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G544

G544
Section A Research
Methods

Name _______________________________________
1

Class______________________________...
G544
The G544 Paper AKA Research Methods and Approaches
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This is a SYNOPTIC paper, which means the en...
G544
Glossary of Psychological Terms
Ethics

Aims

Independent variable

Dependent Variable

Operationalise

Alternative H...
G544
Matched pairs design

Laboratory experiment

Field experiment

Quasi/Natural experiment

Demand characteristics

Corr...
G544

Open questions

Rating Scales

Closed questions

Social desirability bias

Response set bias

Target Population

Opp...
G544

Quantitative research

Mean

Median

Mode

The Research Methods
There are four research methods that you must know.
...
G544

Naturalistic
observation

Structured interview

Unstructured interview

Questionnaire

Correlation

Each method can ...
G544

Structured interview

Unstructured interview

Questionnaire

Correlation

Questionnaires and Interviews
What you sho...
G544

2. Improving validity
Hide the purpose of your questionnaire with distractor questions to avoid
demand characteristi...
G544

Opportunity

Participants each have an
equal chance of being
selected, e.g. names in a

Self

hat.
Participants are ...
G544
3. A sample of A – Level students is chosen by putting the names of all A Level students into a hat and drawing out 2...
G544
1. A psychologist wants to investigate whether students who complete
their 4 hours of independent study per week do b...
G544
TASK: For the four studies briefly described above, say how you would
operationalise the IV and DV
1.

2.

3.

4.

No...
G544

What would you mark yourself out of four for each of these?

Experimental Design-Experimental Design Types
Specific ...
G544
Some Example Experiments
1. In order to assess the effects of fatigue on reaction times, a
researcher gave participan...
G544

2. Explain why it was necessary to use a matched participants design in
experiment 2

3. Redesign experiment 5 to us...
G544
(ii) Find out what counterbalancing is, and explain for both experiments
how it would have been done.

6. The main pr...
G544
Demand Characteristics:

Social Desirability:

Checking the validity of research
Face Validity:
Concurrent Validity:
...
G544

TASK: Look at the scenarios below and complete the answers in the
columns
Scenario
Evaluate the
Evaluate the
Suggest...
G544
are in a noisy
room (their usual
play area) than a
quiet room (a
room where they
are alone with a
supervisor).
Resear...
G544

Structured

Unstructured

Covert

Overt

Sampling behaviour
The term sampling here does not refer to gathering a gro...
G544
Sampling

Event
Sampling

Correlations
Whereas experiments look for a difference between two conditions, a
correlatio...
G544

TASK: Look at the examples below and decide whether the correlations
are positive or negative:
1. The more students ...
G544

2. The relationship between car speed and accidents

3. The relationship between rainfall and hosepipe bans

4. The ...
G544

Draw a sketch of a graph illustrating no correlation

Strengths of correlations 

Weaknesses of correlations 

25
G544

In section A of this exam, you will be asked to plan an investigation
for 19 marks! It’s a huge part of the exam and...
G544
Need to talk about the type of sample you’re using (college students etc)
and the way it was selected (adverts in pap...
G544
Remember! For this answer to gain full marks – from what you write,
someone should be able to look at your answer and...
G544

night, the other group will be asked to sleep for just 3 hours
on a Friday night. They will all be told that no subs...
G544

What mark would this get and why??

Data Analysis
The research methods section of this paper is very
similar to what...
G544
This involves simply counting the number of subjects that did one thing or
another, or fall into this category or tha...
G544

Ordinal level data

With this level of measurement, items may be placed in some rank order.
Ordinal numbers represen...
G544
We get the following data:
Year 7 students
rating
7
5
8
8
6

Student A
Student B
Student C
Student D
Student E

Year ...
G544
Imagine we test how long it takes for students to complete a memory
test either with or without caffeine:
Time taken
...
G544

Looking at the pictures above, find as many examples as you can, of each
type:
Nominal data

Ordinal data

Interval/...
G544
Mark Webber, Sebastian Vettel, Robert Kubica
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Rosenthal and Fode...
G544
Mean – the arithmetic average (add up all scores and divide by the
number of scores)
The mean can be calculated by us...
G544
6
4
3
8

Highlight and sort
A
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Median is between 4 and 5, therefore it is 4.5

Measures of Dispers...
G544
mean, the larger the standard deviation is the more spread out are the
scores.
Those of you who did the higher tier i...
G544
The aim of inferential statistics is to discover if your results are
statistically significant. A statistically signi...
G544
level is seen as a representing a balance between a type I and type II
error) The 5% level is fine for Psychology, bu...
G544

To re-cap: Define the following terms and fill in the tables: -

Independent
Measures Design
+
-

Repeated Measures
...
G544

We are now to going calculate the correlation co-efficient. Enter the
following formula into excel: - =CORREL(A2:A11...
G544
3. Critical Value for a two tailed test = 1, therefore the Null
hypothesis can be rejected the test result was statis...
G544
17
16
10
12
18
16
17
15
14
Mean = 16

13
12
18
11
9
10
16
15
11
Mean = 12.9

Formula U = N1 N2 + N1 (N1 +1) - T
2
Sel...
G544
Calculated Value = 16.5
Critical value for a one tailed test at 5%, N = 9 (no difference scores are
omitted) = 11
The...
G544
Psychology 35
Maths
0

40
10

80
10

25
20

20
20

Mann Whitney U Test
Females have better short term memories than m...
G544
Decide which test is appropriate in the following scenarios. You need
to think about whether it is a test of differen...
G544
5. A survey of students expecting to find that those with internet
access estimate time spent on homework to be great...
G544
9. A piece on biopsychological research predicting that asthma
sufferers will score higher on anxiety scales than peo...
G544
13. A research project conducted by the ministry of Defence to
assess the effects of anxiety on active service, predi...
G544
17. Lesson observation ratings between teachers working in the same
department will be very similar.
Experimental Des...
G544

21. It is expected that the amount of rainfall is related to the sales of
umbrellas.
Experimental Design: Type of Da...
G544
Specimen Exam Questions – remember (just like G541) ALL answers
must be in context to the option you choose!!
Read th...
G544

Answer all the following questions
State the research question you will investigate (a-g).
1) State an operationalis...
G544

Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of research related to
the task below could be conducted.
Psychol...
G544
State the option from a-g you have chosen.
1) State an alternative hypothesis for your practical project (3)
2) Descr...
G544
Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of research related to
the task below could be conducted.
Cognitiv...
G544
State the option from a-g you have chosen.
1) State the null hypothesis for your practical project (3)
2) Describe th...
G544
Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of research related to
the passage below could be conducted.
Psych...
G544
Section A
Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of research related
to the passage below could be conduc...
G544
Answer all the questions in Section A in relation to your practical project.
State the option from (a) to (g) you hav...
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  1. 1. G544 G544 Section A Research Methods Name _______________________________________ 1 Class________________________________________
  2. 2. G544 The G544 Paper AKA Research Methods and Approaches • • • • • • • • • This is a SYNOPTIC paper, which means the entire exam covers everything you should already know. So it is just a matter of revision and new exam skills to learn! The exam is 1 hour and 30 minutes long. There are two sections in this exam (Section A and Section B). Section A is what this booklet covers – RESEARCH METHODS! Where you have to incorporate all of those contextualising skills once again! Section B is approaches, perspectives, methods, issues and debates. This will be covered in a separate booklet. Therefore you should spend roughly 45 minutes per section to finish the exam on time. The key to this exam is your answer technique. Section A is all about contextualising your answers and planning an investigation, while Section B is about using examples from studies effectively to make points and argue sides. These 2 booklets should prepare you well for this exam. But you MUST revise your knowledge hard to gain top grades. 2
  3. 3. G544 Glossary of Psychological Terms Ethics Aims Independent variable Dependent Variable Operationalise Alternative Hypothesis Null Hypothesis One-tailed hypothesis Two-tailed hypothesis Independent measures design Repeated measures design Order effects Counterbalance 3
  4. 4. G544 Matched pairs design Laboratory experiment Field experiment Quasi/Natural experiment Demand characteristics Correlation Positive correlation Negative correlation Observation Inter-Observer reliability Test-Retest Reliability Time sampling Event sampling Self report 4
  5. 5. G544 Open questions Rating Scales Closed questions Social desirability bias Response set bias Target Population Opportunity sample Random Sample Self-Selected Sample Confounding Variable Ecological Validity Internal Validity Mundane Realism Reliability 5
  6. 6. G544 Quantitative research Mean Median Mode The Research Methods There are four research methods that you must know. The four methods you need to know about are listed below:  Experiments  Correlations  Self report  Observations WARNING!! NOT ALL STUDIES ARE EXPERIMENTS!! Method Laboratory experiment Strengths Weaknesses Field experiment Quasi experiment Participant observation 6
  7. 7. G544 Naturalistic observation Structured interview Unstructured interview Questionnaire Correlation Each method can also be assessed in terms of validity and reliability. Complete the following table with an evaluation of each method. Method Reliability (e.g. how it might Validity (e.g. how it might be be tested in this method) compromised by this method) Laboratory experiment Field experiment Quasi experiment Participant observation Naturalistic observation 7
  8. 8. G544 Structured interview Unstructured interview Questionnaire Correlation Questionnaires and Interviews What you should know:  Strengths and weaknesses of questionnaires and interviews  Sampling methods and their strengths/weaknesses (self-seleted, random, opportunity).  Strengths and weaknesses of the different types of questions used e.g. quantitative (Closed), qualitative (open), scales (likert) Useful information when evaluating questionnaires: 1. Factors which affect validity The length of the questionnaire (too long causes apathy – people may not care how accurate their answers are). The wording of each question (if any question is ambiguous, or you ask leading questions, your questionnaire will not be valid). Demand characteristics (they answer in such a way to please the researcher) Social desirability bias (they do not tell the truth for fear of embarrassment) 8
  9. 9. G544 2. Improving validity Hide the purpose of your questionnaire with distractor questions to avoid demand characteristics. Keep the questionnaire confidential with no names to encourage participants to be honest. Do your questionnaire on line – people are more honest to a computer! Do a pilot study to check your questions are clear and measure what you set out to measure. 3. Making your research more reliable More subjects Repeat the questionnaire at a later date Meta analysis (compare results of different studies and see if there is a correlation of everyone's findings) Triangulation (do a lab experiment and an observation study and compare results of all three 4. Being ethical Do not take names. Keep the participants confidential. Make sure they can fill out the questionnaire in private. Sampling From your previous knowledge match the definitions of each sampling technique. Add any other sampling techniques you know e.g. stratified Sampling technique Random Definition  Advantages Participants volunteer to take part in research, e.g. answering advert asking for participants 9  Disadvantages
  10. 10. G544 Opportunity Participants each have an equal chance of being selected, e.g. names in a Self hat. Participants are used who selecting happen to be available and meet research criteria, e.g. class of psychology students Task: For each of these situations, identify the sampling technique and comment on whether it is likely to produce a representative sample. 1. Respondents are recruited for a survey by asking passers by in the street if they would mind answering some questions. 2. Gender differences in superstition are investigated by propping a ladder against a wall and seeing who walks under it and who walks around it. 10
  11. 11. G544 3. A sample of A – Level students is chosen by putting the names of all A Level students into a hat and drawing out 20 of them. 1. A student recruits 15 male and 15 female students from her college canteen to take part in an experiment on memory. 2. A researcher recruits 50 undergraduates to investigate gender differences in British driving behaviour. 6. Signs are put up in games arcades in Stoke asking for volunteers for a study on gambling addiction. 7. Names are selected by random number generator from the British electoral role for a national survey on people’s current opinions about the economy. Variables What do these key terms mean? Variables: Independent Variables: Dependent Variables: TASK: Now identify the IV and DV in the following: 11
  12. 12. G544 1. A psychologist wants to investigate whether students who complete their 4 hours of independent study per week do better in the psychology exam than those students who only complete 1 hour per week... IV = DV = 2. An experiment to see if recall on a memory test is affected by time of day IV = DV = 3. Does drinking coffee whilst revising improve exam results? IV = DV = 4. An experiment to investigate the effects of fatigue on reaction time IV = DV = Operationalising You need to know the word operationalising (to operationalise). It means – exactly how are you going to do it (measure it) This refers to the process of: Concept being How to operationalise (state precisely how you are going to measure it) measured Memory – is it better in the morning or the afternoon? IV - be precise about it – time of day. AM/PM – when? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------DV - Measure it  get Ps to learn a list of words Be precise(how many words)  --------------------------Be more precise (what sort of words?) ---------------Be even MORE precise (are you timing them) ---------12
  13. 13. G544 TASK: For the four studies briefly described above, say how you would operationalise the IV and DV 1. 2. 3. 4. Now write a fully operationalised alternate hypothesis for two of the four studies: Now write a fully operationalised null hypothesis for the other two studies 13
  14. 14. G544 What would you mark yourself out of four for each of these? Experimental Design-Experimental Design Types Specific experimental research designs refer to how we allocate participants to the different conditions of the IV. Independent measures – two groups are used, one for each condition Matched participants – like independent measures, but the two groups of PPs are matched to be as similar as possible (e.g. age, sex, social background, level of education etc.) Repeated measures – one group of PPs is used to do both conditions Description Strengths Weaknesses Independent Measures Design Repeated Measures Design Matched Participants Design 14
  15. 15. G544 Some Example Experiments 1. In order to assess the effects of fatigue on reaction times, a researcher gave participants a target detection test in which they pressed a button every time a dot appeared on a screen. The time between the dot appearing and the button being pressed was recorded. The participants did the test twice, once first thing in the morning, and once last thing at night. 2. In order to compare the effectiveness of two different types of therapy for depression, depressed patients were assigned to receive either cognitive therapy or behaviour therapy for a 12-week period. The researchers attempted to ensure that the patients in the two groups had a similar severity of depressed symptoms by administering a standardised test of depression to each participant, then pairing them according to the severity of their symptoms. 3. In order to assess the effect of organisation on recall, a researcher randomly assigned student volunteers to two conditions. Condition one attempted to recall a list of words that were organised into meaningful categories; condition two attempted to recall the same words, randomly grouped on the page. 4. To assess the difference in reading comprehension between 7 and 9year-olds, a researcher recruited a group of each from a local primary school. They were given the same passage of text to read, and then asked a series of questions to assess their understanding. 5. To assess the effectiveness of two different ways of teaching reading, a group of 5-year-olds were recruited from a primary school. Their level of reading ability was assessed, and then they were taught using scheme 1 for 20 weeks. At the end of this period, their reading was reassessed, and a reading improvement score was calculated. They were then taught using scheme 2 for a further 20 weeks and another reading improvement score for this period was calculated. The reading improvement scores for each child were then compared. What You Need To Do… For each of these examples, state and explain which experimental design was used by the researchers. Then answer the questions 1. Redesign experiment 1 to use repeated measures. 15
  16. 16. G544 2. Explain why it was necessary to use a matched participants design in experiment 2 3. Redesign experiment 5 to use matched participants. 4. Suggest why repeated measures would be an inappropriate design for experiment 3 5. There are three main problems with using a repeated measures design: The PPs get to see both conditions, and this may allow them to work out the experimental aim, producing demand characteristics. The PPs may be tired or bored during condition 2. This could depress their performance. The PPs get to practice the experimental task during condition 1. This could improve their performance on condition 2. These problems can be controlled using counterbalancing. (i) For experiments 1 and 5, explain whether any of these problems were likely to affect the outcome of the experiment. 16
  17. 17. G544 (ii) Find out what counterbalancing is, and explain for both experiments how it would have been done. 6. The main problem with using independent measures is that people are different to each other (participant variables) and therefore, the DV will usually be affected to some extent by the variations between people as well as the IV manipulation. This can mask the effect of the IV, especially where the expected effect is fragile or difficult to measure. In these cases, it is often a better idea to use repeated measures. (i) For experiments 3 and 4, suggest whether participant variables were likely to have been a problem. (ii) Explain how the researcher in experiment 3 attempted to avoid this problem. 1. Matched participants is a good compromise between independent and repeated measures, because it reduces the effect of participant variables but avoids fatigue and order effects. However, it is not used very often by psychological researchers. Suggest some reasons why this might be. Factors affecting the validity and reliability of research What do these key terms mean? Experimenter Bias: 17
  18. 18. G544 Demand Characteristics: Social Desirability: Checking the validity of research Face Validity: Concurrent Validity: Pilot Study: Checking the reliability of research Split-half method: Test-retest: Inter-rater reliability: Lack of experimental control of extraneous variables Single Blind: Double Blind: Artificiality (low mundane realism) Ways of dealing with this: 18
  19. 19. G544 TASK: Look at the scenarios below and complete the answers in the columns Scenario Evaluate the Evaluate the Suggest an validity of the DV reliability of the alternative way of in this study DV in this study operationalising the DV A psychologist wants to find out if there is a difference in the memory ability of males and females in an experiment testing their ability to recall words from a list of 20. A psychologist has arranged to test concentration of children in an after-school club to see if they complete a jigsaw faster when they 19
  20. 20. G544 are in a noisy room (their usual play area) than a quiet room (a room where they are alone with a supervisor). Researchers are interested in finding out what makes people ‘attractive’. They are asking Ps to rate photos of 20 males and 20 females for attractiveness on a scale of 1-10 where 1 is very unattractive and 10 is very attractive Observations Complete the table below Description Strengths Naturalistic Participant 20 Weaknesses
  21. 21. G544 Structured Unstructured Covert Overt Sampling behaviour The term sampling here does not refer to gathering a group of participants for study, instead it refers to when and how to make observations. You need to know the following two methods: Time Sampling: Event Sampling: Strengths  Weaknesses  Time 21
  22. 22. G544 Sampling Event Sampling Correlations Whereas experiments look for a difference between two conditions, a correlation is a way of measuring the relationship between two variables to see if a trend or pattern exists between them. WARNING!! It is very important that you do not use experimental terminology when talking about correlations. Correlations assess the relationship between variables (variable 1 and variable 2) but there are no independent variables involved as nothing is manipulated. What do these key terms mean? Positive Correlation: Negative Correlation: 22
  23. 23. G544 TASK: Look at the examples below and decide whether the correlations are positive or negative: 1. The more students revise, the higher the exam grade they achieve 2. The more lessons that students miss, the lower their commitment to learning grade 3. The more apples people eat, the less fillings they have 4. The lower your expectations, the worse you do in exams 5. The less water you drink the more likely you are to have a headache Writing correlational hypothesis Remind yourself of these terms and link them to correlations: Directional: Non-directional: Null: In essence, writing correlational hypotheses is the same as we practised for the experimental method except you change the word ‘difference’ for the word ‘correlation’. IT MUST ALWAYS BE FULLY OPERATIONALISED!!! TASK: Write correlational hypotheses for these scenarios: 1. The relationship between aggressive behaviour and watching aggressive TV 23
  24. 24. G544 2. The relationship between car speed and accidents 3. The relationship between rainfall and hosepipe bans 4. The relationship between hours of sunshine and time spent on the beach Presentation of Correlational Data The only visual display that is suitable for a correlation is a scattergraph. Also the only time you can use a scattergraph is to represent correlational data – do not use it for anything else. Dots are plotted on the scattergraph to represent each pair of scores. Remember that you are plotting the two variables against each other, you are NOT plotting participant numbers!! Draw a sketch of a graph illustrating a positive correlation Draw a sketch of a graph illustrating a negative correlation 24
  25. 25. G544 Draw a sketch of a graph illustrating no correlation Strengths of correlations  Weaknesses of correlations  25
  26. 26. G544 In section A of this exam, you will be asked to plan an investigation for 19 marks! It’s a huge part of the exam and you can’t mess this up! So here’s your 19 mark bible………! The “ Describe the method you would use to conduct your practical project…” Question. 19 marker! You get 13 marks for replicability. You get 6 marks for feasibility and quality of design. It must be related to the option chosen! You must explicitly mention the phrase “questionnaire”, an “experiment”, “observation” or “correlation” (depending on what it gives you) or you get zero marks! What you write must be fully replicable, so LOADS of detail. Even for the smallest of things. How to go about it…. Pilot Study! Must mention this. Sample and Sampling technique: 26
  27. 27. G544 Need to talk about the type of sample you’re using (college students etc) and the way it was selected (adverts in paper, posters etc?) How many? Where from? Who are they? How you will do it? When will you do it? How are you approaching your participants? Ethics What did you do to make your study ethical? Confidentiality, debrief, standardised instructions written down that outline the study, informed consent? Age of participants (were they over 16?) If you deceived your participants did you give them a full debrief at the end? Full procedure - WHO WHAT WHEN WHERE HOW?? This needs to be very clear, fully replicable and of high quality! So lots of detail! Relate it to the option chosen throughout. Whether it’s an observation, experiment, questionnaire or correlation, you must give a step by step account of what you will do. If questionnaire: need to include examples of appropriate questions, how did they do the questionnaire (alone or in a room with the researcher, were they guided?) Full description of the questionnaire with scorings or ratings fully and clearly described. If it’s a correlation, do NOT say what the IV and DV is as there are NO IVs and DVs in a correlation!!! Same for any other research method you use: scoring, conditions, experimental design (independent measures, repeated measures, matched pairs and why you used them). Mention any conditions or timings you’re giving them. Basically, the finished answer will depend on the research method given and option you have chosen. But you should have lots to write about. 27
  28. 28. G544 Remember! For this answer to gain full marks – from what you write, someone should be able to look at your answer and be able to repeat it in the same way. If they can’t, then it’s not fully replicable! If you’ve missed any minor detail out that means someone won’t be able to repeat it exactly – then it won’t gain top band marks. ALSO, you will see that there are two different things you must mention in your 19 mark answer. They’re underneath all the options you get to choose from the first page. You MUST mention and talk about how you will do these things or you will gain very few marks, throwing your top grades away! For example it might say: You must use a repeated measures design and plan to gain ordinal level data. The 19 marker can be done really badly or amazingly well! Make sure you’re someone who does it amazingly well! Example 19 mark Answer Experimental research method Option chosen: The effect of lack of sleep on memory for everyday objects. The project will be conducted using an independent measures design. The participants will be gathered using self-selected sampling from the local sixth form. Researchers will place an advert around the sixth form areas asking for students over 16 to take part in a study on lack of sleep and memory. They will then phone a number that is at the bottom of the advert to ask if they can participate in the study. As the study includes some ethical issues, this type of sampling method will increase the ethics. Once 20 students have applied, they will then be divided in to two different conditions, ten people in each group. One condition will be asked to sleep for 8 hours on a Friday 28
  29. 29. G544 night, the other group will be asked to sleep for just 3 hours on a Friday night. They will all be told that no substances such as caffeine, alcohol or other drugs should be taken on this evening. The following Saturday morning from 11am the students will come to 2 quiet rooms in the psychology building (one room to test condition A and the other room to test condition B). The rooms will be warm with very little distractions. Each student will go into the room one at a time. Each room will have an experimenter in there. When the student enters the room, they will be greeted by the experimenter and asked to sit at a table with a tray of objects on it covered by a towel. The students will then be asked to look at the tray for 30 seconds to memorize the everyday objects on it. Objects will include: scissors, a pen, a phone, a remote control, a toothbrush and a small mirror, amongst others, There will be 20 objects on the tray altogether. They will be timed by the experimenter with a stop watch. After the 30 seconds are up, the experimenter will cover the tray back over again and take it out of sight. Each student will then have just 30 seconds to recall as many of the objects as possible. The experimenter will note each answer down on a piece of paper. They will then count up how many correct answers they have produced at the end. The two different rooms will be carrying out these tests simultaneously for the two different groups. So, 2 experimenters will be needed. They will do it at the same time to account for time of day being a confounding variable. As this study might be seen as unethical by limiting the amount of sleep an individual has, this has tried to be dealt with by using a self selected sample. It is also hard to see how 3 hours of sleep will have a long lasting effect on the individual. Fully informed consent will be gained and students will also get a full debrief as to the aim of the sleep study at the end. Obviously a pilot study will have to be carried out first to identify any problems that may arise so that these can be dealt with before the main study takes place. 29
  30. 30. G544 What mark would this get and why?? Data Analysis The research methods section of this paper is very similar to what you did at AS, but the analysis of results goes further. You should remember most of this from research methods and will need to reread your notes. Don’t worry about the maths! You will only have to interpret results in the exam, not work them out. Data can be: Quantitative – Numbers Qualitative – Descriptive (words) Ordinal – Scores that can be placed in rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd etc.) Interval –All point along the scale are of equal size (e.g. difference between 6 & 8, is the same as the difference between 25 & 27 (2!!!)) Nominal – Frequency (e.g. %) Ordinal and Nominal data appear often in this exam – here’s some more info to help you understand these Nominal level data 30
  31. 31. G544 This involves simply counting the number of subjects that did one thing or another, or fall into this category or that. The numbers here refer to frequency with which something occurs. Example: 1. Number of students in the class who have blue, brown or green eyes. 2. Of 100 people, 40 recycle rubbish, while 60 do not recycle rubbish. Think of another two examples of nominal level data. Data are ‘measured’ roughly by putting into categories e.g. male/female, helpful/unhelpful. It is important to note that the numbers do not stand for amounts or distance on a scale. The numbers within each category stand for quantities in that category and these are referred to as ‘frequencies’. Example: Imagine we survey gender differences in musical instrument choice and get the following nominal data. Students who play the piano Students who play the drums Students who play the violin Male 4 12 6 Female 10 2 6 We would use a bar graph to display these data. Students music choices 31
  32. 32. G544 Ordinal level data With this level of measurement, items may be placed in some rank order. Ordinal numbers represent positions within a group. They tell us which is first, second and third. Example 1. In a 100 m sprint, the winner is placed first, the next runner across the line is placed second and so on, whatever the gap between the runners. 2. A reviewer in a hi-fi magazine might rate components according to the following star rating: ***** **** *** ** * Excellent, buy it Good, well worth considering Hmmm. Aaverage Pretty poor show Avoid at all costs Clearly a four-star rating **** is better than a two-star rating**, however we cannot assume that the four-star rating is twice as good as the two-star rating. Indeed it cannot even be assumed that the difference between the one-and two-star ratings is equal to the difference between the three-star and the four-star rating. Ordinal numbers indicate the position of an item in a group. Data are rank ordered in some way; they are not a measure of the amount of interval numbers. Think of another two examples of ordinal level data. (Hint: likert scale measures) Example: Imagine we ask year 7 and year 10 students if they like their school by rating it on a scale of 1 (don’t like it) to 10 (really like it). 32
  33. 33. G544 We get the following data: Year 7 students rating 7 5 8 8 6 Student A Student B Student C Student D Student E Year 10 students rating 3 4 3 4 6 Mean rating of year 7 and year 10 students Interval level data An interval scale uses equal intervals. Example: The length of time a person takes to complete a test, or the IQ scores a person gets. This type of data gives more than just order; it also shows how much difference there is between the first and second, the second and third etc. These equal intervals could, for example, be centimetres or kilograms or seconds. An interval scale is usually defined as a scale that has an arbitrary zero. Example: 33
  34. 34. G544 Imagine we test how long it takes for students to complete a memory test either with or without caffeine: Time taken 1–10 seconds 11–20 seconds 21–30 seconds 31–40 seconds With coffee 3 4 3 2 Without coffee 1 2 3 6 For interval level data you use a histogram or frequency polygon. Time taken for memory test with coffee Think of three examples of interval data. Hint: Think of equipment you can buy that measures (e.g. a clock). Levels of Data (increasingly meaningful/powerful) Nominal data: a level of measurement where data are in separate categories. Ordinal data: a level of measurement where data are ordered in some way. Interval data /Ratio data: a level of measurement where units of equal measurements (a scale with equal intervals) are used e.g. minutes, kilograms, number of words recalled in a memory test or percentage score in an exam. Ratio data is on a scale, but has a true zero eg weight/height, time, distance. 34
  35. 35. G544 Looking at the pictures above, find as many examples as you can, of each type: Nominal data Ordinal data Interval/Ratio data Now identify the level of the data in each of these examples: 1. Number of children (average age 4.5 years) engaged in type of play Non-play 8 Solitary 5 Associative 17 Parallel 23 cooperative 6 …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Podium positions, Monaco Grand Prix 2010 35
  36. 36. G544 Mark Webber, Sebastian Vettel, Robert Kubica …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Rosenthal and Fode (1963) Time in minutes taken by rats to correctly find their way round a maze. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Holmes & Rahe devised a stress scale, with arbitrary numerical values given to a series of life events such as ‘death of spouse’ or ‘getting married’ …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5. Bandura’s Bobo Doll study, behaviours observed: aggressive, nonaggressive …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6. Schacter& Singer (1962) attempted to estimate how emotional Pps were feeling, using a scale to measure happiness, and another to measure anger. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7. Collins & Quillian (1969) measured time taken in seconds, to decide if statements were true or false. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8. Lang & Lazovik (1963) measured phobics’ scores on a 19-point scale ‘snake avoidance test’. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Measures of Central Tendency Hopefully you remember these from GCSE Maths and AS Psychology!! To Recap: Mode – the most frequently occurring value Median – the middle value when scores are arranged in descending order 36
  37. 37. G544 Mean – the arithmetic average (add up all scores and divide by the number of scores) The mean can be calculated by using excel. Input all the scores into a worksheet (in a column) and use the following formulae e.g. =average(A1:A10), (A1:A10 refers to cell references so these will change. e.g. A B 1 2 5 9 1 7 6 4 3 8 =average(A1:A10) Mean The Mode can easily be calculated by eye, but remember a set of scores can have more than one mode and all scores can be modal if no score is repeated. The most common use of the mode in everyday life is clothes sizes, these are the most popular sizes e.g. 10, 12, 14, 16 etc. or waist sizes 28, 30, 32, 34 etc. The Median can be calculated in excel by using the sort function. Simply enter scores into a worksheet and then use A-Z sort function from toolbar. If two scores are in the middle, the median is calculated by adding the two scores up and dividing by two. e.g. A 1 2 5 9 1 7 37
  38. 38. G544 6 4 3 8 Highlight and sort A 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Median is between 4 and 5, therefore it is 4.5 Measures of Dispersion These examine variability in data sets. They help us understand whether scores in a data set are very similar or very different. In other words how spread out scores are. Range – This is the simplest measure of dispersion. It tells us over how many numbers a distribution is spread. It is the difference between the highest and the lowest score. The problem with this is that extreme values affect the result. e.g. 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 20 One single figure changes the range from 4 to 10. Standard Deviation – This is a much more useful measure of dispersion, as it tells us how far, on average, each score is from the mean. The smaller the standard deviation the more scores are clustered around the 38
  39. 39. G544 mean, the larger the standard deviation is the more spread out are the scores. Those of you who did the higher tier in GCSE maths will already be familiar with the calculations for standard deviation and know it is pretty complicated. However, we are going to make things easy by using excel. Simply, input your data in exactly the same way that you did for calculating the mean. The formula is =stdev(A1:A10) (A1:A10 refers to cell references, so will change). Interquartile Range – when data is put in order, find the first quartile (Q1) and the third quartile (Q3), simply subtract Q1 from Q3. Notice that the second quartile is the median E.g. 3, 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 12, 14, 17, 17, 18 Q1 Q2 Q3 17-7 = 10 (Q3 – Q1 = Interquartile range) Semi-interquartile range = 10 The advantage of the interquartile range over the range is that it is less affected by outliers (anomalous scores). If you use the mode as a measure of central tendency, the range is the appropriate measure of dispersion, the mean, standard deviation and the median is paired with the interquartile range. Graphs Graphs are pictorial presentations of data. They should be chosen to enable the data to be displayed in the most effective and clear way possible. All diagrams must be fully labelled; care must be taken to select an appropriate scale so the data is not in any way capable of misrepresentation. All graphs should be accompanied by a sentence or two of explanation. Inferential statistics 39
  40. 40. G544 The aim of inferential statistics is to discover if your results are statistically significant. A statistically significant result is one which is unlikely to have occurred through chance. Usually, psychologists use the 5% level (0.05), this means that just 1 in 20 of results could have occurred due to chance. We express our results in terms of the Null Hypothesis, if a result is statistically significant we can reject the null hypothesis, if the result is not statistically significant we must accept the null hypothesis. In other words we need to be 95% confident that the results were due to the manipulation of the IV in order to reject the null hypothesis. Null Hypothesis: - Any change (difference) between the two conditions is due to chance. The concept of statistical significance is linked to the mathematical concept of probability. Task: - Complete the following exercise On a scale of 1-99 rate the following statements for probability 1 = almost impossible and 99 = almost certain (Remember the only thing certain is death and the only thing impossible immortality!) 1. You winning the lottery 2. It raining in the next week 3. Dreaming of elephants this week 4. Having a day off ill this term 5. Becoming a famous entertainer 6. Becoming a parent in your lifetime 7. A cure for cancer being discovered in your lifetime 8. If you spin a coin it will come down heads 9. If you spin two coins they will both come down heads 10. Passing all your A levels Because we used a scale between 1-99 your answers are expressed as percentages. Convert them into fractions and then decimals e.g. 50% is ½ or 0.5 (50/100 cancelled down to lowest possible) 50% move the decimal point two places to the left) In psychology the most common level of significance is 5% (e.g. 1 in 20 or p≤0.05) (the p stands for probability and ≤less than or equal to). This 40
  41. 41. G544 level is seen as a representing a balance between a type I and type II error) The 5% level is fine for Psychology, but clearly if we were experimenting on a new drug , a 1 in 20 chance that it might kill you are not very good odds and the level would have to be significantly reduced. Type I Error Type II Error False Positive. Rejecting the null hypothesis, when there is a possibility that the results were due to chance. Often caused by using a significance level that is too lenient e.g. 10%, 0.10, 1 in 10, p≤0.10. Not being cautious enough. False Negative. Accepting the null hypothesis, when there is a possibility that the results were significant. Often caused by using a significance level that is too strict e.g. 1%, 0.01, 1 in 100, p≤0.01. Being over cautious. Choosing an appropriate statistical test Test of Difference Level of Measurement Independent Measures Design Nominal (Frequency) Ordinal, Interval or Ratio (Ranked) Repeated Measures Design or Matched Pairs Sign Test Chi-square Mann-Whitney U Test Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test Test of Association Correlation Chi-Square Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient After performing the necessary calculations for these tests, you will need to look up your calculated value in the critical value tables (back of handout) to discover if your result is statistically significant. All these tests except the Mann Whitney U and Wilcoxen need a calculated value which exceeds the critical value in order to be significant. Do not worry about the calculations they are very straight forward and are usually done by computer. I’ve only included the manual method to make them easier to understand! 41
  42. 42. G544 To re-cap: Define the following terms and fill in the tables: - Independent Measures Design + - Repeated Measures Design + - Matched Pairs Design + - Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient It is expected that if a person likes the group Guns N Roses, they are unlikely to also like Jedward! What sort of correlation would this show? When 10 participants were asked to rate these two groups of a scale of 1-10 the results were as follows: Guns n Roses Jedward 4 9 5 7 10 2 8 3 9 5 1 9 5 5 3 6 8 2 7 7 Copy these results into EXCEL and draw a scatter graph, don’t forget the line of best fit. What does your graph show? 42
  43. 43. G544 We are now to going calculate the correlation co-efficient. Enter the following formula into excel: - =CORREL(A2:A11,B2:B11) The A2:A11 and B2:B11 refer to the cell references in excel. Rs = -0.79 Look up the results in the critical value tables N=10, significant level = 0.05, 5%. (nb. The – or + simply tells you whether it is a positive or negative correlation) Sign Test This test simply involves counting up the number of positive and negative signs. Example: A study was conducted to discover if students changed their attitude towards the death penalty after watching ‘The Green Mile’. Experimental Hypothesis: - Watching the film ‘The Green Mile’ will influence student’s attitudes to the death penalty. (non-directional – twotailed) Participant No: Attitude Attitude after Direction of before film film Influence 1 For Against 2 For Against 3 For Against 4 Against Against No change 5 For Against 6 For Against 7 For Against 8 For Against 9 For Against 10 Against For + 1. Add the number of times the least frequent sign appears. In this case the + sign, so S = 1. 2. Look at the critical value tables to obtain the critical value for S, number of score = 9 (as pairs of scores with no change are omitted). 43
  44. 44. G544 3. Critical Value for a two tailed test = 1, therefore the Null hypothesis can be rejected the test result was statistically significant (most people did change their opinion after watching the film). Chi- Square Test X2 This test compares observed frequencies (those actually obtained) with expected frequencies (the averages which would be observed if the null hypothesis were true). Formula X2 = (O-E)2 E Example: - Piaget Conservation Experiment Hypothesis: 7 year olds will be more likely to be able to conserve than 5 year olds. (Directional - One-tailed) Data must be first entered into a contingency table, use one of the websites on page 13 to calculate: - 5 year olds 7 year olds Number able to conserve 8 17 Number unable to conserve 12 3 Calculated Value = 8.64 Critical value for a one tailed test, 1 df at 5% = 3.84, therefore the result is significant, the null hypothesis can be rejected. It would appear that 7 year olds are more likely to be able to conserve than 5 year olds. Mann Whitney U Test Hypothesis: - Males will score higher on an aggression questionnaire than females. (directional – one-tailed). Enter the data into the appropriate test from the website. Male Scores 25 Female Scores 14 44
  45. 45. G544 17 16 10 12 18 16 17 15 14 Mean = 16 13 12 18 11 9 10 16 15 11 Mean = 12.9 Formula U = N1 N2 + N1 (N1 +1) - T 2 Select whichever U value is the smaller as your calculated value, in this case U = 25.5 The critical value for a one-tailed test at 5% N = 10 is 27, therefore the result is significant and it is necessary to reject the null hypothesis. Evidence has been discovered to suggest that males did score higher on an aggression questionnaire than females. The Wilcoxen Matched Pairs Signed Ranks Test Hypothesis: Participants will score lower on a reaction test after consuming alcohol. (Directional – one-tailed) Participant No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Before Alcohol Score 20 14 14 19 15 19 13 16 19 16 After Alcohol Score 17 12 16 12 16 14 13 11 13 11 45
  46. 46. G544 Calculated Value = 16.5 Critical value for a one tailed test at 5%, N = 9 (no difference scores are omitted) = 11 There the result is not significant, the null hypothesis must be accepted as no evidence has been found to support the view that alcohol effects reaction times. Practice Calculations Using one of the websites below, enter the data and calculate the appropriate inferential statistics and explain what the results mean:       http://www.holah.karoo.net/stats.htm http://www.brightstat.com/ http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/index.cfm http://statpages.org/ http://statpages.org/javasta2.html#Freebies http://www.physics.csbsju.edu/stats/ Spearman’s Rank Order Co-efficient 1. The following data gives the number of cinema admissions (000,000) and TV licences issued (per 100 population) each quarter in the early 1950s in the region of the Sutton Coldfield TV transmitter. Cine 11 10 10 9.4 10.5 9.7 9.4 9.3 9.9 9.3 9 8.6 Ad TV 12 18 24 37 52 64 69 81 98 101 106 119 Lic Chi-Square A professor at the University of Warton wanted to see if students had a better chance of getting a high grade in Psychology than Languages or Maths. (1 tailed) Subject Languages I 5 IIi 10 IIii 20 46 III 35 Pass 30
  47. 47. G544 Psychology 35 Maths 0 40 10 80 10 25 20 20 20 Mann Whitney U Test Females have better short term memories than males. (1 tailed) Male scores on test (20) 15 16 10 15 11 13 12 10 9 17 Female scores on test 17 15 16 10 9 9 12 15 13 11 Wilcoxen Participants were asked to rate the efficiency of two brands of washing up liquid. (2 tailed). Gresego 8 7 9 7 8 7 9 6 5 Kwikclene 5 5 2 6 9 6 5 5 6 47
  48. 48. G544 Decide which test is appropriate in the following scenarios. You need to think about whether it is a test of difference or association, the type of date (ordinal or nominal) and the experimental design (independent, repeated, matched pairs or correlation) 1. An experiment predicting that female IQ scores on a standard IQ test will be higher than males. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 2. An analysis of the relationship between happiness and self-esteem, predicting that the higher a person’s rated their own self-esteem, the higher they would rate their happiness. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 3. An observation of driver behaviour to test that more males than females stop at zebra crossings for pedestrians. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 4. Males will spend more time watching TV than females. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 48
  49. 49. G544 5. A survey of students expecting to find that those with internet access estimate time spent on homework to be greater than those with no internet access. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 6. Satisfaction levels among students over the course of a college day predicting that students will report higher satisfaction ratings after lunch than before. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 7. A piece of research being conducted in a hospital out-patient department expecting to find that blood pressure goes up as waiting time increases. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 8. A cohort study of identical twins predicting that they will have very similar IQ test scores as measured by standardised IQ tests. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 49
  50. 50. G544 9. A piece on biopsychological research predicting that asthma sufferers will score higher on anxiety scales than people who do not have asthma. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 10. Research conducted in an eating disorder clinic aiming to show bulimics will demonstrate food preferences for saltier snacks, while anorexics will demonstrate preferences for sweeter snacks. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 11. A survey of gender and self-esteem predicting that males have higher self-esteem than females. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 12. An observational piece of research on gender and pro-social behaviour predicting that females are more likely to give up their seat on a crowded bus. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 50
  51. 51. G544 13. A research project conducted by the ministry of Defence to assess the effects of anxiety on active service, predicting that soldiers will score higher on anxiety scales on their return from active service than before active service. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 14. Fathers are more likely than mothers to report feelings of euphoria at the birth of their first child. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 15. Mothers are more likely than fathers to report feelings of panic on learning that they are to become parents of twins. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 16. Women over 40 are more likely than those under 40 to show symptoms of decoxeria (an obsessive relationship with décor and home furnishing, prevalent in female psychology teachers!) Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 51
  52. 52. G544 17. Lesson observation ratings between teachers working in the same department will be very similar. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 18. Identical twins take part in an experiment on the effects of sleep deprivation on memory. One twin is in the experimental group (deprived of one night’s sleep), the other the control (normal night’s sleep). The next day they given a memory test, the maximum possible score is 25. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 19. Participants take part in an experiment on the effects of sleep deprivation on memory. Half the participants are allowed to sleep, the other half are kept awake. The next day they given a memory test, the maximum possible score is 25. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 20.It is expected that older women (over 40) will choose a larger body shape silhouette as their ideal than younger women (under 20). All participants are given a questionnaire with 5 different body shapes (ranging from size 8 -16) on and are asked to choose their ideal shape. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 52
  53. 53. G544 21. It is expected that the amount of rainfall is related to the sales of umbrellas. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 23.A group of people are asked whether or not they are in favour of animal experimentation. They are then shown a film on the subject and asked again. Experimental Design: Type of Data: Test: 53
  54. 54. G544 Specimen Exam Questions – remember (just like G541) ALL answers must be in context to the option you choose!! Read the passage below: Last year I was reading a number of news articles about people and their memories. There was the world wide hunt for the identity of a man who had lost his memory; remembering nothing, not his name, address, family or friends, what his job was, or how he came to be wandering around in a city. A few days later there was a report on a woman who could not forget anything, given a date in the last 20 years she could recall all the details of where she was, what she was wearing, who she met, what she ate and how she felt. Added to this every year there are the world memory championships, where people compete to see who can recall the longest sequence of playing cards or random words, using a variety of strategies to enhance memory. a) Do men forget more than women? b) Are the stereotypes true; of men remembering facts, such as football scores, better than women; true? c) Do women remember emotional events better than men? d) Is it easier to remember items that are organised or grouped together? e) Does visualising items from a shopping list help in recalling them later? f) Do some people have a better memory for material presented as pictures rather than words? g) Would it be better to learn lines for a play by repeating them or writing them out? You are required to design a practical project to investigate one of the above research questions. It must be an independent design experiment and you must plan to collect at least ordinal data. It should be a project that you could carry out. 54
  55. 55. G544 Answer all the following questions State the research question you will investigate (a-g). 1) State an operationalised hypothesis for your investigation (3) 2) Describe the procedure for your investigation, making clear how you would measure the dependent variable and giving examples of materials you would use. (Marks are awarded for the quality of your design and the details and replicability of your design as well as the fitness of the design for purpose. (13 + 6) 3) If, having carried out your investigation and an inferential statistical test, your experimental hypothesis was found to be significant for p‹ 0.05, what would ‘p‹ 0.05’ mean? (3) 4) Describe one weaknesses of the independent measures design in relation to your investigation. (3) Consider one way in which the effects of the weakness could be reduced. (3) 5) Discuss the ecological validity of your measurement of the dependent variable. (3) 6) Outline one way in which you show your awareness for ethical issues in the conduct of your study. (3) 7) Outline, one further aspect of your question, which you could investigate in a future practical project, justify your answer. (3) (40 Marks) 55
  56. 56. G544 Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of research related to the task below could be conducted. Psychologists use Correlational designs to investigate relationships between variables that are difficult to investigate experimentally. Correlational designs are often used to investigate the relationship between environmental variables and human behaviour. For example, research has examined environmental variables such as heat, sunshine, pollution and social density (crowding) and their relationships with happiness, aggression, helping behaviours and performance on cognitive tasks. You must choose one of the options a-g: a. The relationship between levels of exposure to sunlight and happiness. b. The relationship between social density (crowding) and aggressive behaviours. c. The relationship between social density (crowding) and performance on cognitive tasks. d. The relationship between social density (crowding) and helping behaviours. e. The relationship between pollution levels and aggressive behaviours. f. The relationship between temperature and aggressive behaviours. g. The relationship between noise and performance on cognitive tasks. You must use a Correlational design and plan to collect at least ordinal data. It must be a practical project that could be conducted. 56
  57. 57. G544 State the option from a-g you have chosen. 1) State an alternative hypothesis for your practical project (3) 2) Describe the method you would use to conduct your practical project. 13 marks are awarded for replicability and appropriateness and 6 for the quality of the design and its feasibility (13 + 6) 3) What inferential (non-parametric) test would you use to analyse the data? Give reasons for your choice. (3) 4) Sketch a graph to present the data that could be collected. (3) 5) What could this graph tell you about the relationship between the two variables? (3) 6) Explain one weakness of conducting this practical project as a correlation. (3) 7) How would you address any one ethical issue in the conduct of this project. (3) 8) Outline one other way your research questions could be investigated. (3) (40 marks) 57
  58. 58. G544 Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of research related to the task below could be conducted. Cognitive processes include memory and perception and just as our memories are likely to become distorted, we are all susceptible to mistaken perception. Many of us are familiar with such classic illusions as the Muller-Lyer illusion – where the line with the outgoing fins appears longer than the line with the ingoing fins, in fact they are the same length. You must choose one of the options a-g: a) Are older people more susceptible to visual illusions than younger people? b) Will people be less accurate in judging the length in a Muller-Lyer illusion when they hear another person give a wrong judgement than if they judge alone? c) Will women remember details of clothing better than males? d) Can police officers remember car registration plates better than non-police officers? e) Do hungry people food related words better than people who are not hungry? f) Are people living in cities more affected by the Muller-Lyer illusion than those living in rural areas? g) Are people asked a leading question more likely to give a wrong answer than those not asked a leading question? You must use an independent measures design experiment and plan to collect at least ordinal data. It must be a practical project that could be conducted. 58
  59. 59. G544 State the option from a-g you have chosen. 1) State the null hypothesis for your practical project (3) 2) Describe the method you would use to conduct your practical project. 13 marks are awarded for replicability and appropriateness and 6 for the quality of the design and its feasibility (13 + 6) 3) Give an advantage of using an alternative experimental design in this practical project. (3) 4) Assess the validity of your investigation in measuring the independent variable (6) 5) Outline how you would select a sample which would be representative, (3) 6) What ethical issues would you consider in designing your practical project (3) 7) Suggest one idea for possible future research related to your practical project. (3) (40 marks) 59
  60. 60. G544 Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of research related to the passage below could be conducted. Psychologists are interested in helping people overcome their fears, anxieties and phobias. One way of finding out about these is to ask people to fill out a questionnaire. In this way they can write about their fears, anxieties or phobias and how they can be overcome without having to talk about them. You must choose one of the options (a) to (g): a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Fear of crime Anxiety in sport School phobia Phobia of open spaces Fear of horses Social phobia Examination anxiety You must design a study that uses a questionnaire to collect data by opportunity sampling. It must be a practical project that could be conducted. Answer all the questions in Section A in relation to your practical project. State the option from (a) to (g) you have chosen for your practical project. ………….. 1. Construct a research question for your practical project. [3] 2. Describe the method you would use to conduct your practical project. [13+6] 3. Outline one advantage of using a questionnaire in your practical project. [3] 4. a) Explain one strength of using closed questions in your practical project. [3] b) Explain one weakness of using closed questions in your practical project. [3] 5. Explain how using leading questions could influence the results of your practical project. [3] 6. How could you ensure that your questionnaire would not cause too much distress to the participants? [3] 7. Suggest a more appropriate sampling method you could have used to obtain participants for your practical project. Explain your answer. [3] 60
  61. 61. G544 Section A Your task is to answer questions about how a piece of research related to the passage below could be conducted. Questionnaires are often used to assess people’s attitudes to current events and to factors affecting attitude change. Psychologists have obtained information on such diverse topics as attitudes to body image and attitudes to drinking and driving. This information has enabled research into the factors affecting attitude change. You must choose one of the following options (a-g): (a) Attitudes to drink driving. (b) Attitudes to riots. (c) Attitudes to parental discipline. (d) Attitudes to stress. (e) Attitudes to drugs in sports. (f) Attitudes to body image. (g) Attitudes to the death penalty. You must design a study that uses a questionnaire to collect data from a self-selected sample. It must be a practical project that could be conducted. 61
  62. 62. G544 Answer all the questions in Section A in relation to your practical project. State the option from (a) to (g) you have chosen for your practical project. ………….. 1. State the aim of your practical project [2] 2. Describe the method you would use to conduct your practical project [13+6] 3. Outline one disadvantage of using a questionnaire in your practical project [3] 4. Assess the reliability of the measurement of attitudes in your practical project [6] 5. How could you obtain nominal level data from your practical project [3] 6. Suggest one way you could ensure your practical project was ethical [3] 7. Suggest alternative future research that might be conducted that follows on from your practical project. Explain your answer. [4] Total 40 marks. 62

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