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Resourcd File

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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Contemporary Issues – Childhood 1. What is an empty nest family? 2. What are the five types of family diversity outlined by the Rapaports? 3. What is the dual burden? 4. What is the triple shift? 5. How do families serve capitalism? Saturday, 23 February 2019 When children have grown up and left their parents homes. Social class: how social class affects resources etc Organisational: divisions of domestic labour Cultural: values and beliefs between families of different religions and ethnicities Life cycle: stage in life cycle (birth to death) Generational: period in history Where women work and do domestic labour. Where women work, do domestic labour and emotion work, A unit of consumption: e.g. family holidays, family cars… Economic function: women carry out unpaid labour, enabling men to work Reproduce inequalities: upper class families pass on advantages to children and working class families pass on disadvantages
  2. 2. There is no fixed, sociological definition of what childhood is…. Instead, sociologists agree that it is a social construct. The concept of childhood varies depending on culture, place, and time. For example, age restriction laws may influence what age we believe childhood to be, and these can differ vastly across the world. What is childhood?
  3. 3. The Position of Children in the UK Throughout Time • Coming round will be a timeline, make sure you have one each • We will be looking at childhood from pre-industrialization to the 20th century • On the board there will be explanations of childhood for each of the four stages of childhood we will be looking at • Read through the explanation with your partner and decide whether this would have been the position of children pre-industrialisation, during industrialisation, mid 19th century or 20th century, then write these down in your timelines
  4. 4. • Children were ‘little adults’ who took part in the same work and play activities. • Toys and games for children did not exist. • Aries: children seen as an economic asset, rather than something to be cared for • Children were punished for crimes in the same way that adults were • Children from W/C families still worked in mines and factories BUT!!! • M/C attitudes started to change- parents investing emotionally in children as the death rate of children was starting to fall • Children were banned from working in the factories and mines where many had been killed. • BUT some W/C parents resisted changes as they depended on children wages and many children continued to be badly treated • Child- centred society: children are valued, loved and protected • Improved standards of living= major decline in infant mortality rates • Increased availability of contraception meant couples could choose to have fewer children Pre-industrialisation 20th Century Industrialisation Mid-19th Century
  5. 5. Pre-industrial society: Industrialisation Mid 19th Century: 20th Century:
  6. 6. What period of time am I? • Children and adults both work • Children’s toys and games do not exist • Lots of laws to protect children • Many middle class children stop working • Increased contraception • Aries argued that children were regarded as an economic asset • Child-centred society Pre-industrial Pre-industrial 20th Century Industrialisation 20th Century Pre-industrial20th Century
  7. 7. Reasons why families have become more child centred • Coming round will be a spider-diagram about why families have become more child-centred. However, it has only been half filled out! The rest of the information will be below. • Link the correct pieces of information together Parents can invest more emotionally and financially in the children they do have Infant mortality rate (the amount of children surviving after birth) has improved All children now need to stay in education or training until 18, pre- industrialisation, this was a luxury only m/c children could afford There has been an increase in pester power, how much influence children have on parental spending Children have the legal right to be free from abuse, education, health care… In parents do not meet the legal rights entitled to children, they are punished Children living in poverty and/ or lone parent families have extra financial support to battle the affects of poverty
  8. 8. Reasons why families have become more child centred. Welfare state support for children, this means that… Children have more legal rights this means that… Improvements in early years education and compulsory schooling have meant that….. Higher living standards have meant that… Children have become a target of consumer marketing, this means that… Smaller families have meant that… Parents can invest more emotionally and financially in the children they do have There has been an increase in pester power, how much influence children have on parental spending Infant mortality rate (the amount of children surviving after birth) has improved Children have the legal right to be free from abuse, education, health care… In parents do not meet the legal rights entitled to children, they are punished All children now need to stay in education or training until 18, pre-industrialisation, this was a luxury only m/c children could afford Children living in poverty and/ or lone parent families have extra financial support to battle the affects of poverty
  9. 9. Reasons why families have become more child centred. Welfare state support for children, this means that… Children have more legal rights this means that… Improvements in early years education and compulsory schooling have meant that….. Higher living standards have meant that… Children have become a target of consumer marketing, this means that… Smaller families have meant that…
  10. 10. Two Minute Break
  11. 11. How do we decide what is ‘age appropriate’? Activity Age I think it should be Actual age restriction Be convicted of a serious crime Engage in sexual intercourse Join the armed forces Claim benefits Be left home alone Give consent for your own medical treatment Go abroad alone Apply to adopt a child Get married Vote Buy alcohol or tobacco
  12. 12. How do we decide what is ‘appropriate’? Be convicted of a serious crime 10 Engage in sexual intercourse 16 Join the armed forces 18 Claim benefits 16 Be left home alone 14 Give consent for your own medical treatment 16 Go abroad alone 14 (with chaperone) Apply to adopt a child 21 Get married 16 Vote 18 Buy alcohol or tobacco 18
  13. 13. Activity Age I think it should be Actual age restriction Be convicted of a serious crime Engage in sexual intercourse Join the armed forces Claim benefits Be left home alone Give consent for your own medical treatment Go abroad alone Apply to adopt a child Get married Vote Buy alcohol or tobacco Activity Age I think it should be Actual age restriction Be convicted of a serious crime Engage in sexual intercourse Join the armed forces Claim benefits Be left home alone Give consent for your own medical treatment Go abroad alone Apply to adopt a child Get married Vote Buy alcohol or tobacco
  14. 14. Sue Palmer (2006) “There are alarming signs of toxic childhood” Where rapid technological and cultural changes cause psychological and physical damage to children
  15. 15. According to Palmer the trend to ‘toxic childhood’ is the result of… 1. Unhealthy food 2. A lack of play in natural surroundings 3. Poor sleep patterns 4. Little time to interact within the family 5. Decline in emotional security
  16. 16. Palmer notes that all of the negative trends are reversible, a ‘detox childhood’. In order to ‘detox childhood’ in Britain what would you do? What is the answer?
  17. 17. Differences in Childhood between Countries Risa, 15, Kyoto, Japan Jasmine, 4, Kentucky, USA Phnom Penh, 8, Roathy, Cambodia Alex, 9, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Children in non-industrialised countries differ in three main ways: 1. Have more responsibility at an earlier age 2. Children’s sexual behaviour is viewed differently 3. Less emphasis on children showing obedience to adult authority
  18. 18. Cross-cultural differences in childhood The freedom from adult responsibilities experienced by many Western children is not found in all societies. • The International Labour Organisation say that: • 28% (58 million) children are in work • Child Soldiers International: • 2004-2007 child soldiers were involved in active conflict in 21 countries This tells us that childhood is not the same in every society
  19. 19. Explanations for changes in Childhood Dependent Children In the UK dependent children are either under 16 or 16-19 undertaking full time education. Cross cultural differences in childhood The way in which children are viewed and treated across different cultures and around the world Socially constructed The concept of childhood is a socially constructed and biological period before adult status and referring to a set of beliefs about what it means to be a child Child centeredness Families have become more child focussed. This developed within the nuclear family with more attention, money and status given to the child. Children need to be protected The idea that childhood has been developed into a “special” and vulnerable time. Toxic Childhood Sue Palmer said that rapid technological change has damaged children’s development- changes in availability of junk food, computer games, intensive marketing to children, long hours worked by parents and increased testing in education. Age patriarchy Inequalities between adults and children, the way in which adults dominate children Pester power The way in which children can persistently persuade their parents to buy things Historical differences in childhood They way children are viewed and treated has changed over time Colour code the statements: Things have got better Things have got worse Little difference
  20. 20. Dependent Children In the UK dependent children are either under 16 or 16-19 undertaking full time education. Cross cultural differences in childhood The way in which children are viewed and treated across different cultures and around the world Socially constructed The concept of childhood is a socially constructed and biological period before adult status and referring to a set of beliefs about what it means to be a child Child centeredness Families have become more child focussed. This developed within the nuclear family with more attention, money and status given to the child. Children need to be protected The idea that childhood has been developed into a “special” and vulnerable time. Toxic Childhood Sue Palmer said that rapid technological change has damaged children’s development- changes in availability of junk food, computer games, intensive marketing to children, long hours worked by parents and increased testing in education. Age patriarchy Inequalities between adults and children, the way in which adults dominate children Pester power The way in which children can persistently persuade their parents to buy things Historical differences in childhood They way children are viewed and treated has changed over time
  21. 21. Exit Pass True False The concept of childhood is the same across all cultures Changes in law in the UK has improved the safety of children and their experiences of childhood One reasons for our child-centred society is the increased availability and access to contraception Palmer argues that rapid technological and cultural changes have improved children’s cause psychological and physical well-being Children today have to stay in education or training until minimum 16     

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