Match hypothesis The name given to the large group of
people we could potentially have a
relationship with.
Law of attract...
Match hypothesis The tendency to form a relationship with
someone who is of a similar level of
attractiveness to oneself.
...
HW task feedback:
The matching hypothesis photo experiment.
What did you find?
We have looked at how the matching hypothes...
Mini task:
• In pairs, make a list of the benefits and costs
of a romantic relationship.
• We will discuss these in 5 minu...
What did you come up with?
Benefits
Costs
Economic theories of relationships
Wednesday 18th September 2013
L.O. To understand the importance of rewards and needs in...
Social Exchange Theory
Thibaut and Kelley,1959.
All behaviour is a series of exchanges. Individuals want to
maximise rewar...
Social Exchange Theory(an economic
theory)
• Rewards from relationships are sex,
companionship, being cared for etc.
• Peo...
Social Exchange Theory
• Comparison level- CL:
The standard against which all our relationships
are judged.
 We get a co...
Social Exchange Theory
• Comparison level for alternatives-CL Alt
• The CL Alt is when we compare our current
relationship...
Social Exchange Theory
Task
1- Take a celebrity couple and write down a list of profit
and lost.
2-Work out a comparison l...
Celebrity couple examples
Met in the Jungle.
Peter was a washed
up star! Katie was
known as a glamour
model.
Katie had
bad...
Celebrity couple examples
Met at
university.
Wills wasn’t
sure so
dumped poor
Kate! Before
realising she
was the, ‘one’!
W...
Evaluation: SET
Provide 3 evaluation points of SET.
Remember to use key terms discussed in
evaluation skills lesson.
You h...
Evaluation SET
Strengths
Based on Social/economic approach: so people have free will
and choice(takes into account individ...
Evaluation of SET
• Weaknesses
• Methodologies used: ,Most studies investigating
it are very artificial and lack ecologica...
Evaluation SET
• Limited applications: Hatfield (1979) found equity was
more important for females . Murstein (1977) found...
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOFg8KyR
wSg&feature=player_detailpage SET video
Social Exchange Theory-recap
(Thibaut & Kelley 1959)
• This makes the basic assumption that all social behaviours are a se...
Potential evaluation & commentary
• Cultural bias (eurocentric)
• Gender bias
• Portrays people as selfish & calculating a...
21
This lesson we have looked at the Social Exchange theory and
Comparison Levels.
Now it is your turn. Get into two group...
22
On going HW:
Type up today’s notes and add any extra research.
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    1. 1. Match hypothesis The name given to the large group of people we could potentially have a relationship with. Law of attraction The idea that how much we like someone is directly related to how similar our attitudes are. Close relationship The tendency to form a relationship with someone who is of a similar level of attractiveness to oneself. Field of availables Those we would see as potential partners. Field of desirables A connection between two people which involves interdependence in many areas of their lives. STARTER ACTIVITY: Match the key Psychology term to the correct definition.
    2. 2. Match hypothesis The tendency to form a relationship with someone who is of a similar level of attractiveness to oneself. Law of attraction The idea that how much we like someone is directly related to how similar our attitudes are. Close relationship A connection between two people which involves interdependence in many areas of their lives. Answers: For a few brownie points… which of these terms are linked to the filter model AND what is the filter model? Field of availables The name given to the large group of people we could potentially have a relationship with. Field of desirables Those we would see as potential partners.
    3. 3. HW task feedback: The matching hypothesis photo experiment. What did you find? We have looked at how the matching hypothesis helps to explain how two people choose each other initially, now we need to find out why/how a couple maintain their relationship. We will investigate the ‘economic theories’ e.g. Social exchange theory, interdependence theory, the equity theory and the investment model.
    4. 4. Mini task: • In pairs, make a list of the benefits and costs of a romantic relationship. • We will discuss these in 5 minutes
    5. 5. What did you come up with? Benefits Costs
    6. 6. Economic theories of relationships Wednesday 18th September 2013 L.O. To understand the importance of rewards and needs in the formation of relationships. • These theories use concepts from economics and from operant conditioning. • They focus on how partners monitor and regulate their relationships • ie. how & why they decide to form a relationship, and stay in it, & why & when they may terminate it 6
    7. 7. Social Exchange Theory Thibaut and Kelley,1959. All behaviour is a series of exchanges. Individuals want to maximise rewards and minimise costs. If a relationship is to be successful then both parties are expected to give and take in equal proportions.
    8. 8. Social Exchange Theory(an economic theory) • Rewards from relationships are sex, companionship, being cared for etc. • People will only form a relationship if the rewards outweigh the costs(in terms of time, effort, finances etc) • Thus, commitment to a relationship is dependent on its profitability.
    9. 9. Social Exchange Theory • Comparison level- CL: The standard against which all our relationships are judged.  We get a comparison level through using our own experiences in other relationships together with general views of what we might expect to gain from the relationship. If the benefit of a relationship exceeds the CL we worked out then we would see forming the relationship as beneficial.
    10. 10. Social Exchange Theory • Comparison level for alternatives-CL Alt • The CL Alt is when we compare our current relationship with the benefits we would receive from an alternative relationship. • If the benefits of the alternative relationship are better we will end our current relationship and start a new one. • If the benefits of the alternative relationship are not any better we will stay in the current relationship.
    11. 11. Social Exchange Theory Task 1- Take a celebrity couple and write down a list of profit and lost. 2-Work out a comparison level based on the celebrities past relationships and what they have to gain from the relationship. 3-Should they have formed a relationship? Are they still together? Does the SET fit? You have ten minutes.
    12. 12. Celebrity couple examples Met in the Jungle. Peter was a washed up star! Katie was known as a glamour model. Katie had bad luck with men, Dwight Yorke, Dane Bowers etc They had two children and Peter was a father to her disabled son, Harvey.
    13. 13. Celebrity couple examples Met at university. Wills wasn’t sure so dumped poor Kate! Before realising she was the, ‘one’! What benefits might Kate get from marrying a handsome, rich, caring Prince? What benefits would William get?
    14. 14. Evaluation: SET Provide 3 evaluation points of SET. Remember to use key terms discussed in evaluation skills lesson. You have 10 mins- I will take it in to mark!
    15. 15. Evaluation SET Strengths Based on Social/economic approach: so people have free will and choice(takes into account individual differences) unlike in other theories of relationship formation , such as Sociobiological. The Clalt helps to explain why somebody would terminate a relationship they were satisfied with (in that the alternative partner can offer even more!) It could help explain why people may stay in an abusive relationship (Rasbults, investment model).As if they have put a lot into the relationship and there is no Clalt then they may stay in that relationship.
    16. 16. Evaluation of SET • Weaknesses • Methodologies used: ,Most studies investigating it are very artificial and lack ecological validity. • It has inconsistent empirical research: Clark and Mills (1979) identified two different styles of couples ( communal and exchange couples). In the communal couple they have positive regard for each other and believe over time each will receive equal costs/benefits. The exchange couple are more about here and now.
    17. 17. Evaluation SET • Limited applications: Hatfield (1979) found equity was more important for females . Murstein (1977) found that only people in problem marriages will look for alternatives. • The SET suggests people sit around weighing up their relationships on a regular basis! Argyle (1987) argued that people only do this when they have already become dissatisfied by the relationship. Duck (1994) also agrees with Argyle and feels people do not look at alternatives unless they are unsatisfied with their current relationship. • It assumes that everybody wants equality. Some couples may be perfectly happy to give more than they receive. • Cultural bias: SET may only apply to western countries.
    18. 18. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOFg8KyR wSg&feature=player_detailpage SET video
    19. 19. Social Exchange Theory-recap (Thibaut & Kelley 1959) • This makes the basic assumption that all social behaviours are a series of exchanges in which something is given and something gained • It argues that partners wish to maximise rewards from a relationship (eg. love, sex, companionship, support) & minimise costs (time, effort, money spent, opportunities lost, risk involved) • The goal is to achieve a situation of profit: where rewards exceed the costs • The extent of profit can be calculated from subtracting the costs from the rewards • Where a situation of profit occurs, the person will commit to that relationship • To judge how one partner compares to another potential one on the profitability front, partners use a comparison level – a standard against which all relationships are compared • The comparison level is based on memories of past experiences combined with expectations of what we want and can expect in the future • When we meet a new partner, he/she is compared with the comparison level, and if the profit of this new relationship is thought to exceed the comparison level, a relationship will be formed • Then if the person meets someone else, the comparison level for alternatives is referred to • This is where the potential rewards from the new partner are greater than the costs of ending the existing relationship • If the rewards are greater, the existing relationship may be terminated and a new one formed 19
    20. 20. Potential evaluation & commentary • Cultural bias (eurocentric) • Gender bias • Portrays people as selfish & calculating and ignores altruism and meeting needs. • Reductionistic to argue that exchange only motivating factor. • Can explain why people stay in abusive relationships. • But doesn’t explain why people leave with no alternative. • Clarification needed of the comparison level. • May be applicable to other types of relationships eg. Friendships. 20
    21. 21. 21 This lesson we have looked at the Social Exchange theory and Comparison Levels. Now it is your turn. Get into two groups, choose one of the theories below. Then research it and teach it to the rest of the class. You will need to: - describe/explain the theory, - quote studies to support or challenge the theory - and provide an evaluation. The investment model of relationships (Rusbult 1983) The Equity theory (Walster et al 1978)
    22. 22. 22 On going HW: Type up today’s notes and add any extra research.

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