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  • Vicarious Learning: learning through observing othersMonitoring: judging whether our own behaviour is appropriate or notPunishment: a stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we try to avoid itModelling: a role model providing an example for others, showing how behaviour should beImitation: copying the behaviour of a role modelObservation: watching the behaviour of othersRole models: someone who a child looks up to and is likely to copyBobo doll:an inflatable doll that is about 1.5m tall that is weighted at the bottom. It is designed to jump back when it is knocked over.Reinforcement: a consequence that strengthens or encourages behaviour. This might be seen as a rewardMedia: video games, movies, TV shows, magazines in which some children may see role modelsBandura: the psychologist who carried out the BoBo doll experiments into aggressive behaviour in childrenVicarious reinforcement: learning from the role model being either rewarded or punnished
  • Model answer – for your notes now write your own one to add to your notes
  • Model answer – for your notes now write your own one to add to your notes
  • Model answer – for your notes now write your own one to add to your notes
  • Model answer – for your notes now write your own one to add to your notes
  • Resourcd File

    1. 1. • What does it show?• Which theory of aggression are we looking at?• How does it explain what is going on in thisvideo?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHi2dxSf9hw
    2. 2. Lesson outcomesAll will be able to outline the SLT of aggressionand give 2-3 basic evaluation points (D-C)Most will be able to describe the theory indetail, with reference to the studies and give 3full evaluation points (B-C)Some will give 3-4 fully expanded evaluationpoints with counterarguments (A*-A)Stretch &ChallengeHow could SLTbe used tochangebehaviour in apositive way?What doesn’t itexplain?
    3. 3. Top 100grossingvideo games2013
    4. 4. • Draw a 3x3 grid• Write these terms in the boxes:Vicarious LearningMonitoringPunishmentModellingImitationObservationRole modelsBobo dollReinforcementMediaBanduraVicarious reinforcement
    5. 5. 1. What toy did Bandura use in their experiment?2. Who was in the sample?3. What did Bandura find out?4. Explain the terms Role model & Imitation5. Outline the AMRC of one study that looked at the effectsof violence on TV6. Give one fully expanded evaluation point for the studyyou outlined for question 57. Explain a practical implication of the research
    6. 6. • In your groups sort the three studies out• 6 parts to each:– Name– Picture– Aim– Method– Results– ConclusionExtension: whatevaluation pointscan you come upwith for each?
    7. 7. Bandura et alA: To find out if three to six-year-old children imitateaggressive behaviourperformed by role models.M: Researchers divided 96children into four groups …R: Those who witnessed theaggressive behaviour showedmore aggressive behaviour.C: …Liebert & BrownA: To see if watching violenttelevision programmes effectsaggressive behaviour inchildrenM: One group of children wasshown a quite violenttelevision programme …R: The group who hadwatched the violentprogramme were moreaggressive .C: Watching violence ontelevision …Charlton et alA: To see if the introduction oftelevision to …M: For two years after theisland of St. Helena …R: The children did not showany increase in aggressivebehaviour.C: Merely watching aggressiverole models …
    8. 8. Bandura et al Liebert & Brown Charlton et al2 tables looking at each of thestudiesHow many evaluation pointscan you come up with?You must be able to explainthem
    9. 9. • How could SLT be used to change behaviour ina positive way?• What doesn’t it explain?• Is there contradictory evidence?Stretch &ChallengeHow could SLTbe used tochangebehaviour in apositive way?What doesn’t itexplain?
    10. 10. • The next task is the sort of thing you might getasked to do in the exam
    11. 11. • There are scenarios around the room• Send an envoy from your team to read thesituation, they have to explain it to you• How would SLT explain the behaviour?• Make sure you refer back to the example3 pointsfor eachObservationImitationVicarious ReinforcementRole Models
    12. 12. Lesson outcomesAll will be able to outline the SLT of aggressionand give 2-3 basic evaluation pointsMost will be able to describe the theory indetail, with reference to the studies and give 3full evaluation pointsSome will give 3-4 fully expanded evaluationpoints with counterargumentsStretch &ChallengeHow could SLTbe used tochangebehaviour in apositive way?What doesn’t itexplain?
    13. 13. 6 marksAO1: 3 MarksState the method, explain it, give an exampleAO2: 3 MarksState the criticism, explain it, counter argue orcontrast with other theories
    14. 14. One way of reducing aggressions could be sublimation.Freud thought we could release our aggressive instinctsby finding a safe activity that requires energy. This couldbe playing sport to reduce our aggression levels andreduce the chances of an outburst.This way of reducing aggression has been criticisedbecause it is based on concepts that are difficult to test.This means that is difficult to support with evidence.Other theories suggest that playing sports will increaseaggression due to hormones.
    15. 15. DrugsPsychosurgeryCatharsisSublimation• Positive role models• Observing the punishment of aggressivebehaviour
    16. 16. Studies to support different ways:Bandura (1965)M: Children were shown an adult model either beingpunished or reinforced for acting aggressivelyHuesmann et al (1983)A: To see if teaching children to think more carefullyabout what they see would reduce aggressionWhat didthey find?

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