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Resourcd File


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Resourcd File

  1. 1. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology Memory “Working Memory Model Research Evidence” Miss Russell
  2. 2. You will see a picture associated with last lesson and this lesson. When it appears you must buzz in. The first person that buzzes in must tell me: 1) What the item is. 2) One thing about it. Everyone in your team must have a go at buzzing in and answering a question so when you have had your go you must pass the buzzer to the next person. Points and prizes available!
  3. 3. Thinking Ladder… To & evidence for the different parts of the WMM. To & how evidence supports the WMM. To fully the WMM using research evidence(A02).
  4. 4. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to identify evidence for the different components of the WMM. C Will be able to explain how evidence supports the WMM. A Will be able to fully evaluate the WMM using research evidence.
  5. 5. To test the idea of more than one component, Baddeley and Hitch devised the dual task technique. Let’s see what happened…..
  6. 6. Your Turn!  You will now complete a dual task technique (one that was used by Baddeley and Hitch).  Repeat the numbers below whilst completing the true/false exercise. You need to say whether the statement on the left matches the letters on the right.. 482917
  7. 7. Now Repeat! Now do the same again complete the true/false exercise while repeating the word „the‟ over and over again. : „The‟
  8. 8.  Gave participants two tasks to perform simultaneously. Task 1: True or False task occupied the Central Executive as it tested verbal reasoning.
  9. 9.  Asked to say ‘the the the’ – a task involving the Articulatory Loop.  Asked to say random digits – a task involving both the Central Executive and Articulatory Loop.
  10. 10.  The true or false task was slower when given the 2nd task involving both the Central Executive and Articulatory Loop. What does this result show? Does it support or challenge the Working Memory Model? What did they conclude? They concluded that completing two tasks that involve the same component causes difficulty. This supports the Central Executive and the Working Memory Model.
  11. 11. 1) What did they do in the experiment (HINT: it’s what you did!!) 2) How does this support evidence for the working memory model?
  12. 12. Read the evidence below, summarise it in your workbook and decide why it supports the Central Executive.  Individuals had to perform two tasks simultaneously (dual task) rather than one after the other (single task).  Bunge et al (2000) used fMRI to see which parts of the brain were most active when participants were doing two tasks (reading a sentence and recalling the final word in each sentence).  The same brain areas (pre-frontal cortex) were active in either dual or single task conditions but there was significantly more activation in dual task condition.
  13. 13. Remember the following:
  14. 14. Harm
  15. 15. Twice
  16. 16. Calm
  17. 17. Share
  18. 18. Tree
  19. 19. Book
  20. 20. Sun
  21. 21. Four
  22. 22. Key
  23. 23. Short
  24. 24.  Harm  Twice  Calm  Share  Tree  Book  Sun  Four  Key  Short How many did you recall correctly?
  25. 25. Remember these:
  26. 26. Association
  27. 27. Representative
  28. 28. Discouragement
  29. 29. Meaningfulness
  30. 30. Suppression
  31. 31. Enhancing
  32. 32. Component
  33. 33. Performances
  34. 34. Forgetting
  35. 35. Damaging
  36. 36. Association you do compare to How did Representative last time? Discouragement How Why might the results be many Meaningfulness different for the 1st set of words did you get Suppression compared to the 2nd set? Enhancing right this Component What does this say about time? working memory? Performances Forgetting Damaging
  37. 37. The phonological loop explains why the word-length effect occurs. The fact that people cope better with short words than long words in working memory (STM).
  38. 38.  It seems that the phonological loop holds the amount of information that you can say in 1.5 - 2 seconds (Baddeley et al, 1975).  This makes it hard to remember a list of long words such as ‘association’ and ‘representative’ compared to shorter words like ‘harm’ and ‘twice’ and therefore inhibits rehearsal of longer words!
  39. 39.  Word length effect disappears if a person is given an articulatory suppression task (‘the, the, the’ while reading the words).  The repetitive task ties up the articulatory process and means you can’t rehearse the shorter words more quickly than the longer ones, so the word length effect disappears.  This provided evidence for……
  40. 40. Using the textbook summarise ONE piece of evidence to support the Visual Spatial Sketchpad and ONE piece of evidence for the Episodic Buffer. Do this to complete your table. Try to summarise the Aim, Method, Result and Conclusion. Be prepared to feed back!
  41. 41.  Baddeley et al (1975)  Participants were given a visual tracing task (they had to track a moving light with a pointer). At the same time they were given one of two other tasks; task 1 was to describe all the angles on the letter F, task 2 was to perform a verbal task. Task 1 was very difficult, but not task 2, presumably because the second task involved two different components (or slave systems).  This is also evidence related to the effects of doing two tasks using the same or different components
  42. 42.  Logie (1995) Visual cache stores information about visual form and colour and the inner scribe processes spatial and movement information.  Klauer and Zhao (2004) supported this idea by asking participants to carry out one of two primary tasks, either a visual task or a spatial task. At the same time as doing this task they were asked to do either a spatial interference task, a visual interference task or no secondary task (control condition). They found that performance of the spatial task was much poorer for people who were simultaneously carrying out the spatial distracter task than for people who were doing the visual distracter task and vice versa.  Studies using positron emission tomography (PET) scans have also provided evidence for separate spatial and visual systems. There appears to be more activity in the left half of the brain of people carrying out visual working memory tasks but more in the right half of the brain during spatial task.
  43. 43.  Baddeley et al (1987)  Participants were shown words and then immediate recall  Recall was much better for sentences (related words) than unrelated  Supports idea of ‘general’ memory store that draws on LTM (semantics), for items that are neither visual or phonological.
  44. 44. Using only your textbook, work out who this is… The first person to write who it is on a post it note and stick it on the board wins a prize! Clues will appear one at a time. “I can remember a telephone ringing, but not telephone numbers.” “I can remember things better when I see them as opposed to hearing them.” “I can remember things from a long time ago easily!” “I support the existence of a phonological loop.”
  45. 45.  Case of KF – Suffered brain damage after a motorbike accident.  Shallice and Warrington (1970) showed that STM works independently of LTM  STM forgetting of auditory information was much greater than that of visual stimuli. Thus his brain damage seemed to be restricted to the phonological loop.  Interestingly his auditory memory was worse for letters and digits rather than meaningful sounds… ring ring…