Resourcd File

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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Remember this story War of the ghosts!!One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals andwhile they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war-cries, and they thought: "Maybe this is a war-party". They escaped to theshore, and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise ofpaddles, and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in thecanoe, and they said: "What do you think? We wish to take you along. We aregoing up the river to make war on the people." One of the young men said, "Ihave no arrows." "Arrows are in the canoe," they said. "I will not go along. Imight be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you," hesaid, turning to the other, "may go with them." So one of the young menwent, but the other returned home. And the warriors went on up the river to atown on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the water and theybegan to fight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard oneof the warriors say, "Quick, let us go home: that Indian has been hit." Now hethought: "Oh, they are ghosts." He did not feel sick, but they said he had beenshot. So the canoes went back to Egulac and the young man went ashore to hishouse and made a fire. And he told everybody and said: "Behold I accompaniedthe ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many ofthose who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick."He told it all, and then he became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down.Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. Thepeople jumped up and cried. He was dead.
  2. 2. Recall this story War of the ghosts!!
  3. 3. Core Studies - overview • Social Approach • Milgram • Reicher and Haslam • Piliavin • Individual Differences Approach • Rosenhan • Thigpen and Cleckley • Griffiths • Physiological Approach • Dement and Kleitman • Sperry • Maguire • Developmental Approach • Samuel and Bryant • Freud • Bandura • Cognitive Approach • Loftus and Palmer • Baron-Cohen • Savage-Rumbaugh
  4. 4. Lesson Objectives• Describe the impact of verbs on memory recall• Describe the impact of leading questions on memory recall• Describe the impact of mental schemas on memory recall• Describe reconstructive memory• Explain the relevance and implications for eye witness testimony
  5. 5. Describe the impact of verbs onmemory recall
  6. 6. Watch the following film clip three times.Then, when I say, turn the question overand answer the question http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aAdZH7jvdqY
  7. 7. The impact of verbs…Approximately how fast in MPHwas the car going when itsmashed into the other car? MPHApproximately how fast in MPHwas the car going when itcollided into the other car? MPHApproximately how fast in MPHwas the car going when itbumped into the other car? MPHApproximately how fast in MPHwas the car going when ithit into the other car? MPHApproximately how fast in MPHwas the car going when itcontacted into the other car? MPH
  8. 8. Summarise in less than 30 wordshow verbs impact memory recallVerbs (e.g. hit, collided) have differentcognitive meaningsThe use of certain verbs can change yourinterpretation of an eventTherefore your memory is not accurate
  9. 9. Describe the impact of leadingquestions on memory recall
  10. 10. Leading questionsWhat does a leading question mean? These are questions which are asked to suggest a likely answer.• Normal question – • Did you see a gun?• Leading question - • Did you see the gun?
  11. 11. Imagine you are a lawyer… Was the man wearing a scarf? ◦ What colour was the man’s scarf?Turn these questions into leading questions:1) What time did you go to bed?2) How does eating chocolate affect your health?3) How important is it to keep accurate records?
  12. 12. Summarise in less than 30 wordshow leading questions impactmemory recallWhen you are asked a leading question,you may answer inaccurately as leadingquestions imply a certain answer.Therefore your memory is not accurate
  13. 13. Describe the impact of mentalschemas on memory recall
  14. 14. What characteristics do youassociate with the following?  Nurse Elderly
  15. 15. Mental schemas“An ORGANISED package of information thatstores our knowledge about the world.”We each have many SCHEMAS,one for each aspect of our LIVES.
  16. 16. Mental schemasEach mental schema contains the STEREOTYPES andEXPECTATIONS we have acquired during our lives.When we „open up‟ a schema, weUNWITTINGLY use the information wefind in it.
  17. 17. Read the text. You will berewriting the whole thingshortly /10? The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one never can tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, that is part of life.
  18. 18. You were given the topic ofYou were given just the text the text. You could access No access to your mental your mental schema schema
  19. 19. Summarise in less than 30 wordshow mental schemas impactmemory recallMental schemas can aid or impair memoryrecall. The information is easily recalledbecause we use stereotypes andexpectations to help us. This is anunconscious process that can makememory better or inaccurate
  20. 20. Describe reconstructive memory
  21. 21. We usually think we are good at remembering things. However, often our memories are flawed.The problem is, the „errors‟ become part of our actualmemories. This means it is impossible for us to know we are wrong.
  22. 22. Making errors is just a nuisance in everyday life.But when an eyewitness to a serious accident or a crimemakes a mistake, it‟s more serious.
  23. 23. We automatically, unconsciouslyfill in these memory gaps.We fill the gaps using stereotypesand expectations from our mentalschemas.This produces distorted memories, which we accept asreal. Our memory is not a videotape!!
  24. 24. Recall thisstory again War of the ghosts!!One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals andwhile they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war-cries,and they thought: "Maybe this is a war-party". They escaped to the shore, andhid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles,and saw one canoe coming up to them. There were five men in the canoe, andthey said: "What do you think? We wish to take you along. We are going upthe river to make war on the people." One of the young men said, "I have noarrows." "Arrows are in the canoe," they said. "I will not go along. I might bekilled. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you," he said, turningto the other, "may go with them." So one of the young men went, but theother returned home. And the warriors went on up the river to a town on theother side of Kalama. The people came down to the water and they began tofight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard one of thewarriors say, "Quick, let us go home: that Indian has been hit." Now hethought: "Oh, they are ghosts." He did not feel sick, but they said he had beenshot. So the canoes went back to Egulac and the young man went ashore to hishouse and made a fire. And he told everybody and said: "Behold I accompaniedthe ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many ofthose who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick."He told it all, and then he became quiet. When the sun rose he fell down.Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. Thepeople jumped up and cried. He was dead.
  25. 25. War of the ghosts!!What do you remember? Tendency to be shorter and more coherent Tendency to omit details as they are not central to the plot ◦ The young men hid behind a log They heard the sound of paddles The name of the other town mentioned: Kalama That the story was retold to relatives by a fire That his face became contorted Tendency to change details that ‘don’t fit’ ◦ Instead of ‘hunt seals’ people say went ‘fishing’ ◦ Instead of ‘canoe’ people say ‘boat’ Tendency to change the order of the story Tendency to omit the word ‘ghosts’ in the second version and later recalls ◦ Because it is not central to the plot Tendency to omit ‘hunting for seals’ ◦ The notion of hunting for seals is completely foreign to most of us in Kent. As a result, the detail is either omitted or altered
  26. 26. Summarise in less than 30 wordswhat reconstructive memory isReconstructive memories are notaccurate. Our memory uses mentalschemas to unconsciously fill in any gapsin our memory and our memory may befull of errors. we do not know if ourmemory is accurate
  27. 27. Explain the relevance andimplications for eye witnesstestimony
  28. 28. Relevance?
  29. 29. Why are psychologists interestedin eyewitness testimony?If you were on a jury, how convinced would yoube by a witness? Juries are very convinced by eye-witness testimony (EWT) and will tend to return a guilty verdict.If memory is not accurate or consistent, what are the problems? Psychological research into memory strongly suggests that there are many factors which make eye witness testimony (EWT) less reliable and less valid.
  30. 30. How good is your eye witnesstestimony? Let’s try again…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubNF9QNEQLA
  31. 31. Implications Loftus says that EWT are little more than guesses. These findings were highly influential. So EWT should not result in a conviction in an English court in the absence of other corroborating evidence!
  32. 32. Reconstruction of AutomobileDestruction Loftus & Palmer (1974)
  33. 33. Summarise what the followingterms mean: Mental schema Leading questions Reconstructive memory

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