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  1. 1. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology Memory “Experimental Design” Miss Russell
  2. 2. If we were going to conduct a psychological experiment on memory… what would we need? Make a list…
  3. 3. Thinking Ladder…
  4. 4. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to define key methodology terms. C Will be able to describe the different types of experiment. A Will be able to explain the advantages and disadvantages of each type of experimental design.
  5. 5. To research cognitive psychology, experiments are usually the main method used. But, in order for you to fully understand the Experimental Method… you must know a few important terms first!
  6. 6. You each have an envelope of cards. Each card makes up part of a key word table. Try and re-create the first two columns of the table by matching up the key term to the definition . Key Term Definition Revision Aid When you have finished and have had your table checked… complete your worksheet. For each key term draw an image or diagram to help you remember/revise from.
  7. 7. You now have 5 minutes to try and learn the key terms in preparation for a mini test… Timer
  8. 8. 2) Why might we conduct 1) Where might we psychological conduct psychological experiments in a research? laboratory? Why do we use lab experiments?
  9. 9. In pairs try to write a definition of the three main types of experiment used in Psychology… Lab Experiment Field Experiment Natural Experiment An experiment conducted in a tightly controlled environment where the IV is manipulated at the researcher observes the effect of this on the DV. An experiment carried out in an natural environment. The IV is still manipulated but it is done in an environment which is typical to the behaviour being studied. This is also carried out in a natural environment however the IV is not directly manipulated. Instead the IV is naturally occurring.
  10. 10. Now try and think of an area of psychology we might want to investigate by using each of the experiments. You could even come up with a research question if you wish… Lab Experiment Field Experiment Natural Experiment Study of sleep, perception and physiology (specialised conditions required). Social investigations. The influence of other people on individual behaviour. Studies that take advantage of changes in the environment. E.g. comparing the effect of television on children before and after the introduction of the TV.
  11. 11. Theories Hypotheses Research
  12. 12. Observation Define the Problem Propose a hypothesis Gather Evidence Keep Hypothesis Build a theory Reject Hypothesis Publish results
  13. 13. Research has shown that eating chocolate can improve your memory, especially first thing in the morning. Sugar on the donuts helps the brain to produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which helps you to learn and remember and maintain attention. Aim: To investigate whether eating chocolate will improve memory. What could our hypothesis be? Write a suitable hypothesis to test out during this experiment?
  14. 14. Experimental Hypothesis Statement about a predicted outcome of a study, usually based on theory. Null Hypothesis This is another hypothesis that also needs to be stated. It states that the results will occur do to chance – i.e. are the results significant enough not to have occurred due to chance. It always states there will be no difference! “Students who eat chocolate before a memory test will remember more words from a list than students who did not.” “There will be no difference on scores on a memory test between those who ate chocolate before, and those who didn’t eat chocolate.”
  15. 15. Two types: One Tailed or Two Tailed? One Tailed = ‘directional’ The direction of the results is predicted. ‘Students who eat chocolate before a memory test will recall more words than students who didn’t eat chocolate.’ Two Tailed = ‘non directional’ A change or difference is predicted but a direction is not specified. ‘There will be a difference in the number of words correctly recalled between those students who eat chocolate and those who don’t’
  16. 16. CAR FRAME APPLE LIGHT FLOWER RING CLOCK BOWL FIRE WATCH
  17. 17. CAR FRAME APPLE LIGHT FLOWER RING CLOCK BOWL FIRE WATCH
  18. 18. What was the Independent Variable in our experiment? (What did we manipulate) What was the Dependent Variable in our experiment? (What did we measure?)
  19. 19. How did we measure our variables? We must define how we intend to measure the IV and DV = operationalisation. How might we operationalise the variable of ‘time’?
  20. 20. How many groups of participants did we use? Participant design refers to how your participants are distributed. Look at the worksheet. Try and match the pictures to the three types of participant design.
  21. 21. Repeated Groups Condition A Condition B There is only one group of participants. This group takes part in both conditions.
  22. 22. Independent Groups Condition A Condition B There are two separate groups of participants. One group takes part in condition A, the other takes part in condition B.
  23. 23. Matched Pairs Condition A Condition B There are two separate groups, but this time they are matched into pairs for certain qualities, such as age or intelligence. One of each pair takes part in condition A, the other takes part in condition B.
  24. 24. Which participant design did we use? Why?
  25. 25. Can you think of any problems with the participant designs?
  26. 26. Order effects occur in repeated groups design, when all participants take place in all the experimental conditions. -Practice effects might occur. After they have done the first condition they may be well practised to complete the second condition. -They also may become tired after the first condition and fatigue may affect their performance on the second condition. The solution = counterbalancing and randomisation. Counterbalancing. E.g. half of the participants participate in condition A before condition B and vice versa. This means that the first and second condition is not the same for every participant. Randomisation. Participants are assigned to condition A or B first by tossing a coin or picking out a name.
  27. 27. We are now going to repeat the experiment just as before in order to test how reliable it is.
  28. 28. VAN PHOTO PEN BULB ROSE EAR MUSIC SPOON RAIN SOCK
  29. 29. VAN PHOTO PEN BULB ROSE EAR MUSIC SPOON RAIN SOCK
  30. 30. Did we get about the same results as last time? Can we establish a cause-effect relationship? Why do you think this is? Do you think we’d get the same results if we repeated it in a field or natural setting?
  31. 31. Think about the chocolate we have eaten… Write down: 1)What ingredients do you think make up the chocolate? What shape is it? What does it look like? 2)How does it taste to you? Do you like it? What would you prefer? How do I taste? What do I look like? What am I made from?
  32. 32. Objectivity: Scientists have to be objective in their observations and measurements. They stick to the facts! Subjectivity: This is where we have a personal interpretation of events. It is our subjective opinion. This is more relevant to qualitative methods than scientific experiments. Was our experiment objective or subjective?
  33. 33. Which we can’t control! What other factors might have affected our results? What about things we can’t control? Anything about the situation which may have affected our results? Anything about the participants which may have affected our results?
  34. 34. Which we can’t control! Extraneous Variables Anything other than the IV that can influence your results. Otherwise known as a confounding variable that can’t be controlled. Situational Variables A type of extraneous variable found in the environment. Noise, light, time, location, temperature or weather. Participant Variables A type of extraneous variable found in participants. Motivation levels, moods, skills, experience, fatigue, eyesight etc. These could all affect the VALIDITY of the findings. What’s validity again?
  35. 35. Let’s evaluate the different types of experiment! Match the type of experiment to the correct advantage/disadvantage by drawing a line. Lab Lab Experiment Experiment = A Disadvantage Natural Natural Experiment Experiment = An Advantage
  36. 36. Use your key terms sheet to prompt further evaluation of experiments. What are the disadvantages and advantages of using lab, field and natural experiments? When you’ve finished, look out the textbook to pad out your notes!
  37. 37. How far do you agree that experiments are the best method to use to study cognitive psychology?

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