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  • 1
  • 2.1 Discuss sociological theories of illness e.g. Sick role
  • 2.1 Discuss sociological theories of illness e.g. Sick role
  • 2.1 Discuss sociological theories of illness e.g. Sick role
  • 2.1 Discuss sociological theories of illness e.g. Sick role
  • 2.1 Discuss sociological theories of illness e.g. Sick role
  • 1.1. Outline and evaluate different concepts and models of health
  • Resourcd File

    1. 1. Sociology of Health
    2. 2. Lesson 1• Must: Define social stratification, social class and social mobility • Define norms and values within a society and give examples • Describe the main features of a functionalist approach to health • Evaluate the Functionalist approach as an explanation of health using at least one strength and one weakness • Should: Relate these sociological issues to health giving own examples. Could: Consider how values of a society could affect social mobility. Explain how social stratification could be seen as an element of a functionalist explanation of society.
    3. 3. And what is a ‘Culture of care’? • Recent government work has highlighted the need for this in our health services. • Find out about this. • Where was this said to be lacking? • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine- 22773043 • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-21275826
    4. 4. Homework>the example on p.307 • Try the exercises here. How do these factors affect the likely lifestyles of the 2 people described. • If you can, use the terms you have just defined to help your explanations • (e.g. Nadia’s primary socialisation would have…..) use as many of your defined terms as you can.
    5. 5. More lingo bingo. • Inside a society there are recognisable parts of the population. • These might have their own customs and expected behaviour (their own subculture)
    6. 6. Norms and Values… • What do these mean? • Use texts, internet etc to find out and fill the worksheets (or make a chart or diagram of your own) • Add at least one health related example to each of your Norms and Values
    7. 7. Uses texts, or websites to define.. • Social stratification, using the Indian caste system as an example. • Now add what effects such divisions could have on health
    8. 8. Lesson 2 • Must: Define social stratification, social class and social mobility • Describe the main features of a functionalist approach to health including the Sick Role • Evaluate the Functionalist approach as an explanation of health using at least one strength and one weakness • Should: Relate these sociological issues to health giving own examples. Could: Consider how values of a society could affect social mobility. Explain how social stratification could be seen as an element of a functionalist explanation of society.
    9. 9. Give me definitions and one example of… • 1. Social norms. • 2. Social values • 3. Social strata • 5 minutes! • And homework in on the task on p. 307 • Get computers started.
    10. 10. Social class.. • Note the class divisions used now in Britain • Are these sensible divisions? • Too many classes? • Not enough classes? • How could class affect health? • How could this behaviour be linked to class? • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-22007058
    11. 11. Strata are OK… • They could make the structure stronger than just one layer, • But… they tend to be fixed… • In social terms, moving between strata is called Social Mobility.
    12. 12. • Think about how social mobility (up or down) could affect heath issues- are there health issues correlated with particular classes? • Make a note of this http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-23101446 also, the pdf document on social mobility and health in student resources
    13. 13. A Society’s Social Stratification will depend on... • The Values of the society • What does our society value? • Is this reflected in the status and rewards we give to those who show, or do not show, these values? • Make a note of your ideas..
    14. 14. Biopsychosocial Model of health • This aims to address some of the problems seen in the medical model. • It tries to be less reductionist, taking several levels of explanation into account. • Biology Psychology Sociology • So, psychological and social factors can affect biology, and biological events can affect psychology and social behaviour
    15. 15. You will have to learn about How Sociologists explain health issues • There are a lot.. • 1. Functionalism • 2. Marxism • 3. Feminism • 4. Interactionism • 5. Collectivism • 6.Postmodernism • 7. ‘New Right’ • You will need to refer to these in your booklet • Maybe the best way to note these is to start a chart like the one on p. 312.(or cards, spider charts etc).
    16. 16. Sociological Approaches to health Approach Key words Key ideas 2xStrengths 2xWeaknesses Functionalism Marxism Feminism Interactionism Collectivism New Right Post modernism
    17. 17. How does a sociologist explain health? • Sociologists agree that social factors are key in explaining, and therefore improving, health. • They disagree on what should be focussed on, and how it can be studied..
    18. 18. Introduction to sociological approaches and theories Key sociological theories (functionalism, Marxism, Symbolic Interactionism etc.) primarily stem from two major approaches to the ‘nature’ of society. These are often referred to as ‘systems’ and ‘action’ approaches. And begin with quite different assumptions about what society is and how it might best be studied… Sociology Social Systems Approaches Functionalism Marxism Social Action Approaches Symbolic Interactionism
    19. 19. Very broadly, macro approaches like numbers (quantitative data) whereas Action approaches favour qualitative information. Sociology Social Systems Approaches Quantitative research methods Social Action Approaches Qualitative research methods
    20. 20. Social systems or ‘structuralist’ or ‘macro’ approaches: •Individual behaviour is largely shaped and constrained by the influence of social institutions (family, education, religion, et c.). •Therefore sociologists should primarily study social institutions, the links between them and the way they work to shape our behaviour. Social action, ‘interpretivist’ or ‘micro’ approaches •Individual behaviour and interaction effectively shapes society and social institutions. •Our behaviour is shaped by the way we define and interpret a situation so the emphasis is on individuals and small groups rather than social institutions per se. •Therefore sociologists should study the way we interpret, and make sense of the social world. •This approach is closer to Social Psychology than macro approaches
    21. 21. Functionalism Functionalism is a school of thought (or perspective) within sociology – initially made famous by Emile Durkheim - that concentrates upon the functions that the various social structures, systems and institutions perform in order to satisfy the functional pre- requisites which enable a society to survive. Functionalists believe society has a number of basic needs (‘functional pre- requisites’), which must be met if society is to survive and thrive. These include biological reproduction, systems for the production of essential resources etc., and also the reproduction of shared values and norms etc.
    22. 22. The Functionalist Model of Society Functionalism often uses an organic analogy to describe the way society works. In this analogy, society’s institutions are equated to organs within the body. In order for society (the body) to remain healthy, all of its major institutions (organs) must work in harmony with each other, and in some way contribute to the health of the whole society. Eg: Education contributes to a healthy society by training, sifting and sorting people for appropriate and productive adult roles.
    23. 23. e.g. Murdock,1949 ‘The Family’ • Murdock studied over 250 societies, from hunter-gatherer to modern industrial, and concluded that the family (itself a social institution) had the function of providing a socially accepted setting for several human pre-requistes- • Sex, Raising of children • Transmitting social norms • And had the economic function of providing support for family members.
    24. 24. What is society’s view of people who are ill? • Name three conditions or diagnoses that you think would count as ‘being ill’ • Are these acute or chronic conditions? • What sort of behaviour would you expect from a person given these diagnoses? • What would you expect them to do, or not do?
    25. 25. Talcott Parsons – The sick role Parsons used the term Sick role to refer to the pattern/s of behaviour expected from someone who is defined as ‘ill’. Sickness is seen as a particular form of deviance from the norms of society. The sick role brings with it specific rights and responsibilities. Rights • The sick person has exemption from normal activities and from responsibility for his/her own state • Approval received from employers, teachers, family members • Doctor = ‘gatekeeper’ role – defines people as ill and issues sick notes (legitimates sickness) • Thus doctors have high status and power, and are paid accordingly. • Individuals are not to blame for their condition • Sick people need time and space to recuperate
    26. 26. Responsibilities/Obligations of the Sick Role A person accepting the sick role must also accept: • Sickness is undesirable. Individuals must be motivated to get better – being sick must be seen as a temporary and unwanted status • Individuals are expected to seek and accept medical help and to co–operate with all sanctioned treatment • Those refusing medical treatment are unlikely to have illnesses recognised as genuine sickness • Even in the case of minor illness where medical advice is not sought, individuals with are expected to behave ‘appropriately’: ie: to ‘stay in bed’ and to ‘take it easy’. • A person who does not accept these responsibilities cannot enjoy the benefits of the ‘Sick Role’ • Is this a good explanation? • Think of at least one strength and one weakness of this concept of ‘Sick Role’
    27. 27. Strengths.. • We do distinguish between ‘sick’ and ‘healthy’ • We do have expectations from these two groups (intuitive support) • We do use doctors as gatekeepers (sick notes, insurance claims etc), so empirical support • It’s used for the examples shown above....any others?
    28. 28. But.... • Does not fit well with chronic illness, or mental illness – especially where there is no clear prospect for a ‘cure’. • There are different cultural ideas about what constitutes ‘appropriate’ illness behaviour • Assumption that the patient always adopts a passive role in doctor – patient relationship • In some situations legitimacy for sick role may be withheld or is conditional e.g. Where patient is seen as responsible for their illness.
    29. 29. So--Is this a good explanation of society? • Make a note of at least one strength • And one weakness of a functionalist explanation of society • And now relate these to health issues….
    30. 30. As social stratification appears to be a universal feature of human societies functionalists are primarily interested in explaining the functions of social stratification which help maintain a healthy society. Talcott Parsons - Any society requires a Value Consensus - general agreement about what is ‘good’ or desirable. This is a Functional Pre-requisite Stratification systems stem from this value consensus in that individuals are ‘graded’ in terms of their performance in terms of this V.C. Eg: Sioux Indians valued bravery and generosity: the bravest and most generous were accorded highest status – gained influence in the tribe, got the girl etc. As different societies have differing V.C.’s the definition of success/status will differ too. So Parsons said that stratification helped the society to work smoothly, or to function. Things were only likely to go pear shaped if people didn’t agree on what was valued… can you think of an example where this might happen? Can we explain why we have social class and stratification? Do they have any function in society?
    31. 31. One of the problems.. • With a functionalist view is that it is assumed that the social structures will work together to ensure that society works well. The value consensus is seen as driving the society to work for the common good. Is this true? • Can you think of any examples where this might not be happening? • Others have taken a less optimistic view of human societies, and have emphasised that structures lead to competition and conflict.
    32. 32. Now start your charts, tables or cards • Start to fill your notes or tables to show what the Functionalist approach says about health. • If you can, supply your own examples • Think further: Explain how social stratification could be seen as an element of a functionalist explanation of society. (Or Can social stratification help a society to function?)
    33. 33. Sociological Approaches to health Approach Key words Key ideas 2xStrengths 2xWeaknesses Functionalism Marxism Feminism Interactionism Collectivism New Right Post modernism
    34. 34. • Must: Define social stratification, social class and social mobility • Define norms and values within a society and give examples • Describe the main features of a functionalist approach to health including the Sick Role • Evaluate the Functionalist approach as an explanation of health using at least one strength and one weakness • Should: Relate these sociological issues to health giving own examples. Could: Consider how values of a society could affect social mobility. Explain how social stratification could be seen as an element of a functionalist explanation of society.
    35. 35. What Three Things Have I Learnt What squares with previous knowledge? What questions are still going round my head?

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