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Resourcd File


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Resourcd File

  1. 1. • Who might this be? • Can you work out his story? • What happened to him? • Why is it important to Psychology? Banjo Dan Song
  2. 2. To & what a case study is. To & the use of case studies in psychology, with specific link to memory. To the use of case studies as a research method.
  3. 3. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to identify evidence for the three separate stores. C Will be able to describe the research evidence and understand how it supports the multi store model. A Will be able to evaluate the multi store model using research evidence.
  4. 4. One of the most famous Case Studies in Psychology A tamping iron went through his head when he was at work on a railroad track (in the 1800’s). He lived for 12 years after this accident. Psychologists who studied him have claimed his personality was very different after the accident – although there are conflicting accounts.
  5. 5. Read through the article and try to answer these questions: 1) How can a case study be defined? 2) What do they involve? 3) Why are they important in psychology? 4) Do you think Drs/Psychologists can build up a ‘before the accident’/after… picture?
  6. 6. 1. They focus on either one individual, group or organisation. 2. They study that sample in-depth 3. They involve interviews, observations, experiments and surveys which are all conducted over a long period of time. They also make use of historical records, medical records etc (looking back retrospectively). 4. They use information from a wide range of sources such as friends or family.
  7. 7.  Atypical Behaviour/Conditions: Autism, brain damage, obsessive compulsive disorder etc.  Unusual Situations  Usually small samples as not many people/ organisations are affected.  Give insight into how to help, what’s going on ‘normally’ and prevention.  Give in-depth insight, so may choose to do a case study despite large target population available.
  8. 8.    Depression (Merritt, 2006). ‘I wasn't really keen on the idea… I was sort of thinking I don't want to be dependent on taking drugs. It just doesn't feel right… it's like an easy option.’ ‘I hate the thought of being on them… Does that make sense? I just don't want to be on antidepressants, I just think it's wrong.’
  9. 9. When British conductor and musician Clive Wearing contracted a brain infection in 1985 he was left with a memory span of only 10 seconds. The infection left him unable to recognise people he had seen or remember things that had been said just moments earlier. But despite being acknowledged by doctors as having one of the most severe cases of amnesia ever, his musical ability and much of his musical memory was intact. Clive Wearing Clip
  10. 10. Why is this a useful case study for Memory? How does it support the Multi Store Model? Is it valid? Can we criticise it in any way?
  11. 11. Maintenance Rehearsal Environmental Stimuli Retrieval Sensory Memory (SM) Attention Short-Term Memory (STM) Clive may not be able to access his STM store, however he can access his Long Term Memories. This suggests that stores are separate (just like the MSM!) Long-Term Memory (LTM)
  12. 12. Think about the use of case studies in psychology. Mr Good has a positive outlook on life and sees advantages in everything. What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying one individual or group? What about the methods they use? Fill out the table from the perspectives of Mr. Good and Mr. Worry. Mr Worry is always worrying about the potential issues, disadvantages.
  13. 13.      Offer high levels of validity as they go into depth and give insight. They allow researchers to study events or complex psychological areas they could not practically or ethically manipulate. Useful If large numbers of people are unavailable or don’t exist. Learn about issues not yet understood. Offer rich, in depth information which might be overlooked using alternative methods.       Small samples make it difficult to generalise to other people. Bias: researchers can become too involved and lose their objectivity: misinterpreting or influencing outcomes. Case studied often happen after an event and are retrospective. Lack of control: extraneous variables can effect outcome. May require recollection of past events or historical records which may be unavailable. Ethical issues – confidentiality. Most case studies are easily recognisable.
  14. 14. A hospital wants to find out why some patients with head injuries recover faster than others. Would you recommend a case study? Why? How would it be conducted?
  15. 15. Optional additional work We will be studying another case study of HM in next lesson. It might be useful for you to listen to this clip on Radio 4. Radio 4 Mind Changers Case Study: HM - The Man Who Couldn't Remember Copy down the link.