Primary socialization- The early years of life are important in thelearning process. This is the stage ofprimary socialization when we normallyhave intimate and prolonged contact withour parents.SocialisationSocialisationThe process of learning how to behave in a way that isappropriate and acceptable to your culture.
George HerbertMEAD 1863 - 1931“Becoming a human is not just about beingborn. Its all about becoming a social being,which happens through interactions betweenthe child and those around it”
Learning objectivesWe are learningaboutWe will do this byThe processes ofsocialisation.Define primary andsecondary socialisationDefine Norms and ValuesOutline the mechanismsinvolved in the process ofsocialisation
When you wereborn… Who were your ‘significant others’? What important things did they teach you about the‘outside world’? At what age did you know the difference betweenright and wrong? When did you know you were a boy/girl?
PRIMARYSOCIALISATIONSECONDARYSOCIALISATIONO-5 yrsIn the family homeInfluences come fromimmediate carersLanguage and basic normsand valuesInfant learns throughimitationSanctions reinforcebehaviour (+) (-)Influences from externalagenciesModifies primarysocialisationSpecific norms and values interpersonal(teacher/student)Impersonal (media/audienceSanctions reinforcebehaviour (+) (-)
WHO ARE THE AGENTS OF SOCIALISATION? These are the people or groups that play a part in our socialization. Sometimesthey play an important part without us realising it.
WHO ARE THE AGENTS OF SOCIALISATION?PEERGROUPPARENTSTEACHERSRELIGIONMASS MEDIAPOLICESIBLINGSEXTENDED FAMILYWrite downone examplefor eachagency of howthey havecontributed toyoursocialisationSPORTSWORKPLACETHE STATE
Learning fromparents- One way children learnfrom their parents isthrough IMITATION. They may copy theway their parents’ walkor their table-mannersfor example.
By a process of trial and error and with theapplication of formal and informal sanctions(social control) children learn what is acceptableand unacceptable.
Mothersreward girlsfor beingpassive anddependent andboys for beingactive andindependentAs children get older they usetheir parents as role-modelsby imitating their behaviourBy expecting different behavioursfrom peoplebecausethey aremaleor female, society nudgesboysand girlsin separatedirectionsfrom an early age
The MASS MEDIA reinforce society’sexpectations of genderAds perpetuate stereotypes•Males dominant and rugged•Females as attractive and submissiveMales/females use mediaimages to discover who theyare and what is expected ofthem
Goals of socialisation - ARNETT1. Impulse control and the development of aconscience (to promote independence andindividualism)2. Role preparation and performance, includingoccupational roles, gender roles and roles ininstitutions (marriage)3. Cultivation of what is important, values and tobe lived for (to promote obedience andconformity)
NORMS,VALUES AND MORES NORMS are informal rulesthat govern appropriatebehaviour What to wear How to order food at arestaurant They vary from society tosociety They are constantlychanging with newtechnology Texting (Norway), social networking(China)•VALUES are ideas andbeliefs that people haveabout what is desirable andworth striving for.•They provide us withgeneral guidelines forconductMORES are a stronger formof norms that refers tomaintaining standards ofdecency.They are ideas about what isright or wrong for everybody
For each of these situations, think of 2 ‘norms’What happens if youdon’t conform to thesenorms?
SchoolHard workRespectBringing a penNot shoutingPunctualityHonestyNeatnessMeeting deadlinesNo chewing gumBeing politeWHAT VALUES DO YOU HOLD FOR SCHOOL?What are the norms for School?
Norms and Values Look at the following images and decidewhat is/is not normal and give your reasonswhy Where or under what circumstances wouldit be considered ‘normal’?
TRUE OR FALSE?1. Feral children are assumed to have been raised by animals inthe wilderness isolated from other humans2. Without language there can be no culture3. Since emotions are natural human responses, socialisation hasvery little to do with how we feel4. Much of our socialisation is intended to turn us into conformingmembers of society5. Next to the family the peer group is the most powerful socialisingforce in society6. Re-socialisation always requires learning a radically differentperspective7. Society sets us effective controls over our behaviour bysocialising our emotions8. The ways in which society sets children onto different courses forlife purely because they are male or female is called sexsocialisation9. The process of learning to play a role before entering it isreferred to as expectant socialisation
TRUE OR FALSE?1. Feral children are assumed to have been raised by animals inthe wilderness isolated from other humans (T)2. Without language there can be no culture (T)3. Since emotions are natural human responses, socialisation hasvery little to do with how we feel (F) its all about our moral code4. Much of our socialisation is intended to turn us into conformingmembers of society (T)5. Next to the family the peer group is the most powerful socialisingforce in society (T)6. Re-socialisation always requires learning a radically differentperspective (F) not always radical7. Society sets us effective controls over our behaviour bysocialising our emotions (T)8. The ways in which society sets children onto different courses forlife purely because they are male or female is called sexsocialisation (F) gender socialisation9. The process of learning to play a role before entering it isreferred to as expectant socialisation (F) anticipatory
Outline the mechanisms involvedin the socialisation process The sentences are muddled up, rearrange them toanswer the questionYou should add examples to show understanding andgive meaningYou don’t have to include everythingYou must include the following keywordsNorms, values, mores, social control, socialisation, primaryand secondary, resocialisation, anticipatory socialisation,agencies, sanctions, gender, mass media
Socialisation is the process of learning how to behave in a way that is appropriate and acceptableaccording to a cultureWe learn about the rules of society in early childhood and throughout lifePrimary socialisation takes place in the homePrimary socialisation offers basic norms and values whereas secondary offers specific situationsWe share cultural values with people around usAgents of Socialisation construct and shape our identity as male or femaleAgents of socialisation are interlinkedGo to school, plays with friends, comes home, watches TV, has tea with family.Process varies according to cultural differences, class, ethnicity etcNorms are derived from values which are shared by most people in societySocialisation is a form of social control, if you do not follow the guidelines of society you arepunished in some wayThere are a variety of agencies of socialisation
Agencies of socialisationindependent research task The family Peer Group Education Religion Mass media Work•Create a PowerPoint presentation on oneprimary and one secondary Agency ofsocialisation•Outline the positive and negative views oftheir role in socialisation•Describe the ways the norms and values arelearned for each•Using examples of both formal andinformal social control describe the range ofrewards and punishment used by yourchosen agenciesResources: Newbold et al (Nelson Thornes), Sociology in focus
EXAM FOCUS Define primary and secondary socialisation  Explain how primary socialisation within thefamily can be undermined by the mass media  There are occasions where an individual will needto learn how to ‘fit into’ new situations and soexperience re-socialisation. State 3 situations inwhich re-socialisation can happen.