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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Trivers stated “ that resource allocation that would maximise parental fitness are not always the same as those which maximise offspring fitness”
  2. 2. Kin Selection Theory (Hamilton 1964) states that we tend to behave more altruistically towards people we are related to. So why are so many families experiencing conflict? Discuss. We only have to look at the Jeremy Kyle show to see that families are very often in conflict with each other.
  3. 3. Parent-Offspring conflict:  Children desire greater investment than their parents are willing to provide.  Parents try to allocate resources to their offspring in order to ensure that the maximum number of offspring survive.  However, conflict occurs when each child wants more resources than the parent is prepared to give.
  4. 4. Weaning conflict:  As we have discussed last lesson, parents invest significant amount amounts of time to their offspring to ensure their survival. We noted that mothers’ investments were more emotional and nurturing, whereas the fathers’ investment tended to be more financial and protecting.  Part of the mother’s ‘nurturing’ job is to ensure the baby is adequately fed. Mothers today tend to breast feed from birth to around a year old. The child is then ‘weaned’ around 6 months old, although this is different among different cultures.  So where does the weaning conflict come in?
  5. 5. Benefits of breast feeding  Mother- child bond is formed and strengthened.  If a mother is breast feeding one child it delays the birth of any more children.  Preventing the mother from having more children is a big benefit to the child as they will have all their parent’s investment and resources.  Badcock (2000)- found that the birth of a subsequent child within the first four to five years of a child’s life is the biggest threat to that child’s continued existence!
  6. 6. Freud on breast feeding!  Freud’s psychoanalysis theory places great importance on the oral stage of development.  It is very difficult for a mother to maintain and nourish two babies that are born close together.  Constant sucking of a mothers’ nipples by the baby inhibits the re-establishment of the mothers menstrual cycle therefore preventing another baby being born (another child to share their valuable resources with which could be detrimental to their survival in some countries and in our past).
  7. 7. Evolution on breast feeding!  Survival of the fittest!  If babies learn to suck their mother’s nipples constantly and thus prevent the mother from producing any subsequent children the baby is more likely to save as they won’t have to compete for their life source (their food).  Therefore the babies that are the best ‘suckers’ will survive and pass this survival trait onto the next generations.
  8. 8. Trivers (1974) argues two problems exist  Parents and children will be in conflict about when a child should be weaned, with the child wanting to get the resources for longer, while the parents will want to have more children to ensure the maximum survival of their genes.  Parents encourage children to value siblings more than they are naturally inclined to.
  9. 9. Competition between siblings  According to Buss (1999)  The child will want to delay weaning as long as possible, often in contrast to mother’s wishes  Parents encourage their children to value their siblings more than they naturally would  Parents punish conflict between siblings and reward co-operation, against the child’s natural instincts.
  10. 10. Evolutionary Psychology  A parent shares 50% of her genes with each child and is inclined to spread resources equally among all children in the family.  However a child shares 50% of genes with a sibling but 100% with him/herself so may not always be inclined to share.
  11. 11. Conflict exists before and after birth  During pregnancy – the potentially fatal condition pre- eclampsia.  At some point when a new child is born the parent has to transfer investment from the older child to more vulnerable young.  Sibling rivalry also exists in the animal kingdom. For example the black eagle- An extreme type of sibling rivalry occurs when young animals kill their siblings. For example, a black eagle mother lays two eggs, and the firsthatched chick pecks the younger one to death within the first few days.  In humans sibling rivalry is usually more intense when the children are closer in age and of the same gender
  12. 12. Discuss  What is your position in the family?  If you are the oldest what are your first memories of a      sibling being born? How do your parents view your personalities, how would they describe the differences between you? How often do you fight or argue? Do you believe birth order influences your personality? Do parents have favourites? How much do you know about middle child syndrome?
  13. 13. Psychoanalytic views  Freud saw sibling rivalry as an extension of the Oedipus complex with brothers competing for the mother’s attention or little girls competing for their father’s attention. In the case of little Hans his phobia was linked to the jealousy of the birth of his young sister  Alder – saw siblings as striving for significance and felt birth order was an important aspect of personality development.
  14. 14. Some famous siblings  Noel and Liam Gallagher  Kylie and Dannie Minogue  David and Ed Miliband What do the Psychologists say? Search David and Ed Miliband brothers in arms or brothers at war? - Telegraph
  15. 15. Mother-daughter conflict  Evolutionary theory predicts that women would want to become grandmothers, the problem with this concept is that grandchildren are only 25% of their genes unlike their own children who are 50%.  Therefore it is more beneficial for a woman to have her own children rather than grandchildren.  According to this concept mothers and daughters will be in a state of conflict with their young daughters for the right to reproduce. If the mother has to invest in the upbringing of the grandchild their resources are being withdrawn from the children that are 50% their genetic make-up.
  16. 16. Mother-daughter conflict continued…  Workman and Reader (2008) suggest that a ‘reproduction suppression mechanism’ may exist and is responsible for controlling the likelihood of a daughter becoming pregnant while their mother is still of a reproductive age.  It is thought that as daughters will share the same percentage of genetic make-up with subsequent siblings or children of their own. So they don’t feel the need to reproduce while they are still young and inexperienced and would struggle to provide enough investment into the child for them to survive.
  17. 17. Evaluation of the parent-offspring conflict  Lack of evidence among human groups  Small sample sizes of human participants therefore not particularly generalisable.  Task:  Read the studies used to evalute the P-O conflict on page 119-120 and make your own notes.
  18. 18. ESSAY PRACTISE:  Describe and evaluate evolutionary explanations of parental investment (for example, sex differences, parent-offspring conflict) 24 marks  50 minutes
  19. 19. Essay check:  Swap your essay and using the AO1/AO2 sheet tick all the points you have mentioned and put an AO1/2 on the essay.
  20. 20. AO1 Grading: Mark Knowledge and understanding Range of material Accuracy Organisation and structure 8-7 Accurate and welldetailed. Good range Depth and breadth Coherent 6-5 Generally accurate and Range reasonably detailed. Depth and/or breadth Reasonably coherent 4-3 Basic, relatively superficial Restricted Basic 2-1 Rudimentary and may be muddled and/or inaccurate. Very brief or largely irrelevant Lacking 0 No creditworthy material The AO1 mark I would give is ______________
  21. 21. AO2 Grading Mark Analysis and Focus understanding Elaboration Line of argument IDA Quality of written communi cation 16-13 Sound Well focused Coherent Clear Used effectively Fluent, effective use of terms 12-9 Reasonable Generally Reasonable Evident Reasonably Clear, appropriate well focused effective 8-5 Basic, superficial Sometim es focused 4-1 Rudimentary, limited understanding Weak, Not effective May be muddled mainly and irrelevant incomple te 0 No creditworthy material Some evidence Superficial reference Lacks clarity, limited use of terms Absent or muddled/ inaccurate Often unconnecte d assertions, errors
  22. 22. Homework  Type up your notes and add other studies to enhance your work.  Re-write your essay to improve the grade.  Due in Wednesday 20th November