How will I know if I am learning?
By the end of the lesson…
Will be able to describe studies into STM &
Will be able to explain the findings of
research into STM & LTM.
Will be able to evaluate research into STM &
Share on your
How did you
learn the objects?
Did you use any
Think back to the memory
What can you remember now?
Why do you think you can remember
some items better than others?
How long can these memories last
long (in time) a memory lasts before it is no
y of on
longer accessible. a w
STM and LTM differ
Short an memories last for a very shorter
tr term LTM.
unless they are rehearsed or paidiattention to.
g t y
i limited in duration. atin think of STM like an
e You can r b we need to
notepad where weep
r scribble down things
. ay e aga !
remember forb shortrwhile. Unfortunately the note pad
E.g ov information and the ink fades away.
can’t hold very much
t o it
memories can last anywhere from 2 minutes
to 100 years. LTM has an unlimited duration.
the duration of STM using 24
will see a nonsense syllable followed
by a number. When they disappear from
the screen you need to count backwards
from the number in 3’s until I say stop.
Can you remember the
Count backwards in 3’s….
were presented with a 3 letter
consonant nonsense syllable followed by
a 3 digit number.
Nonsense syllables were not memorable
such as ‘BBC’.
Participants were then asked to count
backwards in 3’s or 4’s to prevent them
from rehearsing the nonsense syllable.
Each participant was given to practice
trials followed by 8 real trials. On each trial
the time spent counting backwards was
different (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 seconds).
Participants remembered 90% when
there was a 3 second interval, but
only 2% when there was an 18 second
What do these results suggest about the
duration of STM?
Recall got progressively
worse as the delay
Try to evaluate Peterson and Peterson’s study. Think about the
strengths and weaknesses and the methods they used. Fill out
your ideas in the table.
Those aiming for an A-B grade try to do this on your own by
generating your own ideas. If you get stuck, you may use
page 21 to help you!
• Showed that forgetting in STM • Did participants just rely on
can occur if information is not
their STM? They knew they
were going to have to recall
the items after an interval.
• Marsh et al (1997) when
participants aren’t expected
to be tested, forgetting will
occur after just 2 seconds.
• Nairne et al (1996) found that
items could be recalled after
• Is the study really testing for
duration? Or just interference,
displacement & forgetting?
Choose one of the 7 key learning
questions to answer.
Write an answer to your chosen
question on a post it note and
stick it next to the question.
Your answer must be more than
10 words but less that 30!