of an Eye Witness account?
  13. 13. Watch the incident video in silence. Pay attention, you are the eye witnesses and will be asked a question about it later… Crime Incident
  14. 14. The police have been called to the scene and want to ask you one vital question about the incident. On each table there is a question. Turn it over and write down your own answer individually! Do not confer with anyone else!
  15. 15. Question 1: “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” Question 2: “How fast were the cars going when they bumped each other?” Question 3: “How fast were the cars going when they collided with each other?” Question 4: “How fast were cars going when they contacted each other?” Question 5: “How fast were the cars going when they smashed each other?” Why do you think the different questions change eyewitnesses‟ perceptions of speed?
  16. 16. • 45 students shown 7 films of traffic accidents in a laboratory. • Split into 5 groups. • Students were a given questionnaire. • There was one critical question about how fast the cars were going – each with a different verb.
  17. 17. Verb Mean speed 45 students shown 7 films of traffic accidents.estimated (MPH) • • Question 1: “How fast were the cars going Students were given questionnaire • when they hit one critical question about how fast the34.0 were There was each other?” cars going. Question 2: “How fast were the cars going when they bumped each other?” 38.1 Question 3: “How fast were the cars going when they collided with each other?” 39.3 Question 4: “How fast were cars going when they contacted each other?” 31.8 Question 5: “How fast were the cars going when they smashed each other?” 40.8
  18. 18. What do you think we mean by a leading question? Can you think of an example? “A question that either by form or content, suggests a desired answer or leads a witness to believe a desired answer.” Leading questions contain post event misleading pieces of information or wording and are usually closed.
  19. 19.  What was the IV and DV in their experiment?  What participant design was it?  How many experimental groups were there?  What did they do?  What were the results?  What did they conclude about the reliability of EWT?
  20. 20. • 150 student participants were shown a short film that showed a multi-vehicle car accident and then they were asked questions about it. • The participants were split into 3 groups (with 50 in each group). • One group was asked: „How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?‟ • The second was asked: „How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?‟ • The third group was not asked about the speed of the vehicles • One week later, all participants returned and were asked: „Did you see any broken glass?‟ There was no broken glass in the film.
  21. 21. Did you see any broken glass? Response Yes No Smashed 16 34 Hit 7 43 What do these results show? Control 6 44
  22. 22. Let‟s Evaluate Loftus & Palmer‟s research using GRAVE… G Generalisability Can we generalise the study to everyone? Is the sample biased? R Can the study be replicated and get the same results? A V E Reliability Applications Validity Ethics Do the results suggest any practical applications? Is the study testing what it‟s meant to? Are there any extraneous variables? Does it violate any of the ethical guidelines?
  23. 23. Evaluation (A02) • How realistic were the studies? • Who were the participants? • How useful was the research?
  24. 24.  The participants were all students  There are several ways in which students might not be representative of the general population.  These may include age, driving experience, educational experience – (i.e. they may be used to paying attention and being tested?)
  25. 25. • This study has many applications: # Police questioning witnesses # Teachers asking/setting questions
  26. 26. • How easy is it to estimate speed? It may be easier for some groups than others, e.g. taxi drivers or police officers. • The driver of the car is not mentioned in the article – what if they had been visible as an elderly woman or a young man? • What if the car had been a Porsche or a Smart Car?
  27. 27. What is Validity? When a study measures what it set out to measure Did Loftus‟ research measure what it set out to? Think back to our re-creation of our study last lesson… If you were witnessing a car crash in real life, how would this affect your memory of the event? Why?
  28. 28.  This was low because it was a laboratory study, and the participants knew they were taking part in an experiment.  In real-life situations there would be an element of surprise, so you might not be paying attention.  There would be an increase in emotion – such as fear, shock, etc. There may be victims.  You might not be asked questions until some time later.  You may have the opportunity to discuss what you saw with other people
  29. 29. You each have an article. Read it and pick out any other factors which may affect the reliability of EWT. Note it down, along with a piece of evidence to support it…
  30. 30. Look at the pictures..
  31. 31. What were your eyes most drawn to? How might this make you feel? How might this affect your performance as an eye witness?
  32. 32. What does being Anxious feel What were your like….? eyes most drawn “Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state to? where we fear that something bad is about to happen. People often become anxious when they are in stressful situations. This anxiety tends to this How might be accompanied with physiological arousal (increased heart rate, affect your shallow breathing). Due to this, much of the research in eye witness testimony is now performance as an focused on the eye witness?effects of arousal.”
  33. 33. What were your According to most drawn would this witness be eyes Loftus et al… Where looking during the scene of a crime involving a weapon? to? What effect did Loftus find this had on EWT? How might this affect your performance as an eye witness?
  34. 34. The weapon-focus effect “This is where in violent crimes, arousal may focus the witness on more central details of the attack (eg: weapon) than the more peripheral details (eg: what else was going on and what the perpetrator looked like).”
  35. 35. The weapon-focus effect Weapon Focus Incident What do they Remember?
  36. 36. Use the key words to evaluate research on EWT. They all have the same things in common! Videos, Laboratory, Ecological Validity, Undergraduate students, Real Life, Demand Characteristics, Police interviewing, practical applications. Use page 59 of the book if you need to!
  37. 37. a) You will have studied a key issue from the Cognitive Approach. Describe one key issue from the Cognitive Approach. (4 marks) b) Imagine there has been a TV programme about the key issue you have described in (a). You receive an e-mail from your friend about the programme. Write a short email that you could send to your friend to help explain this key issue using one concept (idea, theory or research) from the Cognitive Approach. (3 marks) Now use the mark scheme to peer assess each other‟s work!