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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Bandura – Self efficacy (1977) Bandura was interested in treating people with a fear of snakes He believed Locus of Control was too simple as a theory of health belief Why would he say this?
  2. 2. Learning Objectives ALL (E) • Define self efficacy, outcome expectancy, efficacy expectation MOST (C) • Describe the APFC of Bandura’s study into self efficacy and phobias SOME (A) • Evaluate Bandura’s study using psychological terminology and the debates
  3. 3. – How effective a person thinks they will be at successfully adopting a health behaviour. – Cognitive approach based on thought processes of the individual Self-efficacy
  4. 4. • Bandura developed a theory of self- efficacy (1977):- – Went further than the locus of control which he thought was too simplified – Considered how treatments for disorders such as anxiety can be helped by increasing self-efficacy Bandura’s theory
  5. 5. • We learn from previous experience and use this to estimate a likely outcome in any situation. • Efficacy expectation – we believe we can successfully do whatever is required to achieve the outcome Bandura’s ideas Define these words: 1.Outcome Expectancy 2.Efficacy Expectation The three factors that affect our efficacy expectation: 1.Vicarious experiences 2.Verbal persuasion 3.Emotional arousal Pages 84-85
  6. 6. • Ablutophobia - Fear of washing or bathing. • Anemophobia - Fear of wind. • Arachnophobia - Fear of spiders. • Bibliophobia - Fear of books • Coulrophobia – fear of clowns • Disposophobia, better known as "compulsive hoarding" – the fear of getting rid of or losing things. • Friggatriskaidekaphobia - fear of Friday the 13th Do you have one of the following conditions?
  7. 7. • Halitophobia - fear of bad breath. • Pyrophobia – fear of fire. • Xenophobia – fear of strangers, foreigners • Tetraphobia – fear of the number 4 • Necrophobia – fear of death and/or the dead • Ailurophobia – fear/dislike of cats. • Ophidiophobia – fear/dislike of snakes • Entomophobia – fear/dislike of insects.
  8. 8. • To assess the self-efficacy of patients undergoing systematic desensitisation. Method • A controlled quasi-experiment with patients with snake phobias. Aim – Bandura and Adams WHY?
  9. 9. Systematic desensitisation • Phobia treatment • Anxiety hierarchy • Move up step by step – using relaxation techniques Client forms positive associations
  10. 10. Procedure • 10 snake phobics • 9 females 1 male • 19-57 yrs old • Replied to an advert in paper Boa constrictor
  11. 11. • Systematic desensitisation – a standard desensitisation programme was followed where patients were introduced to a series of events involving snakes and at each stage were taught relaxation. • Post-test assessment. Each patient was again measured on behaviours and belief of self-efficacy in coping. Procedure (cont.)
  12. 12. • Higher levels of post-test self-efficacy were found to correlate with higher levels of coping behaviour with snakes. Findings • Desensitisation enhanced self-efficacy levels, which in turn lead to a belief that the participant was able to cope with the phobic stimulus of a snake. Conclusion
  13. 13. Knowledge check • What does self efficacy mean? • What factors influence self efficacy? • What were the conclusion in Bandura and Adam’s study?
  14. 14. Evaluation Reductionist Holist Science Not Science Individual Situational Approach bias Not approach bias
  15. 15. Evaluation Study G R A V E
  16. 16. Tell me lies… • In pairs • Give three evaluation statements – two true and 1 lie • Can they figure out your lie?