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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Mandy Wood and Sarah Stewart
  2. 2. What? When? Who? Where? How? Why?
  3. 3. Nurturing reflective learners What is a learner? What is does it mean to reflect? Why should we nurture reflection as opposed to other qualities/skills? How do we nurture reflection ?? When is the best time to reflect? When is the best time to nurture reflection? Who should be doing the reflecting and who the nurturing?
  4. 4. A psychological definition: Learning is a change in behaviour that happens as a consequence of experience and not due to biological maturation alone. If study habits are the behaviour for change... can we encourage the children to change their studying behaviour in order to be more successful in the future? Often pupils say they worked so hard for a certain test and then did badly, they blame themselves, they lose motivation, hope, lose courage and fail to initiate coping strategies
  5. 5. A habit is a regular pattern of behaviour, a tendency to generally do something in a certain way how do we encourage pupils to kick old habits that are not working for them and adopt new ones? how do we encourage pupils to experiment with new ways of working which might lead to greater success? we want our pupils to be ‘learners’, to change their old behaviours in accordance with the new experiences; to take note of how they did in one task and apply it to the next task in order to improve We want our pupils to be more reflective and think about their thinking.
  6. 6. In his book ‘Evidence Based Teaching’, Geoff Petty suggests that... Many teachers spend too much time on content and not enough on skills despite summative assessments that require thinking skills, decision making skills, the creation of coherent and justified arguments When students are not taught how to think they may struggle and this may be put down to low intelligence Often we complain that pupils don’t do various different things effectively; plan, draft, proof read, use sources effectively, apply frameworks etc; But did we remember to teach them how as well as what? Did we help them to recognise how they are currently working and what they could change?
  7. 7. Teachers need to actively teach content whilst teaching skills (Geoff Petty book has hundreds of ideas) Pupils need to be encouraged to think about... HOW they personally approach tasks they have been asked to complete either in class or at home to recognise when they are or aren’t applying taught skills To review the work they have completed against checklists (created ideally by them using exam board materials) and demonstrate to the person assessing them how they have attempted to meet the grading criteria
  8. 8. When pupils create work that is not up to standard how do we know what the pupil was thinking about as they created it? Has the pupil considered what they were thinking as they created it? If we both knew...(teacher and pupil) we could work together to fix things more effectively. We need to work together to consider the HOW?!
  9. 9. Many studies show that when thinking skills are integrated in with content teaching in combination with tasks that encourage pupil reflection, attainment goes up not just in the lesson where they are encouraged to do this but in other subjects to. This should convinces teachers that building in time for reflection is worthwhile It increases pupil attainment It helps us as teachers to demonstrate to inspectors that our pupils are developing positive attitudes to learning and that we know our pupils (because we have asked the pupils to engage in activities that reveal information about the ways that they work to themselves but also to share this knowledge with us - we then need to use this information to differentiate
  10. 10. Work by psychologist Carol Dweck on motivation and pupils ideas about their own intelligence may help them to realise why reflection is important and that changing the way that we work really can impact on our attainment. As the ‘Keep Dancing’ powerpoint shows ... times of transition such as GCSE to A level/IB can be critical flashpoints where pupils could lose all confidence in their ability and stop implementing coping strategies (listening and seeking help, trying new ways of working, planning time etc) if they struggle early and hold a fixed intelligence mindset
  11. 11. Petty suggests that ... 20% of teaching time should be spent on subject specific thinking and writing skills The greatest effect sizes are found when... skills teaching is integrated with content and when this is paired with pupil relfection/self assessment In turn then perhaps pupils should be roughly spend 20% of their time reflecting on ‘process’ as opposed to creating a ‘product’. In practice... A2 HW = 4 hours a week per subject; 2 hrs per teacher  I often set one essay as hw 20% of two hours is 24 minutes; 12 minutes thinking HOW to address the task and 12 reviewing the task.
  12. 12. One student will act as monitor today and will assign prizes: choose three certificates to issue based on what the are supposed to be able to do, e.g. best of use terminology most detailed knowledge of a study best knowledge of research methods best able to evaluate a study without being prompted student most able to elicit participation from others; best progress on changing style of note taking The student will report back as part of plenary and present awards.
  13. 13. Give the class the learning objective straight from the specification Have them create their own exam questions for different mark allocations (2, 4, 5, 12 etc, varying AO1/AO2 requirements); write them on paper and swap amongst other pairs/groups Choose a 12 mark essay question to work towards Get them to create detailed checklists about what they think the mark scheme should include Have them think about what they would like to be taught/learn about in order to meet get the correct content into the essay that they have planned.
  14. 14. Set a question as lesson starter which requires the pupils to think about what they already know and apply it to the new situation E.g. How would psychologists research day care?  on your own as a pair –choose the best ideas from the pair and justify why one idea better than the other (S and W of each) then decide what they will put forward as their joint idea to other pair link up with another pair and as a foursome, discuss and create the best idea.
  15. 15. As part of the plenary give out a quick self assessment such as ... Did I ask a question when i didn't understand something? Did I ask about something I found interesting? Did I ask a question of another pupil? Did I volunteer to answer a question? Did I join in with the pair work effectively? Did I speak up if someone said something I didn’t entirely agree with?
  16. 16. We learn by doing; active learning is much better recalled, enjoyed and understood. Active learning require us to 'make our own meaning' , to develop our own conceptualisations of what we are learning. During this process we physically make neural connections in our brain, the process we call learning. Passive methods such as listening do not require us to make these connections or conceptualisations.
  17. 17. Give the learner feedback on their incomplete understandings and encourage them fix this, for example by helping each other. Give the teacher feedback on which learners understand, and who needs help Develop thinking skills such as analysis, problem solving, and evaluation Help learners to use their learning in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance Are more fun! Give the teacher a bit of a rest
  18. 18. Have them fill in a tick sheet self assessment where they say Y/N to whether they think they have completed all the things they should have done to access top band marks. If they feel they have not reached the criteria, they should explain why.
  19. 19. When reviewing homeworks/essays... Work with the mark scheme to get pupils to create a checklist for assessment; they could do this using the snowball method (one their own, in pairs, in a four made of two pairs) Carefully choose and ask a top performing pupil to be interviewed in front of the class about how the approached and completed if they agree you may be able to copy their essay for the class and then the pupils can assess the essay using their checklist
  20. 20. Students write a few lines at the end of each lesson or week, describing what they have learned, what they are unclear about along with personal observations Questions to help structure the reflection... Did you bring everything that you needed for the lesson? Had you done any necessary preparatory work? How are you getting on with your most recent targets? What did you feel went really well for you today? What didn’t go so well?
  21. 21. Same as reflective journal but online and interactive You set blogs (or facebook page) for each of your class; possibly through the VLE pupils blog each day about what they have learnt as they review and consolidate the days lessons; focus is on processes and skills not necessarily content; the how of learning Other pupils can read and comment on progress being made Pupils support each other
  22. 22. Learners: “Their attitudes towards learning are exemplary and they are highly productive” Teachers:... • “know their pupils’ capabilities and adapt teaching well to meet their needs • “are highly effective in building on previous learning and helping pupils to overcome difficulties • “Marking and assessment are productively focused on guiding improvement and ensure that pupils have a clear understanding of their strengths and areas for development”