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  1. 1. PSYA1: Cognitive Psychology Memory “What is Memory?” Miss Russell
  2. 2. You wake up one morning and you’ve lost your memory. Try to answer the following questions: 1. What do you normally do in a day that you would no longer be able to do? 2. What if you did not recognise your friends or family? 3. What experiences would you miss if you couldn’t remember TV programmes or news articles? 4. How could you plan your day if you forgot what you were thinking about a few minutes earlier?
  3. 3. Thinking Ladder…
  4. 4. How will I know if I am learning? By the end of the lesson… E Will be able to define STM and LTM. C Will be able to explain how memory can be influenced. A Will be able to analyse a correlation.
  5. 5. Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychologists believe that human behaviour can best be explained if we first understand the mental processes that underlie behaviour. It is therefore the study of how people learn, structure, store and use learn structure knowledge – essentially how people think about the world around them.
  6. 6. Cognitive Psychology  Based on computer metaphor i.e. we try to understand the mind by comparing it to a computer: Input Processing Storage Output
  7. 7. “The amazing brain” Our memories are astounding in their capacity -- for example, a young child learns about 10 new words each day, and the average adult can easily develop a vocabulary including over 100,000 words. It is the evolution of our memories that has, in large part, preserved our species. The key to our survival has been the ability of one generation to pass along its insights, innovations, and experiences to the next, so that they can improve upon them and progress more quickly forward.
  8. 8. “keep hold of” Human memory can most broadly be defined as the process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past. This does not just mean things that happened years ago, but also in our immediate past. If you remember the last slide, you have used your memory.
  9. 9. 1) What is your earliest memory? How old were you? How do you feel when you remember it? 2) What is your most recent memory? How old were you? How does it make you feel?
  10. 10.  Sensory  Initial contact for stimuli. SM is only capable of retaining information for a very short time.  Short  term memory (STM) The information we are currently aware of or thinking about. The information found in short term memory comes from paying attention to sensory memories.  Long  memory (SM) term memory (LTM) Continual storage of information which is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into working memory to be used when needed.
  11. 11.  What is the capital of France?  Who won the UEFA Champions League?  What is the chemical symbol for Oxygen?  When was the battle of Hastings?  What is the Square root of 100?  What date is Halloween?  How many James Bond Films have there been?  Who wrote Harry Potter?  What is the French for Dog?
  12. 12.  How many people can you name from your class at Primary School?  What did it feel like on your first day at this school?  Who was your first crush?  What was your favourite book when you were 11?  What is your favourite song?  Who was your favourite teacher last year?
  13. 13.  Can you ride a bike?  Can you play an instrument?  If so what grade are you, if any?  Do you take part in any sport?  Are you better now than when you first started?  Can you touch your elbow with your tongue?
  14. 14. A Quick Test
  15. 15. Types of Memory: Semantic The Hippocampus The hippocampus is a seahorseshaped brain structure involved in memory, learning, and emotion. It forms new memories and organizes them with related memories and emotions. The Temporal Lobe The temporal lobes, above the ears, are involved in hearing, identifying objects, understanding language, and storing memories. They also play a role in emotions.
  16. 16. Types of Memory: Episodic Prefrontal Cortex The Temporal Lobe The prefrontal cortex in the forward part of the frontal lobe helps control the highest levels of thinking, and conscious functions such as empathy, self-perception, and interaction. The temporal lobes, above the ears, are involved in hearing, identifying objects, understanding language, and storing memories. They also play a role in emotions.
  17. 17. Types of Memory: Procedural Basal Ganglia The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. Mammalian basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions: motor control, cognition, emotions, and learning. Cerebellum The cerebellum helps with timing and coordination of movements, making them smooth and precise. Recent research also suggests a role in higher cognitive processes.
  18. 18. You have 5 minutes to complete the football knowledge quiz. Write your answer next to each question.
  19. 19. Swap your paper with someone else and mark each others’ answers.
  20. 20. You will have 30 seconds to remember as many of the football scores as you can...
  21. 21. You now have 30 seconds to write down as many as you can remember!
  22. 22. We are now going to conduct a correlation analysis on the results. The relationship we see here is positive. It is a positive correlation: As one variable increases, so does the other! Score on Memory Test A correlation analysis measures the relationship between two variables. We can display the results on a scattergraph. Score on Football Quiz
  23. 23. Negative Correlation As one variable increases, the other decreases. There is no relationship between the variables.
  24. 24. Conduct a correlational analysis of the scores on your table. 1)Plot the results in a table. Name Score on Quiz Score on memory test 2)Plot the results against each other on a scattergraph 3)Analyse your graph. Is it a positive or negative correlation? Is there no correlation? What does your graph suggest about memory?