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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Anarchism Without a State?
  2. 2. Introduction to Anarchism    Proudhon stated that “society seeks order in anarchy” (What is Property? 1840) It is seen as more than the simple breakdown of government but also the development of a more natural order within society Anarchy is also associated with the Trade Union movement in Spain and France (AnarchoSyndicalism)
  3. 3. Problems for Anarchy     1) There has never been a society modelled on Anarchist lines (the nearest was parts of Civil War Spain) 2) Economic development appears to require government to monitor and control 3) The Anarchists can’t use the traditional political methods to win power (parties, elections, public office) 4) It is not a cohesive political movement and is divided.
  4. 4. Central Themes     Anti-statism Natural Order Anti-Clericalism Free Economics
  5. 5. Anti-Statism     Faure (Encyclopedie Anarchiste) ‘the negation of the principle of Authority’ Authority is an offence against the basic principles of liberty and equality. Human Beings are free and autonomous and should treat each other with respect/sympathy which is reduced/destroyed by the State Paul Goodman – ‘many are ruthless and most live in free’
  6. 6. Proudhun    “To be governed is to be watched over, inspected, spied on, directed, legislated, regimented, closed in, indoctrinated, preached at, controlled, assessed, evaluated, censored, commanded; all by creatures that have neither the right, nor the wisdom, nor the virtue.” This is coupled in the fact that the authority of the state is potentially absolute. They reject the idea that the state is justified by a voluntary agreement
  7. 7. Corruption of the State   The nature of the power of the state means that normally considerate individuals become corrupted. Anarchists therefore point out that human nature is plastic and therefore is shaped by the circumstances of the state.
  8. 8. Criticism    How can a person be both good and evil, surely it is not simply about the state? Surely if the people choose the government then they retain control? If each individual is an political entity how can we deal with interaction?
  9. 9. Natural Order   William Godwin (Enquiry concerning Political Justice) pointed that the social contract theorists had ignored the fact that humans are rational and are educated to follow moral laws, therefore the idea that without the social contract the state would collapse into civil war automatically is incorrect The can be seen as following on from Rosseau’s famous quote ‘Man was born free, yet everywhere he is in chains’ Social Contract 1792
  10. 10. Basis of Natural Order    Social order will arise naturally and doesn’t require law and order provided by the state This then divides within Anarchism based upon the school of belief that the anarchist holds is the natural organisation of society itself It can be linked to Buddhist or Taoist thought which states that the natural order is a balance, the yin and yang.
  11. 11. Criticism    Humans aren’t naturally positive and ordered. If education can instil a belief in a moral order surely this means that it requires either a) a state to control the education b) what happens if the wrong morals are instilled. If anarchists can’t agree in the order that will emerge post-state then how will a group of free individuals interact.
  12. 12. Anti-Clericalism   As an ideology anarchism does appeal in those states where the religion is linked to the authority (Spain, France, Italy) The concept of a supreme being itself presents an individual who controls which is then coupled with an organisation which claims authority over individuals based upon that supreme being
  13. 13. Moral Authority    Religions attempt to impose upon individuals a moral code which is determined by others not oneself This robs the individual of autonomy in moral choice and fails to allow a development of a societal view of morals The last element is the fact that Anarchists do believe in a natural order and therefore a form of organic religion (Many modern Anarchists are Taoists or Buddhists)
  14. 14. Free Economy     Bakunin- ‘political power and wealth are inseparable’ It can be seen as a link from broad socialist philosophy in that anarchists see economic power is used as an organ of control This extends beyond simple economic terms but also includes wealth, power and privilege. Bakunin splits society into three groups- the exploited majority, a smaller group which are exploited and exploit and finally the smallest group which just exploit.
  15. 15. Managed Capitalism     All types of anarchists principally argue against the western managed form of capitalism A collectivist would argue that this system props up the class exploitation within the state An individualist would point to the distorting of the market by this management and therefore against the individual Both believe that state socialism is impossible.

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