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# Resourcd File

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### Resourcd File

1. 1. A means of establishing validity by comparing an existing test/questionnaire with the one you are interested in. A research method that involves a detailed study of a single individual, institution or event. They provide a rich record of human experience but are hard to generalise from. An individual in a study who is not a real participant and has been instructed how to behave by the investigator /experimenter. Can act as the independent variable. A kind of observational study in which behaviour is observed indirectly in written or verbal material, such as interviews, conversations, books, diaries or TV programmes. A means of assessing the validity or trueness of a measurement. It aims to demonstrate that the content (e.g. questions) of the test measurement represents the area of interest. A precise quantitative measure of the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables. It is between -1 and + 1 and given the value r=. Determining the extent of a relationship between two variables; could be positive, negative or zero. A form of investigation in which behaviour is observed but under artificial/fixed/contrived conditions, as opposed to a naturalistic observation. An experimental technique used to overcome order effects. This ensures that each condition is tested first or second in equal amounts A variable in a correlation analysis that is believed to vary systematically with another co-variable. Observing people without their knowledge, e.g. using one-way mirrors. Knowing that your behaviour is being observed is likely to alter your behaviour. A statement of what the researcher(s) intend to find out in a research study. Not telling a participant the true aims of a study (e.g. what participation will involve) and so they cannot give truly informed consent. A measurable outcome of the action of the independent variable in an experiment. Where participants try to be aware of what the researcher expects to find or how they are expected to behave and they change behaviour to spoil or help research. A form of external validity concerning the ability to generalise a research effect beyond the particular setting in which it is demonstrated to other settings. The effect that the experimenter's expectations have on the participants and thus on the results of the experiment. A calculation of the extent to which a measure varies from another measure of the same thing over time. This can be assessed using the test-retest method. The degree to which a research finding can be generalised to, for example, other settings (ecological validity), other groups of people (population validity). In an experiment, any variable other than the independent variable that might potentially affect the dependent variable and thereby confound the results. A controlled experiment conducted outside a laboratory. The IV is still manipulated by the experimenter, and therefore causal relationships can be demonstrated. An experimental design where participants are allocated to two (or more) groups representing different experimental conditions. Participants are usually allocated using random techniques. An event that is directly manipulated by an experimenter in order to test its effect on another variable, the dependent variable (DV). A decision to participate based on comprehensive information given to potential participants in research about the nature and purpose of the research and their role in it. States which of the conditions or groups of participants will be higher scoring, i.e. the nature of the predicted difference between them. A testable statement about the relationship between two variables. These are found in non-experimental methods. A participant's right to have personal information protected.
2. 2. Correlational Hypothesis Case Study Concurrent Validity Confidentiality Content Analysis Confederate Correlation Correlation Co-efficient Content Validity Co-variable Counterbalancing Controlled Observation Deception Aims Covert Observation Demand Characteristics Dependent Variable Directional Hypothesis (one tailed) External Reliability Experimenter Bias Ecological Validity Field Experiment Extraneous/Confounding Variable External Validity Informed Consent Independent Variable Independent Measures
3. 3. Whether a study has tested what it set out to test; the degree to which the observed effect was due to the experimental manipulation rather than extraneous variables. A measure of the extent to which something is consistent with itself. E.gFor a psychological test to have high internal reliability, all test items should be measuring the same thing. An experiment carried out in a controlled setting. Where the IV is manipulated and the DV measured. An experimental design where participants who are alike in terms of key variables such as age and IQ, are paired. A research method or technique that involves a face-to-face, 'realtime' interaction with another individual and results in the collection of data based on verbal questions. A descriptive statistic that provides information about a 'typical' number for a data set. Includes the mode, median and mean. Refers to how well a study mirrors the real word. The experimental environment & task is realistic to experiences encountered in the environment will occur in the real world. A descriptive statistic that provides information about how spread out a set of scores is. Includes Range and Standard Deviation. A level of measurement where data are in separate categories. A research method carried out in a real-life setting, in which the investigator does not interfere in any way, but merely observes the behaviour(s) in question. A research method in which the experimenter cannot manipulate the independent variable directly, but where it varies naturally, and the effect on a dependent variable can be observed. A form of research where data is collected through observation of participants. No independent variable is manipulated but a dependent variable may be measured. An assumption that there is no relationship (difference or association) in the population from which a sample is taken with respect to the variables being studied. Predicts that there will be a difference between two conditions or two groups of participants, without stating which condition will produce higher scores. Defining variables in a form that can be easily tested A group of participants produced by selecting people who are most easily available at the time of the study. In a repeated measures design, an extraneous variable arising from the order in which conditions are presented, e.g. a practice effect or fatigue effect. A level of measurement where data are ordered in some way. An observational technique where observations are 'open', i.e. the participants are aware that they are being observed. Characteristics of individual participants (such as age, intelligence, etc.) that might influence the outcome of a study. A numerical measure of the likelihood or chance that certain events will occur. The zone of inaccessibility of mind or body and the trust that this will not be 'invaded'. E.g Not observing people in private places. A small-scale trial of a study run to test any aspects of the design, with a view to making improvements. Ensuring participants do not experience negative physical or psychological effects, such as physical injury, lowered selfesteem or embarrassment, as a result of the research. Data that express the 'quality' of things involving descriptions, words, meanings, pictures, texts and so on. Data that represent how much or how long, or how many, etc. there are of something, i.e. a behaviour is measured in numbers or quantities. A level of measurement where units of equal intervals are used, such as when counting correct answers or using any 'public' unit of measurement.
4. 4. Internal Reliability Internal Validity Interval Data Interview Matched Pairs Laboratory Experiment Measures of Dispersion Mundane Realism Measure of Central Tendency Natural Experiment Naturalistic Observation Nominal Data Non-directional (two tailed) hypothesis Null Hypothesis Observation Order Effects Opportunity Sampling Operationalisation Individual Differences Overt Observation Ordinal Pilot Study Privacy Probability (p) Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Protection from Harm
5. 5. Groups of participants are selected according to their frequency in the population. Within each group, individuals are selected using opportunity sampling. A group of participants chosen in such a way that every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected. A measurement where there is a true zero point and equal intervals between units, as in most measures of physical quantities. An experimental design where each participant takes part in every condition under test. The right of participants to refuse to continue with participation in a study if they are uncomfortable in any way, and to refuse permission for the researcher to use any data. The process of taking a group of participants intended to be a representative selection of a target population. The level of probability (p) at which it has been agreed to reject the null hypothesis. In Psychology, this is P<0.05. Factors in the environment that could affect the DV, such as noise, time of day or the behaviour of an investigator. A tendency for respondents to answer questions in a way that they think will present them in a better light. A method of assessing internal reliability by comparing two halves of, for example, a psychological test to see if they produce the same score. A set of procedures that are the same for all participants in order to be able to repeat a study. This includes standardised instructions. Any interview in which the questions are decided in advance. An observer uses various 'systems' to organise observations, such as behavioural categories and sampling procedures. Groups of participants selected according to their frequency in the population. Within each strata individuals are selected using random sampling. A method used to check external reliability. The same test or interview is given to the same participants on two occasions to see if the same results are obtained. The group of people that the researcher is interested in. The group of people from whom a sample is drawn. The group of people about whom generalisations can be made. A sampling method, selecting every Nth person. This can be a random sample if the first person is selected using a random method and then every Nth person is selected. An interview that starts out with some general aims but lets the interviewee's answers guide subsequent questions. An observer records all relevant behaviour but has no system. This technique may be chosen because the behaviour to be studied is largely unpredictable. A sampling technique that relies solely on people who chose to respond to requests from the environment. This is a post-research interview or sheet of information given to participants after they have participated in something. This is where a random group of people (not participating in a study) are asked hypothetically if they would take part in a described study. If they agree it is assumed real p’s would to. This is asking people to take part in a study after a description of a study is given. This is a way of assessing the internal validity of a measuring tool by conducted systematic analysis of tool to ensure it is measuring the variable it should be. This is a sampling procedure used in an observation whereby the observer counts the number of times a given behaviour is shown. This is a sampling procedure used in an observation whereby the observer records what a participant is doing at certain time intervals. Written questions that are used to collect data.
6. 6. Random Sampling Quota Sampling Questionnaire Right to Withdraw Repeated Measures Ratio Data Situational Variables Level of Significance (Significance Level) Sampling Methods Standardised Procedures Split Half Check Social Desirability Bias Stratified Sampling Structured Observation Structured Interview Systematic Sampling Target Population Test-Retest Volunteer Sampling (SelfSelected) Unstructured Observation Unstructured Interview Retrospective Consent Presumptive Consent Debriefing Time Sampling Event Sampling Construct Validity