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Resourcd File

  1. 1. AO3 - EVALUATION Evaluate the origins of Psychology & Psychology as a scientific method. Construct PEJ arguments for your strengths and weakness’s
  2. 2. THINK, PAIR, SHARE What is an evaluation ? End123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960
  3. 3. HOW TO WRITE AN EVALUATIVE PARAGRAPH IN PSYCHOLOGY So I want you to imagine we are evaluating a new brand of chocolate! ‘Gooey Louie’s’
  4. 4. Point: A strength of this new brand of chocolate it is cheap. Ok… how do WE know it's cheap? Example/Evidence: Cadburys are selling their 20g chocolate bars for 84p however Gooey Louies are selling 20g bars for 45p. Justify: Therefore, in comparison to other competing brands, Gooey Louie is nearly half the price and thus could be deemed good value for money. Expanding on/ defending your initial point! Backing up your ideas. DO NOT just repeat your point
  5. 5. EVALUATION POINTS What's good about this theory? What's NOT SO good about it? A strength of the scientific approach & the scientific cycle is that it IS self corrective. A strength of the Wundt’s methods is that some of them would be considered scientific today. A limitation of introspection is that it is NOT always accurate. A limitation of the scientific approach is that is focuses on artificial environments A limitation of the scientific approach is that not all approaches use ‘objective’ measures
  6. 6. HOW TO WRITE AN EVALUATIVE PARAGRAPH IN PSYCHOLOGYThe power of PEJ
  7. 7. Do you know everything that is happening in your brain? Are you aware of the reasoning behind everything you do?
  8. 8. A limitation of introspection is that it is not always accurate What is introspection? Whose idea was it?
  9. 9. A limitation of introspection is that it is not always accurate Most psychologists accept Nisbett & Wilsons (1977) claim that overall we have very little knowledge of the causes of and processes underlying our behaviours. This idea challenges introspective accounts given by people, Nisbett and Wilson found that for example participants were remarkably unaware of factors that had been influential in their choice of consumer item. This is particularly true for implicit attitudes (stereotypes, or attitudes that are unknown to us).For example: A person may be implicitly racist, which influences the way they react to certain ethnic groups… However these attitudes exist outside of conscious awareness therefore would not be uncovered through self-report (introspection) methods. The person would not report themselves as racist because they are UNAWARE of it. Women more frequently interrupted in business meetings. The Horns Effect When we see one bad thing about a person and we let it cloud our opinions of their other attributes. For example, when interviewing someone we might be put off by the fact that they speak very slowly because our unconscious bias has caused us to assume that someone who speaks slowly is unintelligent. If we assume they’re unintelligent, everything they say or do for the rest of the interview will be clouded by our judgement.
  10. 10. A limitation of introspection is that it is not always accurate Most psychologists accept Nisbett & Wilsons (1977) claim that overall we have very little knowledge of the causes of and processes underlying our behaviours. This idea challenges introspective accounts given by people, Nisbett and Wilson found that for example participants were remarkably unaware of factors that had been influential in their choice of consumer item. This is particularly true for implicit attitudes (stereotypes, or attitudes that are unknown to us).For example: A person may be implicitly racist, which influences the way they react to certain ethnic groups… However these attitudes exist outside of conscious awareness therefore would not be uncovered through self-report (introspection) methods. The person would not report themselves as racist because they are UNAWARE of it. Women more frequently interrupted in business meetings. The Horns Effect When we see one bad thing about a person and we let it cloud our opinions of their other attributes. For example, when interviewing someone we might be put off by the fact that they speak very slowly because our unconscious bias has caused us to assume that someone who speaks slowly is unintelligent. If we assume they’re unintelligent, everything they say or do for the rest of the interview will be clouded by our judgement.
  11. 11. A strength of the scientific approach is that it is self-corrective Objective, Systematic and Replicable Observation Building, Refining, or Falsifying Development of Scientific Theory Testing Looking at the scientific cycle… WHY might the scientific approach be considered self correcting?
  12. 12. A strength of the scientific approach is that it is self-corrective Because of the scientific study's reliance on objective and systematic methods of observation, knowledge acquired through this method is much more than just a passive acceptance of facts. Knowledge is observed, empirical and is tested. Additionally, If scientific theories no longer fit the facts, they can be refined or abandoned, meaning that scientific process is self-corrective. Research is key? If a theory is challenged consistently by new research we can tweak the theory, oppose it or even create a brand new one. Finally, psychologists are always repeating each other's work and carry out peer reviews too.Therefore, a theory that is no longer valid or reliable will be discovered quickly. Objective, Systematic and Replicable Observation Building, Refining, or Falsifying Development of Scientific Theory Testing
  13. 13. A strength of Wundt’s methods is that some of them would be considered scientific today. • For instance Wundt recorded observations within a controlled laboratory environment. •He standardised his procedures so that all participants received the same information and were tested in the same way. •Therefore, for the above reasons Wundt's research can be considered a forerunner to later scientific approaches in Psychology that were to come.
  14. 14. What Do These Images All Have In Common?
  15. 15. A limitation of the scientific approach is that is focuses on artificial environments By concentrating on objectivity and control in observations scientific psychology creates contrived (fake, artificial) situations that tell us little about how people act in more natural environments. Is this useful if we are trying to explain everday behaviours? Furthermore, much of the subject of Psychology is unobservable and cannot be measured – how can we measure cognitions (thoughts)? How can we measure unconscious aspects of our personality? We cannot listen in to someone's thoughts. Out of all the sciences Psychology is definitely viewed as the most inferential i.e. there is a far bigger gap between the data obtained in research and the theories put forward to explain the data. We have to make inferences (suggestions/interpretations) because not everything we study can be measured explicitly or obviously.
  16. 16. A Limitation Of The Scientific Approach Is That Not All Approaches Use ‘Objective’ Measures The humanistic approach for example is anti-scientific and does not attempt to formulate general laws of behaviour. It is only concerned with documenting an individual's unique subjective experiences. The psychodynamic approach makes use of case studies – with interview techniques open to bias, focused on one individual case and no attempt is made to gather a sample representative of the population. Therefore many claim that a scientific approach to the study of human thought and experiences are not possible or desirable for some approaches. Therefore some would argue there are important and distinctive differences between Psychology and the natural sciences
  17. 17. PLENARY: THOUGHT CHAIN  You need to think of one fact you have learnt in the last 2 lessons, and share it as we go around the class. HOWEVER, the catch is you can’t repeat fact… so the people at the back of the

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