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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Eyewitness Testimony (EWT) Improving the Accuracy of EWT Unit1 Cognitive Psychology Memory in Everyday Life
  2. 2. Starter- Past exam question 4mins
  3. 3. Mark Scheme Answer 1 mark for identifying ‘youth’ 1 mark for explaining that this may influence the answer
  4. 4. Objectives  All will be able to define the cognitive interview and describe the four components  Most will be able to describe research which supports the cognitive interview  Some will be able to criticise the cognitive interview
  5. 5. Recap: factors that can affect the accuracy of EWT  Misleading information  Anxiety  Age of witness So the question arises; How can we improve the accuracy of EWT?
  6. 6. The Cognitive Interview (CI) Cognitive Interview (KT): A procedure for police interviews of witnesses to facilitate accurate, detailed recall.  Fisher & Geiselman (1992)  To improve recall in police interviews (increase amount of recalled info)  To reduce a witnesses use of prior knowledge, expectations and schemas (increase quality/accuracy of recalled info)
  7. 7. Four Components of CI 1. Change of recall order 2. Recall from changed perspective 3. Context reinstatement 4. Report everything Enhanced Cognitive Interview (ECI)  Minimise distractions  Reduce anxiety  Encourage witness to speak slowly  Ask open ended questions
  8. 8. Activity- Designing CI Questions  Imagine you are police officers and witnesses from the stabbing (EWT video) using CI  In pairs, each choose 2 of the CI components.  You should write 2 specific questions each to cover your components. Also bare in mind the ECI guideline ‘open-ended questions’  In your pairs, take it in turns to role-play the interviewer and the witness.  Extension: For the other 3 ECI guidelines, make notes about what you would do or say to follow them
  9. 9. Supporting Research Activity • Using your textbook, page 28, add in the results in the information column • Using your own knowledge and understanding, fill out some evaluative points (A02) in the final column for each study. Tip: Be specific!
  10. 10. Evaluation-A02  CI is time consuming  CI is composed of different techniques and different police forces use different versions, making comparisons difficult  ECI- Seems to be effective but is prone to false positives (incorrect items are remembered) Limitations  Geiselman (1999)-Children under 8 recall facts LESS accurately using CI compared to other interview techniques  Geiselman and Fisher (1997)-CI works best within a short time of the event
  11. 11. Plenary-Reflection  Write down one thing you have learnt for A01  Write down one thing you have learnt for A02  Write down one thing you are unsure about and how you are going to address this