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Resourcd File

  1. 1. AggressionRevision Pack
  2. 2. REVISION CHECKLISTLook at each objective below and indicate how well you think youcould answer an exam question on it.ObjectiveSOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICALEXPLANATIONS: Social Learning TheoryOutline Social Learning Theory (includingobservation, vicarious reinforcement, mentalrepresentations, maintenance through directexperience and self-efficacy)Outline and evaluate Bandura et al (1961)studyOutline and evaluate Bandura and Walters(1963) studyEvaluate SLT using studies (e.g. Bandura,Philips (1986)Discuss issues and debates in relation toSLT (e.g. culture, methodology, validity,nature-nurture)SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICALEXPLANATIONS: DeindividuationOutline the process of deindividuation(anonymity, collective mind, lessresponsibility)Evaluate deindividuation using studies(Zimbardo, 1969; , Rehm et al, 1987;Postmes and Spears (1998)Discuss issues and debates in relation todeindividuation, including methodology ofstudies, culture (Watson, 1973); genderdifferences Cannavale et al (1970) andnature-nurtureSOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICALAPPROACHES: Explanations ofinstitutional aggressionOutline the importation and deprivationmodels to explain prison violenceEvaluate the importation and deprivationmodels, by contrasting them with each otherand using studies such as Harer andSteffensmeier (2006) Allender and Marcell
  3. 3. (2003) and McCorkle et al (1995)DeLisi et al (2004) Wilson (2010) real-worldapplicationBe able to compare to another approach thatmight explain violence in prisons.Outline and evaluate one other explanationof institutional aggression as applied toanother example (e.g. Milgram’s AgencyTheory applied to the Nazi Holocaust).BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OFAGGRESSION: Neural and hormonalmechanismsOutline the role of testosterone, serotoninand cortisol in aggression.Evaluate neural and hormonal mechanisms,using studies such as Raleigh et al (1991),Mann et al (1990); Scerbo and Raine (1993);Raleigh et al (1991); Dabbs et al (1987);Lindman et al (1987)Be able to discuss issues of gender bias,animal studies, determinism and ethics inrelation to this topic.BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OFAGGRESSION: GeneticsOutline the reason for using twin andadoption studies to research aggression andgenetics.Explain the findings of studies such asCoccaro et al (1997) and Hutchings andMednick (1975), Miles and Carey (1997)Explain the role of MAOA in aggressionusing studies such as Brunner et al (1993)Explain the interaction between genes andthe environment using studies such as Caspiet al (2002).Discuss ethical issues raised by thedeterministic perspective of geneticresearch.Discuss problems with sampling, measuringaggression and animal research.AGGRESSION AS AN ADAPTIVERESPONSE:Evolutionary explanations, includinginfidelity and jealousy.Outline the role of sexual jealousy inpreventing cuckoldry and having anevolutionary purpose.Outline strategies used by men to keep amate, proposed by Buss (1988).
  4. 4. Use studies such as Buss and Shackleford(1997)and Shackleford et al (2005) toevaluate the apparent evolutionary purposeof sexual jealousy. Use studies such asDaly and Wilson and Camilleri (2004) toevaluate the role of infidelity in aggression inrelationships.Outline the evolutionary explanation ofuxorocide (wife-killing). Give PipatLueprasitkul as an example.Explain how Shackelford et al (2000)contradicts the evolutionary explanation ofuxorocide and explain the ‘evolved homicidemodule theory’.Discuss issues of social desirability bias insurveys and gender bias. Outline practicaluses for this theory but also the difficulty withtesting it.AGGRESSION AS AN ADAPTIVERESPONSE:Group DisplayOutline two explanations for Sport Violenceand use studies to evaluate (Podaliri andBalestri (1998) Foldesi (1996))Outline two explanations for ReligiousRituals and use studies to evaluate (Sosisand Bressler (2003); Chen (2003))Compare to other approaches to evaluatethe evolutionary explanation of groupdisplays of aggression.Discuss issues of methodology (e.g. difficultto test these theories) and determinism andthe ethics of seeing people as pre-programmed to be aggressive.
  5. 5. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHESSOCIAL LEARNING THEORYOutline the four conditions for effective social learning below:Outline the following terms:ObservationImitationMental representationExpectanciesDirect experience
  6. 6. Self-efficacy expectanciesBANDURA ET AL (1961) BOBO DOLL STUDYWrite key details about the study in the shape below, do NOT WRITELOTS OF A01 HERE, no Rosenhan moments please!
  7. 7. BANDURA EVALUATION (DON’T TURN THIS IN TO A FULLEVALUATION OF BANDURA THOUGH, A COUPLE OF POINTS WILLSUFFICE).Supporting studies:My study has problems because…………….Bandura and Walters (1963) compared three groups, what were thegroups and what does this tell us about how social learning occurs?How did Bandura (1965) modify the above study? What does it show?How does the Philips (1986) study support the generalisability of Bandura’sfindings to adults? What are the limitations?
  8. 8. !KUNG SAN OF THE KALAHARI DESERTOutline how this tribe can be used in support of Social LearningExplanations of AggressionWhich approach could you contrast Social LearningTheory with?Give studies.
  9. 9. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHESDEINDIVIDUATIONOutline LeBon’s (1895) Crowd Theory and the key characteristics ofDeindividuation below:………………..
  10. 10. SUPPORTING STUDIES CONTRADICTING STUDIESZimbardo (1969) Postmes and Spears (1998)Rehm et al (1987)OK, but these studies aren’t convincing because…………………
  11. 11. ISSUES AND DEBATESWhat does Watson’s cross-cultural research illustrate?How did Johnson and Downing (1979) modify Zimbardo’s (1969)experiment? What does this suggest about the role of social norms inaggression?
  12. 12. GENDERWhat have Cannavale et al (1970) found about gender differences indeindividuation?REAL WORLD APPLICATION: BAITING CROWDS
  13. 13. SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES:INSTITUTIONAL AGGRESSIONOutline the Importation Model (Irwin and Cressey, 1962) below.Explain what Harer and Staffensmeier (2006) found and why it supports theImportation model.Explain what DelLisi et al (2004) found and why it contradicts theImportation Model
  14. 14. Outline the Deprivation Model (Paterline and Peterson, 1999) below.Yes, but there are problems with studying aggression ininstitutions because…….. (think ethics and validity)McCorkle et al (1995) supports the deprivation model because………….BUT…….. Nijman et al (1999) found quite the opposite, explain below.
  15. 15. Which approach could you contrast social psychologicalapproaches to institutional aggression with? Give studies.Another type of Institutional aggression is …………………….A theory that could explain this type of institutionalaggression is ………………………..Studies to support this are………………………..
  16. 16. BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS FOR AGGRESSIONTHE ROLE OF NEURAL AND HORMONAL MECHANISMSOutline the role of serotonin in aggression in the box below.What did the meta-analysis by Scerbo and Raine (1993) find?What did Mann et al (1990) find? What does this tell us about the linkbetween serotonin and aggression?
  17. 17. Outline the role of testosterone below.What has evidence from non-human studies shown? (Raleigh et al, 1991)How about evidence from anti-depressants? (Bond, 2005)
  18. 18. What did Dabbs et al (1987) measure and who did they test? Whatdid Lindman et al (1987) find? What does this suggest about thetestosterone/aggression link?Yes, but there are problems with this samplebecause………. (consider generalisbility,representativeness and difficulties with measuringaggression)
  19. 19. OK, but why is it difficult to compare the studies withinthese meta-analyses? What are the limitations ofcorrelations?What did Archer’s meta-analysis show?Does the meta-analysis by Book et al (2001) support the link betweentestosterone and aggression? (Consider the fact that a reasonablecorrelation is usually around 0.6).Outline some of the limitations of the above researchhighlighted by Albert et al (1993)
  20. 20. GENDER ISSUESWhat have studies shown about the link between testosterone andaggression in women? Can you make any commentary about thegeneralisability of studies such as Dabbs et al?Which approach can you contrast with the hormonal and neuralapproach? Give studies.Which debate is relevant here?
  21. 21. Are there ethical issues with taking such a deterministic viewpoint onaggression?BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS FOR AGGRESSION:GENETIC FACTORSOutline the methodology used by twin studies below. Explain whyDZ and MZ twins are compared and what is meant by concordance.
  22. 22. Outline why adoption studies are useful in disentangling the role ofthe environment and genetics below.Outline the findings by Coccaro et al (1997), Hutchings and Mednick(1975), Miles and Carey (1997) below.
  23. 23. What is MAOA? How is it thought to link to aggression?OK, THERE ARE LOTTTSSS OF PROBLEMS WITHRESEARCH IN THIS AREA, INCLUDING SAMPLING,ACCURATE MEASUREMENT. OUTLINE THEMIs there evidence for the link between MAOA and aggression?What did Caspi et al (2002) find about the interaction between genes andthe environment? This one is very important to know, as it links tothe nature-nurture debate, make sure you learn it!!
  24. 24. BELOW. Why are violent criminals not representative of all typesof aggression? Are violent offenders necessarily aggressivepeople? Is it possible to isolate specific relevant genes? Can wecompare research that has used different measurements andsamples?REAL WORLD APPLICATION: GENETIC ENGINEERING ANDCHEMICAL CASTRATION.
  25. 25. ETHICAL ISSUES:How might the above evidence beused to prevent crime? Is this ethical?Can we be sure that genetics definitelycause aggression?How might this approach beused to condone or justifyaggression? What are theethical issues with this?
  26. 26. EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATIONS OF AGGRESSIONCan you explain what the evolutionary theory means? Can youdefine evolution and explain briefly what Darwin’s ideas were?YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO!!!Definecuckoldry……………………………………………………………….....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Buss (1988) identified strategies used by males to keep a mate, define eachone below and give examples:Direct guardingNegative inducements
  27. 27. JEALOUSY Mate Retention and ViolenceOutline evidence for the link between mate retention techniquesand violence below. You must include Buss and Shackleford(1997) and Shackleford et al (2005)
  28. 28. INFIDELITY UxorocideHow do Daly and Wilson use evolution to explain uxorocide? What doesCamilleri (2004) propose about the link between infidelity and violence?Why do Shackleford et al’s (2000) findings contradict Daly and Wilson’stheory?
  29. 29. EVOLUTION OF HOMICIDEOutline the key methodological problems which may weaken thevalidity of the evolutionary research below:Explain how Wilson and Daly (1985) support the theory that lack ofresources may increase aggression/homicide. How does this link toevolutionary theory?
  30. 30. Outline how the research in to materetention, sexual jealousy andviolence could be used in the real-world.Outline the reasons why the evolutionary research couldbe considered gender biased.Contact the 24-hour National Domestic ViolenceFreephone Helpline on 0808 2000 247GENDER BIAS
  31. 31. GROUP DISPLAY AS AN ADAPTIVE RESPONSEIMPORTANT NOTE!!!!!YOU HAVE TO EXPLAIN GROUP DISPLAY AS ANADAPTIVE RESPONSE, SO YOU MUST USEEVOLUTIONARY THEORIES I.E. HOW DOESAGGRESSION BENEFIT THE SURVIVAL OF AGROUP???Which two types of group display do you need to know about for yourexam?Can you explain what the evolutionary theory means? Can youdefine evolution and explain briefly what Darwin’s ideas were? YOUSHOULD BE ABLE TO!!!
  32. 32. SPORTWhat is meant by the term ‘group display’?Again…… What must you focus on in your answer in the exam????Define sport violence and give an example:Define Xenophobia and explain how it links to sportviolence below and give two real-life examples:
  33. 33. RELIGIOUS RITUALSEvidence for link between xenophobia and sport violence (Podaliri andBalestri (1998); Foldesi (1996))What are religious rituals? Give at least two examples of painful oruncomfortable rituals, the religion they are associated with and thereasons for them.
  34. 34. Which approach can you contrast with the evolutionary explanationof group display? Give studies.Costly-signalling theory, outline this and the ideasproposed by Sosis and Bressler (2003) and Chen (2003)Evidence for the costly-signalling theory.
  35. 35. Which debate is relevant here?REAL-WORLDAPPLICATION: INTER-GROUP CONFLICT
  36. 36. Compare and Contrast the ApproachesApproach Explanationfocuses on:(e.g. genes)Treatmentfocuses on(e.g. thoughts):Doesn’t payattention to….(give evidencefrom otherapproaches)Does it focuson Nature orNurture?EthicalissuesMethodologicalissuesBiologicalGeneticsBiologicalNeural andHormonal
  37. 37. SocialPsychological(Deindividuation)SocialPsychologicalSocial LearningTheorySocialPsychological(InstitutionalAggression)
  38. 38. Aggression asan adaptiveresponseEvolutionaryexplanationsincludinginfidelity andjealousyAggression asan adaptiveresponseGroup display(lynch mobs andreligious rituals)