Bell activity:
Discuss on you tables:
What can you remember about Social
learning theory?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K...
Social influences (contexts) on
the gender role
To describe social influences on gender role E.G: the influence of
parents...
The Gender specification
Starter
Can you think of any specific TV
programmes you watched as a child
that may have influenced you to act
more femini...
Social cognitive theory
Bandura renamed Social learning theory to social cognitive theory to emphasise the role of
cogniti...
Social cognitive theory
1) Indirect reinforcement
Children observe the behaviour of others and
learn consequences of the b...
Social cognitive theory
2) Direct reinforcement
Although boys and girls may learn the
characteristic behaviours of both
se...
Social cognitive theory
3) Direct tuition
Children learn through vicarious
reinforcement (indirect) but also
through expli...
Discuss the following questions on your table
Question 1: To what extent do you feel
your parents promoted gender specific...
Activity
There are 3 sources of social influence:
1) Parents
2) Peers
3) Media
Activity: Read through each of these
influe...
Sources of social influence
Smith and Lloyd (1978) observed Mothers
playing with their infant who was either
presented wit...
Sources of social influence
Peers also provide feedback when a friend steps outside what is accepted as
„appropriate‟ beha...
Sources of social influence
How are males usually
portrayed in the media?
Independent
Strong
Pursuing engaging occupations...
Social influences on gender
role
Activity: Create a mini quiz to assess your partners
knowledge of material we have covere...
Notel, Unitel and Multitel
Williams (1985) was offered the unique opportunity to study a Canadian community surrounded
by ...
Research to support social cognitive
theory: modelling
Bandura‟s initial source of evidence for both
learning and modellin...
Research into social cognitive theory
Research has found that tuition may be more
effective than modelling:
Martin et al (...
Activity: Test your knowledge of research
into social influences on the gender role
1) What were the 3 towns called that
W...
How can we evaluate social influences on gender
role?
Discuss in pairs
Need some ideas?
Cultural differences
Other approac...
Evaluation:
Gender differences:
There appears to be gender differences in the
way Mothers and Fathers regard
reinforcement...
Activity: Evaluation swap challenge
Organise yourselves into groups of 4. You will
be allocated to a number between 1 and ...
Evaluation:
Evaluation of peer influences
Some argue that peers are unlikely to
be important in early childhood when
impor...
Evaluation:
It has been suggested that media
effects may be insignificant
Various pieces of research have
found evidence t...
IDA links
The biological approach
Bandura did not deny the
role of biological factors in
social learning theory.
In terms ...
How can we evaluate social influences on
gender role?
Activity: Create
something out of play
dough to explain 1
evaluation...
The main IDA links you could refer to
when evaluating social influences on gender
role:
Real would application:
Approaches...
Plenary/ homework
Complete the essay
planning sheet for the
following essay: Outline
and evaluate social
influences on gen...
Have you achieved the lesson
outcomes?
To describe social influences on gender role E.G: the influence of
parents, peers, ...
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    1. 1. Bell activity: Discuss on you tables: What can you remember about Social learning theory? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHi2dxSf9hw Children see children do video clip
    2. 2. Social influences (contexts) on the gender role To describe social influences on gender role E.G: the influence of parents, peers, school and media To explain research into social influences on gender role To evaluate research into social influences on gender role
    3. 3. The Gender specification
    4. 4. Starter Can you think of any specific TV programmes you watched as a child that may have influenced you to act more feminine or masculine? Maybe a particular character was influential? One of my favourite films was the little Mermaid… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AvP5-XOvWvE
    5. 5. Social cognitive theory Bandura renamed Social learning theory to social cognitive theory to emphasise the role of cognitive factors in learning. In this situation, the source of information is social (E.G: parents, peers and TV) and what is learnt is a cognition- something stored in the mind. Bandura (1991) suggested that gender role development is the result of learning from social agents who model and reinforce gender role behaviours He suggests we learn in 3 different ways: 1) Indirect reinforcement 2) Direct reinforcement 3) Direct tuition
    6. 6. Social cognitive theory 1) Indirect reinforcement Children observe the behaviour of others and learn consequences of the behaviour (vicarious reinforcement). This information is stored as an expectancy of future outcome. Learning such behaviours result in imitation and modelling. Question: Can you think of an example linked to learning gender appropriate behaviours?
    7. 7. Social cognitive theory 2) Direct reinforcement Although boys and girls may learn the characteristic behaviours of both sexes, they do not perform everything they learn. For example, boys may learn a great deal about home making through repeated observation of their mothers but rarely adopt such activities in everyday life (Bussey and Bandura, 1999) Question: Can you think of any further examples?
    8. 8. Social cognitive theory 3) Direct tuition Children learn through vicarious reinforcement (indirect) but also through explicit (direct) instructions about appropriate gender behaviour. Direct tuition begins as children acquire linguistic skills and serves as a convenient way of informing children about appropriate and inappropriate styles of conduct. Question: Can you remember specific gender appropriate behaviours you were taught from a young age by your parents?
    9. 9. Discuss the following questions on your table Question 1: To what extent do you feel your parents promoted gender specific behaviours? Can you provide examples? Question 2: To what extent do you think peers promote gender specific behaviours? Can you provide any examples? Question 3: To what extent do you think the media promotes gender specific behaviours? Question 4: What type of media would children be exposed to? Question 5: How does this media usually portray males and females?
    10. 10. Activity There are 3 sources of social influence: 1) Parents 2) Peers 3) Media Activity: Read through each of these influences and create an information poster to explain each one in detail. The information is on your hand out and you can also use your text book for additional information. You have 15 minutes To describe social influences on gender role E.G: the influence of parents, peers, school and media
    11. 11. Sources of social influence Smith and Lloyd (1978) observed Mothers playing with their infant who was either presented with a boy (in terms of name and clothing) or as a girl. The Mothers selected gender appropriate toys and also responded more actively when a boy showed increased motor activity. The influence of parents There is considerable evidence for differential reinforcement from parents. They are seen to reinforce gender-appropriate behaviours.
    12. 12. Sources of social influence Peers also provide feedback when a friend steps outside what is accepted as „appropriate‟ behaviour for that gender, reinforcing each other for gender appropriate activities as well as punishing behaviours which are seen to be inappropriate for their gender (Lamb et al, 1980) This may involve direct tuition E.G: “Don‟t be a sissy”. The influence of the Peers As a child‟s social world expands outside the home, peer groups become another source of gender development. Peers are important because they offer a model of gender-appropriate behaviours. Perry and Bussey (1979) showed film clips to children aged 8-9. In the film boys and girls were seen as either selecting an apple or a pear (both gender neutral items). Later the children were given the choice of fruit. Boys selected the fruit they had seen another boy selecting and the same happened with the girls.
    13. 13. Sources of social influence How are males usually portrayed in the media? Independent Strong Pursuing engaging occupations Engaging in sporty activities The influence of Media Men are more likely to be seen as exercising control over events, where as women are likely to be shown to be more at the mercy of others (Hodges et al, 1981) Those who have a higher exposure to these differential gender representations tend to display more stereotypic gender role conceptions than do light viewers (McGhee and Frueh, 1980). How are females usually portrayed in the media? Dependent Emotional Unambitious The media also gives information about the likely outcomes of behaviours of males and females. Seeing people similar to oneself succeed raises a persons belief in their own capabilities (self efficacy), where as the failure of similar others produces self-doubt about one‟s own ability to master similar activities.
    14. 14. Social influences on gender role Activity: Create a mini quiz to assess your partners knowledge of material we have covered so far on social influences on gender roles. To describe social influences on gender role E.G: the influence of parents, peers, school and media
    15. 15. Notel, Unitel and Multitel Williams (1985) was offered the unique opportunity to study a Canadian community surrounded by mountains that had not previously received a TV signal. The community was named Notel for the purpose of the study. It was compared to 2 other towns Unitel which only had access to 1 Canadian channel and Multitel which had access to a number of American channels. Method: Williams assessed the behaviour and attitudes of children in these towns in various ways, including, questionnaires about their gender stereotypes (E.G: asking what characteristics were more typical of boys and girls). Findings: Children in Notel and Unitel had weaker sex- typed views than the children in Multitel. This was especially true for girls. The children were re-assessed 2 years after the introduction of TV in Notel and it found that their views had become significantly more sex-typed. Question: How can we evaluate this piece of research? Don‟t forget, usually it would be really difficult to research into media influences as many children now have access to some form of TV.
    16. 16. Research to support social cognitive theory: modelling Bandura‟s initial source of evidence for both learning and modelling was from his Bobo doll studies Question: What can you remember about Bandura‟s research? Discuss in pairs. These effects have also been demonstrated for gender. For example, the study by Perry and Bussey demonstrated the effect of modelling on gender development. However, the children only modelled the same sex behaviour as long as the behaviour was not counter to gender stereotypes. E.G: a man wearing a dress) The effects of modelling are limited by existing stereotypes.
    17. 17. Research into social cognitive theory Research has found that tuition may be more effective than modelling: Martin et al (1995) found that pre-school boys played with toys labelled „boys toys‟ (a kind of „direct tuition‟ because they were told they were boys toys) they did this even when they saw girls playing with them. However, they didn‟t play with toys labelled „girls toys‟ even when they saw boys playing with them. This suggests that direct instruction is more important than modelling in pre-school children. However, „instructors‟ (such as parents and teachers) do not always practice what they preach. The impact of tuition is weakened when what is being taught is contradicted by what is being modelled. How can we evaluate this piece of research?
    18. 18. Activity: Test your knowledge of research into social influences on the gender role 1) What were the 3 towns called that Williams researched into? 2) Why was 1 town in particular a unique opportunity? 3) Name research method that William‟s used? 4) What did William‟s find? 5) How can William‟s research be evaluated? 6) What did Perry and Bussey find? 7) What did Martin‟s research into tuition find? 8) How can Martin‟s research be evaluated? To explain research into social influences on gender role
    19. 19. How can we evaluate social influences on gender role? Discuss in pairs Need some ideas? Cultural differences Other approaches Real world application
    20. 20. Evaluation: Gender differences: There appears to be gender differences in the way Mothers and Fathers regard reinforcement. Langlois and Down’s (1980) found that Fathers were more openly disapproving of their sons inappropriate gender behaviour (E.G playing with a doll). Mothers usually reinforced gender-appropriate play in sons and daughters and didn‟t punish gender inappropriate play. They also found a similar pattern of reinforcement in peer reinforcement. Boys tended the act negatively towards gender inappropriate behaviours where as girls were more tolerant. Q: Why do you think this is the case? It has been suggested that such behaviours may be due to the fact that female behaviour has a lower value. Q: Is a female engaging in a male behaviour more desirable?
    21. 21. Activity: Evaluation swap challenge Organise yourselves into groups of 4. You will be allocated to a number between 1 and 4. You will then be given 1 ½ minutes to visit the station that corresponds to the number you have been allocated. You will need to try to memorise your evaluation point. No writing it down at this point! Then you will return to your group and explain your evaluation point back to the group. Ensure that one of you is the scribe, jotting down each evaluation point onto a white board briefly as they are being fed back to the group. To evaluate research into social influences on gender role
    22. 22. Evaluation: Evaluation of peer influences Some argue that peers are unlikely to be important in early childhood when important aspects of gender development are taking place. Later on in childhood it is likely that peer behaviour does not create gender role stereotypes, but existing ones are reinforced. Lamb and Roopnarine (1979) observed pre-school children at play and found that when male-type behaviour was reinforced in girls, the behaviour continued for a shorter time than when male behaviours were reinforced in boys. Does peer reinforcement just act as a reminder?
    23. 23. Evaluation: It has been suggested that media effects may be insignificant Various pieces of research have found evidence to suggest that media does not have an effect. For example, Signorelli and Bacue (1999) examined over 30 years of Tv programming and found very little change in gender stereotypes.
    24. 24. IDA links The biological approach Bandura did not deny the role of biological factors in social learning theory. In terms of gender he recognised that there was a starting point for social learning as children know what sex they are. Therefore you could argue Bandura takes a holistic approach as he considers biology as a contributing factor. Real world application Research has shown that exposure to non- stereotypical information in the media can change expectations. For example, Pingree (1978) found that stereotyping was reduced when children were shown commercials with women in non- traditional roles. This has lead to pressure on programme producers to use this knowledge to alter such attitudes. However not all research supports this! Could we also advise parents?
    25. 25. How can we evaluate social influences on gender role? Activity: Create something out of play dough to explain 1 evaluation point you have learnt relating to social influences on gender role. To evaluate research into social influences on gender role
    26. 26. The main IDA links you could refer to when evaluating social influences on gender role: Real would application: Approaches Cultural bias Reductionism V‟s Hollism Activity: Write a sentence to explain how you can apply each IDA link as evaluation of social influences on gender role To evaluate research into social influences on gender role
    27. 27. Plenary/ homework Complete the essay planning sheet for the following essay: Outline and evaluate social influences on gender role (24 marks).
    28. 28. Have you achieved the lesson outcomes? To describe social influences on gender role E.G: the influence of parents, peers, school and media To explain research into social influences on gender role To evaluate research into social influences on gender role

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