Watch the clip of a American Psychology
Demonstration and play along.
Does this support or challenge Loftus’ research?
and weaknesses of
Loftus’ research differs
to EWT in real life.
research into the effect
of misleading info on
How will I know if I am learning?
By the end of the lesson…
Will be able to identify strengths and
weaknesses of Loftus’ research.
C Will be able to explain using Yuille and Cutshall’s
study, how Loftus’ research is different to EWT in
Will be able to fully evaluate Loftus’ research
into the effect of misleading information on
Loftus is one of the most famous Psychologists
to study EWT.
Imagine she had a Facebook which she
used to post updates about her experiments
to her friends….
Finish off her profile with three status updates or posts about
the three experiments we studied last lesson.
Be as creative as you like but try to include one piece of
information about the aim, method, results or conclusion in
What do all three
pieces of Loftus’
research have in
common, which isn’t
present in real EWT?
In your groups, discuss the following points:
• How realistic were the studies?
(Think about the differences between the tasks the participants did, and
real life situations where you need to remember what you have seen)
• Who were the participants?
(Could the results be generalised to other people?)
• How useful was the research?
(How can the results of the study be applied to other situations?)
• Any other issues
(Think about the type of tasks, the content of the video, etc)
How valid is Loftus’ research?
participants were all students
are several ways in which students
might not be representative of the general
may include age, driving
experience, educational experience – (i.e.
they may be used to paying attention and
• This study has many applications:
# Police questioning witnesses
# Teachers asking/setting questions
• How easy is it to estimate speed? It may be easier for
some groups than others, e.g. taxi drivers or police
• The driver of the car is not mentioned in the article –
what if they had been visible as an elderly woman or a
• What if the car had been a Porsche or a Smart Car?
What is Validity?
When a study measures what it set out to measure
Did Loftus’ research measure what it set out to?
Think back to our re-creation of our study last lesson…
If you were witnessing a car crash in real life, how
would this affect your memory of the event? Why?
Now read Yuille and Cutshall’s (1986)
research on page 33. How could this be used
This was low because it was a laboratory study, and the
participants knew they were taking part in an experiment.
In real-life situations there would be an element of
surprise, so you might not be paying attention.
There would be an increase in emotion – such as
fear, shock, etc. There may be victims.
You might not be asked questions until some time later.
You may have the opportunity to discuss what you saw
with other people
Replicated the stop/yield study (experiment 3).
During Loftus’ original study, participants were
presented with slides to recognise in a random order
(out of sequence to what they originally saw).
Bekerian & Bowers presented them in the original
Correct recognition was the same for the consistent
and inconsistent groups.
This suggests that misleading information might affect
the retrieval of memories rather than distort them in
1 e) Describe at least one other research study into misleading
information. In your answer you should include details of what
participants were asked to do and what results were found. (6 marks)
In a car accident, participants were asked to give the speed of the
cars before the accident. A video was shown to participants, and
there were special questions about the speed of the car, such as: how
fast was the car was going before the accident? However the word
accident was changed to bumped, collided, hit and smashed.
The results found that these participants who had the word bumped
suggested the least speed, whereas the participants with smashed
suggested the highest speed.
This could be because, the word smashed leads that the speed was
fast. Whereas collided suggest a slow speed therefore it leads to a
specific answer rather than actual answer from participants.
4/6 = marks C: How answer awarded and
How many Grade was this could it be improved? why?
Outline and evaluate research into
the effects of misleading information
on eye witness testimony. (12 marks)