Despite the positive and negative affects of science, it’s clear that it can explain, predict and control the world. Religion can’t do this!What do these pictures represent?
Success criteriaAll: Will know why science is viewed as an open belief system.Most: Most will compare open and closed belief systems.Some: Will evaluate sociological views of science as a belief system. This lesson will prepare you to answer: Assess sociological explanations of science and ideology as belief systems. (33 marks)
Mind map what you currently know about thistopic? (we will add to this throughout the lesson to create an essay plan). Science as a belief system All: Will know why science is viewed as an open belief system.
Open belief systems: Page 61 Task 1- 10 minutes In pairs: Read about your scientific theory and feedback to the group. Task 2 – 10 minutes 1) How is science an open belief system? 2) What is the principle of falsification? 3) How does this help scientists better their knowledge? 4) What did Newton mean when he said ‘...it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants’ 5) Can we ever accept a scientific explanation as completely true?All: Will know why science is viewed as an open belief system.
Science as a belief system Add to your mind map of what you know about this topic.All: Will know why science is viewed as an open belief system.
Merton (1973) The CUDOS norms Why would the following institutions support the development only thrive Science can of science?1)Religion supported by other when institutions and values.2)The military3) Industry4) Navigation
Science as an institution also requires a set ofnorms to make scientists act in a certain way.
CommunismKnowledge is published and shared with the scientific community
UniversalismKnowledge is judged by universal, objective criteria such as testing. The race, sex, class of the scientist should therefore have no impact.
DisinterestednessDiscovering knowledge for its own sake. Therefore it is ok to be proved wrong.
Organised scepticism Information is not knowledge.No knowledge claim is considered sacred. All can be investigated, criticised and potentially falsified.
Open belief systems Everything I have discovered about the universe is provisional. I hope one day that other scientists will improve upon it.
Closed belief systems The knowledge I have is perfect, the absolute truth if you will. It can neither be disproved or improved upon.
Witchcraft among the AzandeRead page 62 How does the witchcraft of the Azande showit is a closed belief system?
Polanyi (1958)• Circularity• Subsidiary explanations• Denial of legitimacy to rivals It has been raining so God You can talk all you want If it didn’t rain then I would about be pleasedcaused by must rain being with our assume that we must have prayers! I know thisbut be true scientific factors to your prayed incorrectly. asevidence mustthe weather. God controls be wrong.• Denial of science
Science as a closed belief system Read box 1.5 and feedback on how science may not be as open as we think. Q. How does the case of DR Velikovsky suggest that science may be a closed belief system?Science as a closed system
Kuhn (1970)•Scientists must work within the existing set of shared assumptions that exist •This means that any discovery must be based on and tested against agreed measures •If scientists challenge these assumptions they may be ignored, ridiculed or They picked on me when I said even removed from the profession whereas the ones who make discoveries the world wasthe existing paradigm are rewarded. within round. Technology •Every so often soproven this tomounts up against the existing paradigm has now much evidence be true. that therelove to see the po-faced and the whole process starts again. I’d is a complete paradigm shift little shits now, but I can’t because Q. Does this mean that dead. is just as closed a system as religion? they’re scienceParadigm shift
Scientific knowledge• Read the section on page 63-641)Suggest two ways in which Knorr-Cetina feels scientific ‘facts’ are fabricated.2) What does Woolgar suggest is the most important factor in a discovery being accepted?3) Suggest ways in which science serves the needs of 1) capitalism 2) men.4)What is meant by the term ‘technoscience’?
IdeologyAn ideology is a belief system. 1) A distorted, biased view of reality Q. 2) Ideas negativethe privileges of a certain group What that justify affects do you think an ideology can conceal reality and so prevent change 3) Ideas that have? Give examples. 4) A self sustaining belief system that is closed to criticism 3) I’m so lucky to be a housewife. Looking after my 1) Jews are an inferiorYou need to buyare evil. soooo rewarding and 4)2) non-believers this is All husband race and must be will tellwill make your but thing to do. phone. It you otherwise right They the life better. be trusted eliminatedthen they are not to so don’t listen to them.