CROSS-CULTURAL
STUDIES OF
GENDER ROLES
GENDER RECAP
 Western research and theory is dominant in psychology
 Research has show how parents and peers encourage t...
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
By the end of the lesson you should be able to…

 Explain ways of classifying dif ferent cultures
 D...
CLASSIFYING CULTURES
TRADITIONAL VS. EGALITARIAN
 Traditional – a culture
where there are clear
dif ferences in men’s and...
HOFSTEDE (1989)
Suggested a more complex
system of classifying cultures
Masculine cultures High
regard for stereotypically...
COLLECTIVIST VS. INDIVIDUALISTIC
These studies show that cultural values and expectations have a strong influence on the d...
TASK

Read through the tribal study by Margaret
Mead (1935)

1. Summarise the study in your own
words…be concise!
2. Discu...
SOCIAL ROLES & INTERPRETATION
Whiting & Edwards (1975)
Studies gender roles
across 11 non-western
traditional cultures.
Co...
CONCLUDING COMMENTARY
What can we conclude?
Environmental factors
Similarities vs. dif ferences
Collectivist vs. individua...
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  1. 1. CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF GENDER ROLES
  2. 2. GENDER RECAP  Western research and theory is dominant in psychology  Research has show how parents and peers encourage the development of masculine behaviour in boys and femininity in girls  Important to consider cross -cultural gender research
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of the lesson you should be able to…  Explain ways of classifying dif ferent cultures  Describe studies which show gender role development in collectivist cultures  Understand dif ficulties in assessing the role of culture in gender role development
  4. 4. CLASSIFYING CULTURES TRADITIONAL VS. EGALITARIAN  Traditional – a culture where there are clear dif ferences in men’s and women’s roles and power  Egalitarian – a culture where gender roles are more flexible and equal http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=PwYCvTpYMCA
  5. 5. HOFSTEDE (1989) Suggested a more complex system of classifying cultures Masculine cultures High regard for stereotypically male qualities such as acheivement and competition Feminine cultures Value stereotypically female qualities such as interpersonal harmony and cooperation Often found in individualistic cultures such as UK, US and Japan, where identity is defined through personal choices and achievements Often found in collectivist cultures such as Pakistan and India, where family, work and community are most important
  6. 6. COLLECTIVIST VS. INDIVIDUALISTIC These studies show that cultural values and expectations have a strong influence on the development of gender roles Leung & Moore ( 2003) Compared Australians of English and Chinese origin using Bem’s androgyny questionnaire (sex role inventor y and found cultural dif ferences in line with Hofstede’s dimensions. Both male and female English Australians showed masculine traits which are valued in individualistic cultures, and male and female Chinese Australians showed feminine traits valued in a collectivist culture. Chang, Guo & Hau ( 2002) Compared 145 American and 173 Chinese students and given a scale asking them to rate their attitudes to gender equality at home and in the workplace. Male and female American students emphasised the impor tance of equal gender roles at work whereas the Chinese sample emphasised the impor tance of equality in the home and family (i.e. sharing house work and childcare).
  7. 7. TASK Read through the tribal study by Margaret Mead (1935) 1. Summarise the study in your own words…be concise! 2. Discuss in pairs the claim that there are dif ferences in gender roles between dif ferent cultures 20 minutes
  8. 8. SOCIAL ROLES & INTERPRETATION Whiting & Edwards (1975) Studies gender roles across 11 non-western traditional cultures. Concluded that the behavioural dif ferences seen in boys and girls are due to the tasks they are given (e.g. domestic chores vs. outdoor chores). Tager & Good (2005) Dif ference in the way masculinity is interpreted between cultures. Italian men had less conformity to traditional ideas about masculinity than US males.
  9. 9. CONCLUDING COMMENTARY What can we conclude? Environmental factors Similarities vs. dif ferences Collectivist vs. individualistic Write a short commentary on what we can conclude from considering cross-cultural studies of gender roles

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