Resourcd File

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  • Resourcd File

    1. 1. Arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior.
    2. 2. Motivation Concerns What prompts people to initiate action What influences their choice of action Why they persist in doing it over time.
    3. 3. Needs
    4. 4. Needs Behavior
    5. 5. Needs Behaviour Rewards Feedback
    6. 6. Types of Rewards Intrinsic rewards are received as a direct consequence of a person's actions Extrinsic rewards are given by another person, often a manager.
    7. 7. Contemporary Approaches Content theories stress the analysis of human needs Cognitive theories concern the thought processes that influence behaviour Reinforcement theories focus on employee learning desired work behaviours.
    8. 8. Emphasize the needs that motivate people.
    9. 9. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological
    10. 10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Safety Physiological
    11. 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Social Safety Physiological
    12. 12. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological
    13. 13. Certain types of needs are acquired or learned during an individual's lifetime.
    14. 14. David McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Need for Achievement (N Ach)
    15. 15. David McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Need for Achievement (N Ach) Need for Power (N Pow)
    16. 16. David McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Need for Achievement (N Ach) Need for Power (N Pow) Need for Affiliation (N Aff)
    17. 17. David McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory Need for Achievement (N Ach) Need for Power (N Pow) Need for Affiliation (N Aff) Need to avoid failure (N Av)
    18. 18. Process Theories Explain how learnersselect behaviours with which to meet their needs and determine if their choices were successful, i.e. using a cognitive process – thinking!
    19. 19. .
    20. 20. Adams’ Equity Theory Equity = My outputs as compared to inputs equal your outputs compared to inputs Guilt (Inequity) = My outputs compared to inputs are greater than your outputs compared to inputs Anger (Inequity) = My outputs compared to inputs are less than your outputs compared to inputs Motivated to restore equity.
    21. 21. Inputs Include: Previous knowledge Previous Experience Effort Ability Time 
    22. 22. Outcomes Include: Scores/Marks Recognition Satisfaction Qualifications Networks 
    23. 23. Motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards.
    24. 24. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory M = (E P) x (P O) x V
    25. 25. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory M = (E P) x (P O) x V M = Motivation
    26. 26. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory M = (E P) x (P O) x V M = Motivation E P means effort leads to performance (Expectancy)
    27. 27. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory M = (E P) x (P O) x V M = Motivation E P means effort leads to performance (Expectancy) P O means performance leads to outcomes (Instrumentality)
    28. 28. Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory M = (E P) x (P O) x V M = Motivation E P means effort leads to performance (Expectancy - E) P O means performance leads to outcomes (Instrumentality - I) V = means the value placed on the outcome (Valence – V)
    29. 29. Application of Expectancy Theory: Motivation to study for test = (E) Probability that studying hard will lead to doing well on test x (I) Probability that doing well on the test will lead to getting an A x (V) Value of getting an A.
    30. 30. Reinforcement/Conditioning Relationship between behavior and its consequences Reinforcement = anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited Modify the students behaviuor through the appropriate use of immediate rewards and punishments.
    31. 31. Reinforcement Tools Behavior modification = reinforcement techniques to modify behavior Positive reinforcement = pleasant consequence following a desired behavior Avoidance learning = removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behavior. Punishment = unpleasant outcomes Extinction = withdrawal of positive reward.
    32. 32. Continuous Reinforcement Schedule reinforces every occurrence of the desired behaviour. Example/Illustration?
    33. 33. Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards students at specified time intervals. Example/Illustration?
    34. 34. Fixed-Ratio Schedule Reinforcement occurs after a specified number of desired responses, such as after every fifth event. Example/Illustration?
    35. 35. Variable-Interval Schedule Reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the student. Example/Illustration?
    36. 36. Variable-Ratio Schedule Random number of desired behaviours rather than on variable time periods. Example/Illustration?

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