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Resourcd File

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Resourcd File

  1. 1. Starter: Match the Key Term & Definition Classical Conditioning Learning through reinforcement or punishment. If a behaviour is followed by a desirable consequence then that behaviour is most likely to be repeated again in future. Research: Skinners rats (1938) Negative Reinforcement Occurs when a certain behaviour produces a positive or pleasant consequence, which in turn increases the likelihood of that behaviour reoccurring. Operant Conditioning Something that is learned. Positive Reinforcement When a neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus, that it eventually takes on the property of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response. Research: Pavlov's Dogs (1927) Conditioned Adding something unpleasant to a situation in order to decrease the likelihood of that behavior reoccurring. Punishment A term used in psychology to refer to anything that strengthens a response and increases the likelihood that it will happen again in the future Negative Punishment A term in psychology that refers to anything that weakens a response, thus decreasing the likelihood of that behaviour happening again in the future, Positive Punishment Taking away something pleasant from a situation in order to decrease the of that behaviour that reoccurring. Reinforcement Occurs when a certain behaviour removes something aversive from the situation, which in turn increases the likelihood of that behaviour reoccurring.
  2. 2. EVALUATING THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH Learning Objectives • Evaluate the behavioural approach. • Construct various elements of PEJ paragraphs.
  3. 3. AO2 – Apply It! 4 Marks Joel is addicted to online fruit gambling. He spends a lot of time on this and other forms of online gambling’ 1. Explain Joel’s gambling addiction using operant conditioning. Use the concepts of positive and negative reinforcement in your explanation. Challenge Task: Explain a concept that could lead to a reduction in Joel's gambling behaviour? Top Tip Any examples you give MUST relate to the scenario!! 5 minutes
  4. 4. Swap your work Success Criteria – 4 Marks  Must relate back to scenario throughout! Cannot achieve full marks without this.  Explain Positive Reinforcement & given example in relation to Joel & Gambling (2 Mark)  Explain Negative Reinforcement and given examples in relation to Joel & Gambling (2 Mark) Give your partner: What Went Well (WWW) Even Better If (EBI)
  5. 5. Big Think Can you think of any ideas about how these images may link to a weakness of the behaviourist approach?
  6. 6. Point: A limitation of the behaviourist approach is that it has a mechanistic view Task: Use the prompts below to help you form a clear, EXPLAIN section. Humans & animals are described as passive machine – like responders to their environment. Other approaches place much more emphasis on the mental events that occur when learning Give an example of another approach? Give an example of how humans are seen as machine like responders in the behaviourist theory Justify: However, critics of the approach would argue that the processes that mediate between stimulus and response suggest that in fact humans play a much more active role in their learning . Important factors like emotions, expectations, higher-level motivation are not considered or explained. 10 minutes
  7. 7. BigThink ■ Can you think of any ideas about how these images may link to a strength of the behaviourist approach?
  8. 8. Point: A strength of classical conditioning is that it has led to the development of effective therapies. ■ TASK: Create your explain by answering the key questions… 1. What therapy has classical conditioning helped develop? 2. What is the therapy used to treat? 3. How does the therapy work? – Focus on counter conditioning & reciprocal inhibition and how this relates to the theory of classical conditioning? Justify: Therefore, this approach and treatment has been found to be effective for treating a range of phobias such as a fear of spiders (arachnophobia) or a fear of flying (aerophobia), thus adding value to theory as it has real-life applications. 10 minutes
  9. 9. Token Economy Systems This is a practical behaviour modification technique that is used in institutions such as prison or on psychiatric wards. They’re used to obtain desirable behaviour. Appropriate behaviour is rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for privileges (operant conditioning) – what type? Most reinforces are consumable commodities such as tobacco, sweets, and food. Your Task: Use this information to help you form a PEJ Strength of the behaviourist approach and operant conditioning. 10 minutes
  10. 10. Think Pair Share Determinism The determinist approach proposes that all behavior is caused by preceding factors and is thus predictable. The causal laws of determinism form the basis of science
  11. 11. Point: A limitation of behaviourist approach is that it is a form of environmental determinism ■ The approach sees all behaviour as determined by past experiences that have been conditioned and ignores any influence that free will that our behaviour may have. ■ Skinner suggested that free will was an illusion. When something happens we impose a sense of having made the decision but our past conditioning actually determined the outcome. ■ It is only because we are not aware of the environmental causes of our own behavior or other people’s that we are tricked into believing in our ability to choose. YOUR TASK Create a justify for this P & E… Is this view extreme/controversial? What about our cognitions? Why might people reject the view of determinism? Is it simplistic? 5 minutes
  12. 12. Point: A strength of behaviourism is that it gave Psychology scientific credibility. Knowing what you know about the new scientific approach (Origins of Psychology)… Why do you think behaviourism was ‘scientific’ TASK :Use the below questions to help you form an explain 1. Where was the supporting research (Pavlov & Skinners) research carried out? What's good about this? 2. Is the research observable? Is it replicable? – Clear methods easy to replicate? 3. Does it follow the two assumptions (determinism & predictability?) 5 minutes Justify: Therefore, behaviourism brought the language and methods of the natural sciences into psychology. Thus, giving Psychology greater credibility and status.
  13. 13. Plenary: Thought Chain You need to think of one fact about Behaviourist Approach. We are going to go around the room and share the facts… HOWEVER – once a fact has been said it cannot be repeated! So make sure you’re listening & have backup ideas….

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