Psychology AS
Memory
Mrs Crowe
13/09/2013
What would life be like with only short
term memory?
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmzU47i2xgw
The big picture
We will study:
• 2 explanations of how memory works
• Eyewitness testimony
• Strategies to improve memory
Learning Objectives
• Multi-store model (pg 79-88)
• Describe the capacity, duration and encoding
of the short-term and lo...
Introduction
• Memory is studied within the branch of
Psychology known as Cognitive Psychology.
• It is concerned with the...
Clive’s memory
Short-term memory
Capacity
• The amount of information
that can be stored
• How much ?
Duration
• The length of time the
i...
Capacity of short term memory
Can you work out the following sums in your
head?
a) 5 x 7
b) 53 x 7
c) 53 x 78
Reflects the...
What is the capacity of your short
term memory?
• How many digits can you repeat in the correct
order immediately after he...
Factors affecting the capacity of STM
• Influence of long term memory
• Information stored in the long term memory
can inf...
Capacity of STM
Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975)
Aim Can people remember ...
Capacity of STM
Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975)
Aim Can people remember ...
Capacity of STM
Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975)
Aim Can people remember ...
Capacity of STM
Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975)
Aim Can people remember ...
Capacity of STM
Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975)
Aim Can people remember ...
Duration of STM
• Has a brief duration
• Brown-Peterson technique
Duration of TM
Study of the duration of STM by Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Aim Test how long short term memory lasts when...
SQP
Count in 3s
back from 12
• Write down the trigram
TXU
Count in 3s
back from 18
• Write down the trigram
Factors effecting duration of STM
• Maintenance rehearsal
– The items disappear from the STM only when the
rehearsal oppor...
Encoding
• When information arrives at its sensory stage
it is still raw in its form.
Glove
“glove”
Visual
Accoustic
Encoding in short term memory
• Memory processes are unconscious and
therefore we can not simply ask people which
codes th...
Factors affecting the encoding of STM
• The sound of words
– STM relies heavily on acoustic coding
– Acoustic coding is th...
Long Term memory
• LTM holds vast quantities of
information
• Plans for the
future, knowledge, skills, etc.
• It is much l...
Capacity of LTM
• Not possible to quantify the exact capacity.
• May use a number of different memory
systems
• Think abou...
Duration of LTM
• Considerably longer than STM
• Can last almost a life time
Factors effecting duration of LTM
• Childhood amnesia
• How duration is measured
– Recognition is better than recall
• How...
Encoding in LTM
• The most important factor is the meaning of
the stimulus.
• Semantic encoding is a specific type of
enco...
Factors affecting encoding in LTM
• Acoustic encoding
– Ability to recognise sounds such as sirens shows
that we can store...
Activity
Capacity Duration Encoding
STM
LTM
The big picture
We will study:
• 2 explanations of how memory works
• Eyewitness testimony
• Strategies to improve memory
Homework due in the next lesson
Experimental method
Advantages Disadvantages
Pg. 14-15 example
Laboratory experiments
Advantages Disadvantages
Ethical
issues:
Pg. 15-16
Field experiments
Advantages Disadvantages
Ethical
issues:
Pg. 16-17
Natural experiments
Advantages Disadvantages
Ethical
issues:
Pg. 17-18 example
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  1. 1. Psychology AS Memory Mrs Crowe 13/09/2013
  2. 2. What would life be like with only short term memory? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmzU47i2xgw
  3. 3. The big picture We will study: • 2 explanations of how memory works • Eyewitness testimony • Strategies to improve memory
  4. 4. Learning Objectives • Multi-store model (pg 79-88) • Describe the capacity, duration and encoding of the short-term and long – term memory • How information is encoded in and transferred from one store to the next
  5. 5. Introduction • Memory is studied within the branch of Psychology known as Cognitive Psychology. • It is concerned with the way in which we acquire, store and retrieve information.
  6. 6. Clive’s memory
  7. 7. Short-term memory Capacity • The amount of information that can be stored • How much ? Duration • The length of time the information can be stored • How long? Encoding • The way in which the information is stored. • E.g. as images or sounds
  8. 8. Capacity of short term memory Can you work out the following sums in your head? a) 5 x 7 b) 53 x 7 c) 53 x 78 Reflects the challenge of stretching the limits of your STM
  9. 9. What is the capacity of your short term memory? • How many digits can you repeat in the correct order immediately after hearing them? • Read a list of random numbers and ask the participant to repeat them back to you. • Over a number of trials the sequence length at which the participant can repeat correctly 50% of the time is defined as their digit span. Class experiment Most people have a digit span of 7 plus or minus 2
  10. 10. Factors affecting the capacity of STM • Influence of long term memory • Information stored in the long term memory can influence the short term memory • Reading aloud • Rhythmic grouping • Pronunciation time
  11. 11. Capacity of STM Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975) Aim Can people remember more short words or long words Pronunciation time rather than the number of items recalled determines the capacity of STM. Procedure Participants were presented with a list of 5 words on a screen and asked to write them down in the correct order in which they appeared. There were several lists of short and long words Findings Participants could recall more short words than long words They could recall as many words as they could articulate in 2 seconds There was a strong positive correlation between reading speed and memory Conclusions Immediate memory span represents the number of items of whatever length that can be articulated in 2 seconds. Evaluation Is it because short words are easier to recall?
  12. 12. Capacity of STM Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975) Aim Can people remember more short words or long words Pronunciation time rather than the number of items recalled determines the capacity of STM. Procedure Participants were presented with a list of 5 words on a screen and asked to write them down in the correct order in which they appeared. There were several lists of short and long words Findings Participants could recall more short words than long words They could recall as many words as they could articulate in 2 seconds There was a strong positive correlation between reading speed and memory Conclusions Immediate memory span represents the number of items of whatever length that can be articulated in 2 seconds. Evaluation Is it because short words are easier to recall?
  13. 13. Capacity of STM Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975) Aim Can people remember more short words or long words Pronunciation time rather than the number of items recalled determines the capacity of STM. Procedure Participants were presented with a list of 5 words on a screen and asked to write them down in the correct order in which they appeared. There were several lists of short and long words Findings Participants could recall more short words than long words They could recall as many words as they could articulate in 2 seconds There was a strong positive correlation between reading speed and memory Conclusions Immediate memory span represents the number of items of whatever length that can be articulated in 2 seconds. Evaluation Is it because short words are easier to recall?
  14. 14. Capacity of STM Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975) Aim Can people remember more short words or long words Pronunciation time rather than the number of items recalled determines the capacity of STM. Procedure Participants were presented with a list of 5 words on a screen and asked to write them down in the correct order in which they appeared. There were several lists of short and long words Findings Participants could recall more short words than long words They could recall as many words as they could articulate in 2 seconds There was a strong positive correlation between reading speed and memory Conclusions Immediate memory span represents the number of items of whatever length that can be articulated in 2 seconds. Evaluation Is it because short words are easier to recall?
  15. 15. Capacity of STM Study of the word length effect of immediate memory span by Baddeley et al (1975) Aim Can people remember more short words or long words Pronunciation time rather than the number of items recalled determines the capacity of STM. Procedure Participants were presented with a list of 5 words on a screen and asked to write them down in the correct order in which they appeared. There were several lists of short and long words Findings Participants could recall more short words than long words They could recall as many words as they could articulate in 2 seconds There was a strong positive correlation between reading speed and memory Conclusions Immediate memory span represents the number of items of whatever length that can be articulated in 2 seconds. Evaluation Is it because short words are easier to recall?
  16. 16. Duration of STM • Has a brief duration • Brown-Peterson technique
  17. 17. Duration of TM Study of the duration of STM by Peterson and Peterson (1959) Aim Test how long short term memory lasts when rehearsal is prevented. Procedure Participants were shown a trigram (CPV or NDU) They were then asked to count backward in threes from a specified number After the interval participants were asked to recall the trigram Findings Progressively fewer trigrams were recalled as time intervals lengthened. After 18 seconds fewer than 10% of trigrams were correctly recalled. Conclusions Evaluation Trigrams are rather articificial and do not reflect modern memory Interference (confusion with other trigrams ) and not decay caused the poor recall. Class experiment
  18. 18. SQP
  19. 19. Count in 3s back from 12
  20. 20. • Write down the trigram
  21. 21. TXU
  22. 22. Count in 3s back from 18
  23. 23. • Write down the trigram
  24. 24. Factors effecting duration of STM • Maintenance rehearsal – The items disappear from the STM only when the rehearsal opportunity is removed. – Without rehearsal the STM is very brief • Deliberate intention recall – Information can vanish from STM if there is no conscious effort to maintain it. • Amount of information to be retained – If the three letters can be chunked. E.g. HIV memory is much improved.
  25. 25. Encoding • When information arrives at its sensory stage it is still raw in its form. Glove “glove” Visual Accoustic
  26. 26. Encoding in short term memory • Memory processes are unconscious and therefore we can not simply ask people which codes they are using. • Self Study Conrad 1964 p 84-85
  27. 27. Factors affecting the encoding of STM • The sound of words – STM relies heavily on acoustic coding – Acoustic coding is the preferred method of encoding in STM – Visual coding can also be used in short term memory.
  28. 28. Long Term memory • LTM holds vast quantities of information • Plans for the future, knowledge, skills, etc. • It is much larger and more complex than STM
  29. 29. Capacity of LTM • Not possible to quantify the exact capacity. • May use a number of different memory systems • Think about Clive – There must be some separation in LTM – What are the things he can remember?
  30. 30. Duration of LTM • Considerably longer than STM • Can last almost a life time
  31. 31. Factors effecting duration of LTM • Childhood amnesia • How duration is measured – Recognition is better than recall • How thorough the learning was
  32. 32. Encoding in LTM • The most important factor is the meaning of the stimulus. • Semantic encoding is a specific type of encoding in which the meaning of something (a word, phrase, picture, event, whatever) is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it.
  33. 33. Factors affecting encoding in LTM • Acoustic encoding – Ability to recognise sounds such as sirens shows that we can store material in an acoustic form • Visual encoding – We can easily bring to mind photos or pictures of places we have been to.
  34. 34. Activity Capacity Duration Encoding STM LTM
  35. 35. The big picture We will study: • 2 explanations of how memory works • Eyewitness testimony • Strategies to improve memory
  36. 36. Homework due in the next lesson
  37. 37. Experimental method Advantages Disadvantages Pg. 14-15 example
  38. 38. Laboratory experiments Advantages Disadvantages Ethical issues: Pg. 15-16
  39. 39. Field experiments Advantages Disadvantages Ethical issues: Pg. 16-17
  40. 40. Natural experiments Advantages Disadvantages Ethical issues: Pg. 17-18 example

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