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Resourcd File

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Resourcd File

  1. 1. The Media (AKA “Mass media”)Content  the new media and their significance foran understanding of the role of the media in contemporarysociety  the relationship between ownership and control of the media  the media, globalisation and popular culture  the processesof selectionand presentation of the content of the news  media representations of age, social class, ethnicity, gender, sexuality and disability  the relationship between the media, their content and presentation, and audiences. Exam: Paper 2 “Topics insociology” 2 hour paper (2 sections) The media: 1 hour For each section: 1 x 10 mark question “ Outline and explain two……” 1 x 10 mark question “Applying material from Item ?, analyse two….” 1 x 20 mark question “Applying material from Item ? and your knowledge,….”
  2. 2. Mass media Questions since 2000 2 Mark Questions - Explain what is meant by Jan 01 the phrase, “the news is socially constructed” June 01 the ‘concentration of ownership’ of the mass media Jan 02 “false needs” June 02 a ‘folk devil’ Jan 03 a stereotype June 03 the idea that the media reflect the “male gaze” Jan 04 “the hypodermic syringe model”. June 04 ”news values”. Jan 05 “folk devils”. June 05 “stereotyping”. Jan 06 ‘agenda-setting June 06 “ideology”. Jan 07 “ a cathartic effect” June 07 a .hierarchy of credibility. Jan 08 ‘symbolic annihilation’ June 08 ‘agenda-setting’ Jan 09 the symbolic annihilation of women. 4 Mark Questions Jan 01 Suggest two needs of consumers that the mass media might meet June 01 Identify two features of a moral panic Jan 02 Identify and briefly describe one sociological theory which would support the view that children may be able to resist the messages of advertisers). June 02 Give two examples of issues that have become moral panics. Jan 03 Suggest two reasons why exposure to mass media depictions of violence might not produce violent behaviour in the audience June 03 Identify two criticisms of the pluralist theory of the mass media Jan 04 Identify two possible effects that viewing violence on television may have upon audiences Jun 04 Suggest two reasons why editors. and journalists. ideology is .often broadly similar to that of the owners. Jan 05 Suggest two reasons why some groups are represented negatively by the media
  3. 3. June 05 Identify two possible controls over the media's portrayal of individuals or groups Jan 06 Identify two sociological models that see the mass media as having ‘only a limited or indirect effect’ on their audiences June 06 Identify two criticisms made of the Marxist view of the mass media Jan 07 Suggest two reasons why mass media portrayals of violence .might stimulate viewers to commit acts of violence themselves. June 07 Suggest two factors that might influence news output Jan 08 Suggest two reasons why mass media portrayals of gay and lesbian characters have become more positive in recent decades June 08 Suggest two reasons why media professionals may ‘share the same outlook as media owners’ Jan 09 suggest two reasons for the stereotyping of ethnic minority groups by the mass media 6 mark Questions – “Suggest three” Jan 01 types of audience behaviour that might be influenced by the mass media. June 01 ways in which the mass media may promote the interests of capitalism Jan 02 arguments that sociologists might put forward in support of the view that advertisements do have effects upon children. June 02 ways in which newspaper owners can ‘have a major influence over what appears in the press’ Jan 03 examples of “news values” June 03 concepts that sociologists might use in order to explain the ways in which ethnic minorities are represented by the mass media. Jan 04 needs that audiences might fulfil by using the mass media June 04 practical and/or organisational factors that .play a part in shaping the output. of media organisations Jan 05 problems sociologists face in studying media effects June 05 reasons why representations of previously stereotyped groups may now be becoming more positive Jan 06 concepts, apart from those mentioned in Item 3A, that sociologists might use to understand the process by which ‘the mass media amplify deviance’ June 06 reasons for the negative stereotyping of certain social groups by the mass media Jan 07 difficulties sociologists might face in studying the effects of the mass media on their audiences June 07Identify three news values Jan 08 Identify three ways in which the state is able to ‘influence what we see, hear and read’ June 08 ways in which government and/or the law may influence the output of the mass media Jan 09 reasons why the representation of some groups such as minority ethnic groups, older people, gays and lesbians and people with disabilities may be becoming more positive.
  4. 4. 8 mark questions - Identify and briefly explain two Jan 01 factors that may affect “whether an event will be reported in the media” June 01 criticisms of the Marxist view that the mass media simply serve capitalism. Jan 02 problems involved in studying the possible effects of the media on their audiences. June 02 reasons why moral panics occur. Jan 03 problems of using the method described in Item A to measure the effects of the media on their audiences. June 03 reasons for changes in the ways that members of groups such as those referred to in Item A are represented in the mass media. Jan 04 criticisms of the uses and gratifications approach June 04 criticisms of the .manipulative model. of mass media output Jan 05 reasons why the mass media may “have at most only a limited influence on their audiences”. June 05 reasons why the lower classes are often portrayed negatively by the mass media Jan 06 reasons why using experiments may be an unsatisfactory way of studying media effects on their audiences June 06 Identify and briefly explain one advantage and one disadvantage of using content analysis to study .how the media portray social groups. Jan 07 models or theories that see audiences as being able to resist the influence of media messages. June 07 criticisms that other sociologists might make of Marxist views of the mass media Jan 08 criticisms that other sociologists might make of the post-modernist view of the mass media, apart from the one referred to in Item 3A. June 08 Identify and briefly explain one strength and one limitation of using content analysis to study news coverage June 09 reasons why the mass media “may not have a powerful effect on their audiences”. 9 mark questions (2010 onwards) “Identify and briefly explain..” Jan 10 three ways in which the news could be said to be “a social construct that is ‘manufactured’.” Jun 10 three examples of news values. Jan 11 three ways in which media representations of sexuality and/or disability could be said to be stereotypical. June 11 three ways in which governments seek to influence or control the output of the mass media. Jan 12 three ways in which the mass media may contribute to “cultural imperialism” June 12 three ways in which globalisation has changed the role of the media over the past 20 years or so. Jan 13 three ways in which women working in media organisations otday are disadvantaged.
  5. 5. June 13 three arguments put forward by sociologists to support their claim that exposure to media violence does not make people violent. June 14 three criticisms that Marxists may make of changes in media ownership and control. June 15 three ways in which the new media have changed the processes of selection and/or presentation of the news. June 16 three arguments that claim that exposure to media violence does not make people violent. June 17 three ways in which the media stereotype men. 10 mark Questions (2017 Onwards) Spec 1 A Outline and explain two ways in which ownership of the media may affect audiences. Spec 1 B Applying material from Item A, analyse two factors that influence which stories are selected for inclusion in the news. (What counts as ‘new s’ is a socialconstruction. It is largely media professionals who select which stories are to appear in the new s. Both in broadcast and print media, a range of factors influence which stories journalists and editors select for inclusion in the new s. ) Spec 2 A Outline and explain two problems involved in studying the possible effects of the media on their audiences. Spec 2 B Applying material from Item M, analyse two reasons why governments seek to influence or control the output of the media. (Governments may seek to influence or controlthe output of the media. They do this in a variety of w ays. For example, they may pass legislation w hich places age restrictionson accessto various media products. Governments may use censorship to directly influence content and they also hold officialbriefings and press conferences.) 2017 A Outline and explain two ways in which the new media may be creating a global popular culture. 2017 B Applying material from Item M, analyse two reasons why the media often portray minority ethnic groups negatively. (There are many different ethnic groups in society today. Many of these are under-represented in positions of power, but over-represented in pow erless groupsin society. Some minority ethnic groups have different culturalbeliefs, values and practices fromthose of mainstream society. The media often portray minority ethnic groups negatively. ) 2018A Outline and explain two reasons why the news may portray young people negatively 2018B Applying material from Item M, analyse two ways in which the new media may affect the political process. (The new media are changing the w ay in w hich members of society interact with the media and w ith each other. New media users are no longer passive receivers of information and can be producers as w ellas consumers of media. How ever, new media content may not alw ays be valid.) 18 Mark Questions (2010 onwards) “Using material from Item C and elsewhere” Jan 10 assess the view that media imperialism threatens ‘the cultural identities of many countries’ June 10 examine how the new media have affected the role of the mass media in society today. Jan 11 assess the view that ‘today’s children use the media in new and very different ways from their parents’ June 11 assess the view that the selection and presentation of the news ‘is inevitably partial and biased’ Jan 12 assess the role of the mass media in the representation of Gender. June 12 assess the view that the mass media represent young people as a problem group. Jan 13 assess the view that the mass media represent many groups in stereotypical ways. June 13 assess sociological views of the selection and presentation of the news. June 14 assess the view that media representations of age and social class today are no longer stereotypical.
  6. 6. June 15 assess postmodernist views of the mass media in society today. June 16 assess the view that media representations of both young and old tend to be stereotypical. June 17 assess the view that the new media have changed the way news is selected and presented. 20 mark questions Jan 01  Examine the ways in which the mass media represent any two of the following: disability; ethnicity; gender; sexuality.  Using material from Items A and B and elsewhere, assess the pluralist view of the mass media. June 01  Examine the social processes involved in the production of the news by the mass media.  Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess the view that the mass media have a ‘direct and immediate influence’ on their audiences Jan 02  Examine the contribution of sociologists to our understanding of the ways in which the mass media portray race and ethnicity.  Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess the view that the output of the mass media is biased in favour of powerful groups. June 02  Examine the ways in which males and females are represented in the mass media.  Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess the view of the relationship between audience and media put forward in Item B. Jan 03  Examine the ways in which the mass media portray any two of the following: age; ethnicity; sexuality; disability.  Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess the view that the selection and presentation of the news by the mass media are biased. June 03  Examine the ways in which the output of the mass media may be influenced by owners and journalists.  Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess the view that audiences are largely passive and easily influenced by the mass media. Jan 04  Examine the ways in which gender and sexuality are portrayed in the mass media.  Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess the pluralist view of the mass media. June 04  Examine reasons why the mass media may exert only a limited influence over their audiences.  Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of the ways in which the mass media portray gender and social class. Jan 05  Examine the processes by which the mass media produce 'news'.  Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess the pluralist view of the mass media. June 05  Examine the ways in which audiences respond to the messages produced by the mass media.  Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess the view that capitalist ownership of the mass media means that their output is inevitably biased.
  7. 7. Jan 06  Examine the ways in which the mass media portray any two of the following: ethnicity; sexuality; disability.  Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess the hegemonic view of the mass media. June 06  Examine the ways in which the news is selected and presented to audiences.  Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess the hypodermic syringe model of the relationship between the mass media and audiences. Jan 07  Examine the role of editors, journalists and owners in influencing the output of the news media.  Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of the ways in which the mass media portray gender. June 07  Examine the ways in which the mass media portray any two of the following: age; disability; ethnicity; social class.  Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess the view that audiences. Interpretations of media messages are shaped by the social groups that they belong to. Jan 08  Examine the relationship between the mass media and their audiences.  Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess the view that ‘the role of the news is to reproduce and spread the ideology of the capitalist class’ June 08  Examine the ways in which the mass media portray two of the following: social class; disability; age; gender.  Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess the view that audiences are easily manipulated by the mass media. June 09  Examine the process involved in the selection and presentation of news.  Using material from Item 3B and elsewhere, assess the usefulness of Marxist views of the mass media. 20 mark Questions (2017 onwards) Applying material from Item N and your knowledge…. Spec 1 Applying material from Item B and your knowledge, evaluate the view that the media portray women in a stereotypical way. Spec 2 evaluate the view that the output of the media serves ruling-class interests. 2017 evaluate the pluralist view of the ownership and control of the media. 2018 evaluate the view that the media have a direct and immediate effect on their audiences. 33 mark Questions (2010 onwards) Jan 10  Assess the view that the output of the mass media has little direct effect on the audience.  Both age and ethnicity are still too often portrayed by the mass media in ways that reinforce stereotypes.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? June 10  Evaluate Marxist theories of the ownership and control of the mass media.  Assess the effects of the mass media on popular culture. Jan 11  Evaluate the pluralist view of the ownership and control of the mass media.  Assess the impact of globalisation on the structure and role of the mass media in the world today.
  8. 8. June 11  “What is shown by the mass media will not make people violent, but it may lead people to believe that we live in a violent society.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view?  ‘Media representations of minority ethnic groups are problematic and often negative.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? Jan 12  “The new media have taken control of the media away from owners and editors and placed it in the hands of users”. To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view?  Assess the view that the owners of mass media corporations control media output and serve mainly ruling class interests. June 12  Assess postmodernist contributions to our understanding of the role of the mass media in society today.  Assess the view that the news is a social construction. Jan 13  “The mass media do not control their consumers; the consumers control the mass media” To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view of the mass media today?  Assess the view that the mass media are helping to create a single global popular culture. June 13  Evaluate the contribution of Marxist theories to our understanding of the organisation and role of the mass media in the world today.  Evaluate the impact of the growth and increasing diversity of the new media on society today. June 14  Evaluate the effects of globalisation on the role of the media in society over the past 30 years or so.  ‘There is a direct link between the violence and anti-social behaviour shown through the mass media and the violent behaviour of some individuals and groups in society today.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? June 15  Critically examine the relationship between ownership and control of the mass media.  ‘There are many models that seek to explain how the relationship between the mass media and their audiences operates, but none is fully convincing.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? June 16  Assess the impact of new media over the past thirty years or so.  ‘News is always biased.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? June 17  Critically examine the role of global media empires in the ownership and control of the mass media.  ‘Changes in media technologies have been so far-reaching that the world is now a global village with a global popular culture.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view?

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