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Building Innovation Guide by Reshma Singh

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Building Innovation: Guide for High-Performance Energy-Efficient Buildings in India. Reshma Singh.

For an energy engineer, consultant, technologist, academic, or anyone interested in the buildings sector in India, the explosive growth in energy use and trends in new construction provide a fascinating opportunity for climate change mitigation. In this deck Reshma presents transformative tools, technologies and approaches that can accelerate high-performance next-generation buildings in India. She introduces topics such as- What is a holistic decision framework for a developer-owner’s energy-related investments, what are effective energy targets and performance goals for architects and sustainability managers to pursue, and what types of software tools, building products and policies help enable short and long terms benefits? She offers inventive combinations of building wisdom and technology innovation that have been validated through building energy simulation, case studies and expert opinion.

The deck are based on findings from a five year US-India research program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Indian Government, and can be found in the new book Building Innovation, found at BIT.LY/BUILDINGINNOVATIONGUIDE

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Building Innovation Guide by Reshma Singh

  1. 1. Building Innovation Guide to High-Performance Energy-Efficient Buildings in India “BIG Guide” Reshma Singh Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), USA 12th Dec 2018. Berkeley, CA 1
  2. 2. 1  Context for BIG 1  The Problem 2  High-performance building (green, smart, healthy X TBL) 3  Stakeholders 2  Principles 1  Triple bottom-line 2  Lifecycle Approach 3  Sequential Methodology 3  Process 1  Case Studies 2  Energy Simulations 3  Expert Opinion 4  Deep Dive into BIG 1  Whole building 2  Envelope, plugs, and lighting 3  Low energy cooling and controls 4  Energy data and decision-making 5  Conclusions 1  Primary drivers 2  8 Key metrics 3  MoScoW matrix 4  Design, Build, Operate, Procure 2 Outline “BIG” DOWNLOAD: BIT.LY/BUILDINGINNOVATIONGUIDE
  3. 3. 3 Part I: Context
  4. 4. CONTEXT 4 SOURCES: EIA (2012), ECO-III (2011) Explosive growth in building footprint in emerging economies like India Context
  5. 5. 5 India U.S. ~38 quads ~8 quads Total energy use= ~24 Quads 8% annual growth in building energy Buildings consume ~30% of total energy Total energy use= ~97 Quads (EIA 2018) Buildings consume ~40% of total energy 298 202 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 US India Average EUI (kWh/m2-yr) (100 kBtu/ sqft-yr) (70 kBtu/ sqft-yr) SO WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? SOURCES: EIA (2018), IEA (2015), MOSPI (2017), CBERD (2018) Skyrocketing building energy use
  6. 6. SO WHAT IS THE PROBLEM? 6 Increased space use intensity BAU-1 BAU-2 BAU-2 Context BAU: Business-As-Usual
  7. 7. What are the consequences if we don’t change the status quo? 7 Building energy use and waste Environmental impact Urban heat, carbon emissions, SOx, NOx, PM 2.5, methane Polluted, unhealthy, expensive built environment = A high toll Human comfort impact Task performance, absenteeism, health symptoms, and productivity Financial impact High facilities management, waste, churn and vacancy cost Context
  8. 8. 8 Context: US & Indian offices
  9. 9. 9 floor space Gme CHARACTERIZING THE COMMERCIAL BUILDING STOCK: OFFICE TYPOLOGY Context
  10. 10. 10 1.  Indigenous 2. BAU: RCC, punched windows 3. BAU: RCC, high glazed 4. TARGET: High performance UncondiEoned Decentralized cooling Centralized cooling InnovaEve cooling Low energy Medium energy use High energy use Low energy use Low service level Low-medium service level High service level High service levels Arguable comfort Low-medium comfort Medium comfort AdapEve comfort Low cost Medium cost High cost Medium cost 1 floor space Gme Context
  11. 11. 11 1.  Indigenous 2. BAU1: RCC, punched windows 3. BAU: RCC, high glazed 4. TARGET: High performance UncondiEoned Decentralized cooling Centralized cooling InnovaEve cooling Low energy Medium energy use High energy use Low energy use Low service level Low-medium service level High service level High service levels Arguable comfort Low-medium comfort Medium comfort AdapEve comfort Low cost Medium cost High cost Medium cost 1 2 BAU: Business as Usual BAU: Business as Usual floor space Gme Context 11
  12. 12. 1.  Indigenous 2. BAU1: RCC, punched windows 3. BAU2: RCC, high glazed 4. TARGET: High performance UncondiEoned Decentralized cooling Centralized cooling InnovaEve cooling Low energy Medium energy use High energy use Low energy use Low service level Low-medium service level High service level High service levels Arguable comfort Low-medium comfort Medium comfort AdapEve comfort Low cost Medium cost High cost Medium cost 1 2 3 BAU: Business as Usual 12 floor space Gme Context
  13. 13. 13 Context 1.  Indigenous 2. BAU1: RCC, punched windows 3. BAU2: RCC, high glazed 4. TARGET: High performance UncondiEoned Decentralized cooling Centralized cooling InnovaEve cooling Low energy Medium energy use High energy use Low energy use Low service level Low-medium service level High service level High service levels Arguable comfort Low-medium comfort Medium comfort AdapEve comfort Low cost Medium cost High cost Medium cost 1 2 3 4 BAU: Business as Usual floor space Gme
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15 BUILDING INNOVATION FOR INDIA (And other warm-climate regions with similar construction and developmental contexts) Codes & Standards RaGng system CerGficaGon Context
  16. 16. 16 Transformative tools, technologies and approaches to accelerate high- performance buildings A shared set of values and metrics that resonate across buildings stakeholders Based on a triple- bottom-line framework for the building lifecycle Inventive combinations of building wisdom and technology innovation validated through building energy simulation, case studies, and expert opinion. DEMOCRATIZE, DIGITIZE, DECARBONIZE
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 Acknowledging the contribution of our collaborators whose pursuit for creation of high-performance and low-energy buildings led us to an integrated methodology for the creation of this book. Metro Valley Infosys Wipro Ecoenergy AB Lall Architects Development Alternatives Environmental Design Solutions Paharpur Building Center Godrej, Sears, Nirlon Integrative Design Solutions Kukreja Associates Kalpakrit Sustainable Environments Paharpur Building Center PS Collective Sterling India Ltd. Synefra Thank you also to our allies USGBC- GBCI, IGBC, USIBC, CSIS, AEEE, TERI, NRDC, CA Governors Office CBERD partners CEPT University, IIIT- Hyderabad, MNIT Jaipur, IIT Bombay, Auroville CSR Carnegie Mellon University, UC Berkeley, RPI, ORNL And to our funder the U.S. Department of Energy, and it’s collaborator agency USAID
  19. 19. 19 Part 2: Principles
  20. 20. 20 1. Establish a Triple Bottom Line Framework for Building Investment Decisions Schedule Scope Cost PROFIT Financial Capital PEOPLE Human Capital PLANET Natural Capital Quality and Performance Principles
  21. 21. 21 Principles SOURCE: CBERD.ORG
  22. 22. 22 2. Develop a Whole-Building Life-cycle Performance Framework Principles SOURCE: CBERD.ORG
  23. 23. 23 Principles 3. Implement a Sequential Approach
  24. 24. 24 Part 3: Process
  25. 25. 25 60% 20% 20% HVAC Plugs Lights 45% 40% 15% Electricity end-use consumption for a typical commercial office (left) and an IT office (right) in India Process: Examine end- uses TYPICAL OFFICE IT/ITES OFFICE
  26. 26. 26 1. CASE STUDIES •  15, across 4 climate zones •  Mix of owner- occupied and tenanted •  Site visits, with access to typ. operational data and/or drawings Process
  27. 27. 27 176 runs, 2 baselines, 4 passive and 4 active strategies •  4 climate zones X 4 orientaEons X 2 base cases, 7+2 best pracEce suites* = parametric analysis using min. 176 simulaGon runs, with iteraGons •  ConstrucEon basis specifically from the Indian context •  4 major passive strategies: form, envelope, natural venElaEon, night flush •  4 HVAC operaGon types: mixed mode, VAV, VRF, radiant 2. BUILDING ENERGY SIMULATIONSProcess
  28. 28. 28 •  Squint tests, state of art, state of practice insights from India experts •  Rationalization and prioritization by leveraging Berkeley Lab’s R&D expertise 3. EXPERT OPINIONS 0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 BAU ECBC BP1 BP1 BP2 BP2 BP3 BP4 BP5 BP6 BP7 OpEmal FenestraEon OpEmal Shadings Low Energy Plugs Daylight Control Night Flush Mixed-Mode Radiant Cooling Radiant (COP7) VRF Systems Business-as-Usual Code-Compliant OpEmized Envelope Reduced Internal Loads Passive Cooling Strategies Improved Cooling System Whole Building Energy [kWh/m²/year] Process
  29. 29. Common practice Envelope and Systems Bldg. Dimension: 50 x 33m | Shell ComposiGon: Brick | Wall: U = 2.18 W/m²K | Roof: U = 2.18 W/m²K | Solar ReflecGon: 30% | Thermal emicance: 90% Windows: Simple Glazing, Aluminum Frame | WWR: 80% | U = 5.62 W/m²K | SHGC: 0.48 | VLT = 48% HVAC System: PTAC VAV MulE-Zone with Water Cooling Coil | Chiller: COP = 5.1 | VAV Terminal with Electric Reheat Occupancy: 10 m²/pers | LPD: 10 W/m² | Plug Loads Density: 10.8 W/m² | VenGlaGon: 8.5 m³/h/pers + 1 m³/h/m² BAU SIMULATION MODEL: Assumptions and Parameters Process
  30. 30. 30 Common pracGce Envelope and Systems Bldg. Dimension: 50 x 33m | Shell ComposiEon: Brick | Wall: U = 2.18 W/m²K | Roof: U = 2.18 W/m²K | Solar ReflecEon: 30% | Thermal emiqance: 90% Windows: Simple Glazing, Aluminum Frame | WWR = 80% | U = 5.62 W/m²K | SHGC = 0.48 | VLT = 48% HVAC System: PTAC VAV MulE-Zone with Water Cooling Coil | Chiller: COP = 5.1 | VAV Terminal with Electric Reheat Occupancy: 10 m²/pers | LPD = 10 W/m² | Plug Loads Density = 10.8 W/m² | VenElaEon = 8.5 m³/h/pers + 1 m³/h/m² BAU ECBC-compliant Envelope and Systems Shell ComposiEon: Brick, GlassWool | Wall: U = 0.44 W/m²K | Cool Roof: U = 0.41 W/m²K | Solar ReflecEon: 70% | Thermal emiqance: 90% Windows: Double Glazing, Vinyl/Wood Frame | WWR = 50% | U = 3.30 W/m²K | SHGC = 0.22 | VLT = 50% | Overhangs depth: 0.6 m LPD = 10 W/m²K | Plug Loads Density = 10 W/m²K ECBC OpGmized Envelope Building Dimension: 80 x 20m Window-to-Wall RaEo: North = 40% / South = 30% / East and West = 0% Fins on North Façade and Overhangs on South (depth depending on locaEon) BP1 Reduced Internal Loads LPD = 5 W/m² | Plug Loads = 7.5 W/m² DaylighEng Control: Two sensors (3m and 6m away from window) | Setpoint: 300 lux BP2 Night Flush Purge Flow Rate: 5 ACH Trigger: Tout < Tins Minimum Tins = 25°C BP3 Radiant System Loop: 12°C – 16°C Heat Pump: COP = 5 BP5 VRF System CAV VenElaEon Cooling System COP = 4 One Evaporator per Zone BP7 Mixed Mode Natural VenElaEon: 5 ACH Control: Maintaining 80% adapEve comfort BP4 HVAC Suite Radiant Ceiling + passive cooling strategies Chiller COP = 7 BP6 BaselinesBestPracticesCases
  31. 31. 31 Modeled data using parametric analysis in the EnergyPlus modeling platform 280 146 138 136 104 90 89 83 86 82 78 268 146 138 137 106 93 92 84 88 85 80 253 144 136 134 99 82 80 72 72 69 69 232 125 115 114 79 64 61 53 62 60 61 0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 BAU ECBC BP1 BP1 BP2 BP2 BP3 BP4 BP5 BP6 BP7 OpEmal FenestraEon OpEmal Shadings Low Energy Plugs Daylight Control Night Flush Mixed-Mode Radiant Cooling Radiant (COP7) VRF Systems Business-as- Usual Code- Compliant OpEmized Envelope Reduced Internal Loads Passive Cooling Strategies Improved Cooling System Whole Building Energy [kWh/m²/year] Hot and Dry (Jaipur) Composite (New Delhi) Warm and Humid (Mumbai) Moderate (Bangalore) Process
  32. 32. 32 1. Total energy consumption per unit area, or Energy Performance Index (EPI): •  To assess the energy performance of a model at the whole-building level. •  Use energy consumption by end use to determine if a particular end use needs to be improved or if potential savings are negligible. For Builder/Owner, lower EPI= lowered CapEx, O&M and replacement cost 2. Total heat gains and losses of the building •  To indicate potential passive measures to reduce cooling and ventilation loads. •  In hot climate zones, energy efficient envelopes promote heat losses and avoid superfluous external heat gains. For Architect/Engineer, lower external heat gain= more flexibility in design; further enhanced innovative, efficient cooling systems 3. Occupant thermal discomfort •  Assessed based on # hours where predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) exceeds 20%. •  In ASHRAE Standard-55, a design is considered to be comfortable when this value does not exceed 4% of the total occupied time. •  The discomfort value is used to validate that the HVAC system is providing adequate comfort. For Facility operator/ Tenant, better thermal comfort = fewer complaints, better health, productivity, and tenant retention Modeling results using three aspects:Process
  33. 33. 33 STUDY OF PROBLEM AREAS AND SOLUTIONS META-ANALYSIS 1: COMFORT MODEL FOR AC AND MIXED MODE (MM) BUILDINGS •  Fanger’s model used as being efficient for air- condiEoned spaces •  AdapEve comfort model for occupant-controlled naturally condiEoned spaces during “changeover” mixed-mode operaEons •  Flexible setpoint with wider band of acceptance 26-32C •  Allows system size reducGon and turndown with lower chiller lie (capex and opex opportunity) META-ANALYSIS 2: NIGHT FLUSH POTENTIAL •  Hours in a day to months in a year that allow system shut down (opex opportunity) Thermal comfort analyses using adapEve and Fanger comfort models Period conducive for night cooling Night flush potenEal Process
  34. 34. 34 STUDY OF PROBLEM AREAS AND SOLUTIONS META-ANALYSIS 3: ANALYSIS OF SOLAR LOADS THROUGH WINDOWS) •  OrientaGon-wise external thermal loads management opportuniGes, e.g. opGmize glazing vs. shading design (Capex opportunity) META-ANALYSIS 4: ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL THERMAL LOADS (LIGHTS, PLUGS) •  Important, climate-independent strategies for lighGng and plug load reducGon: cut EPI by 40% even in a BAU building •  Daylight sensing and controls has a significant ROI Annual solar energy transmiqed to a verEcal surface by orientaEon (Jaipur) Analysis of solar loads through windows by orientaEon Analysis of internal thermal loads. ProporEon of lighEng and plug loads in energy demand (le{) and heat gains (right) Process
  35. 35. Baselines: BAU and ECBCProcess: Baselines City Climate Bangalore Temperate Jaipur Hot & Dry Mumbai Warm & Humid New Delhi Composite Model Name BAU ECBC BAU ECBC BAU ECBC BAU ECBC EPI [kWh/m²] 232 125 280 146 253 144 268 146 Savings 46% 48% 43% 46% Uncomfortable hours (Ratio of Total Occupied Time) (%) West 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 North 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 East 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 South 1 0 2 1 4 1 2 1 Core 4 0 5 1 7 1 5 1
  36. 36. Baselines: BAU and ECBCProcess: Baselines 4287 5158 4664 4885 -1397 -1238 -843 -1284 2319 2625 2502 2553 -760 -626 -392 -670 Bangalore Jaipur Mumbai New Delhi Gains Losses Gains Losses
  37. 37. Process: Baselines 56 28 82 42 82 46 78 41 95 28 105 32 89 28 99 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 40 37 40 37 40 37 40 37 9 0 21 3 9 0 19 5 0 50 100 150 200 250 BAU ECBC BAU ECBC BAU ECBC BAU ECBC Bangalore Jaipur Mumbai New Delhi EnergyConsumption[kWh/m²] Cooling Fans Lights Plug Loads Heating EPI savings: 46% 48% 43% 46% Baselines: BAU and ECBC
  38. 38. 38 Part 4: Deep-dive into best practice strategies
  39. 39. 39 BEST PRACTICES 1.  WHOLE BUILDING 2.  BUILDING PHYSICAL SYSTEMS   IMPROVE ENVELOPE AND PASSIVE DESIGN   REDUCE PLUG AND PROCESS LOADS   OPTIMIZE LIGHTING DESIGN   DEVELOP LOW-ENERGY HVAC   IMPLEMENT CLIMATE CONTROLS 3.  BUILDING INFORMATION SYSTEMS   INSTALL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS DD: Best PracGces
  40. 40. DD: Whole Building Metrics
  41. 41. 41 www.pbc.net DD: Envelope & Passive Design Climate: Composite Operations: Owner-occupied Strategy: Cool envelope surface materials Benefit: 5-10% AC load reduction on top floor Climate: Warm-Humid Operations: Owner-occupied Strategy: Vegetated roof Benefit: 10 degree reduction in surface temp; 5-10% AC load reduction; decreased peak, retrofit system size Decrease Solar Heat Gain
  42. 42. 42 Optimize fenestration: Window to wall(WWR) ratio & shading 2648 492 387 No Shadings No Shadings With Shadings Overall 80% Window 40% Window North 30% Window South Annual Solar Energy [GJ] ~80% reducEon ~20% reducEon Climate: Composite Operations: Owner-occupied Strategy: WWR 40% (N), 30% (S); clever orientation +shading Benefit: •  7%–10% whole-building energy reduction from ECBC •  ~For a medium-sized office building, implies energy savings of 65–90 MWh,; opex savings INR 4.5–6.3 Lakh per year DD: Envelope & Passive Design
  43. 43. 43 Maximize Daylight Autonomy Without Glare Climate: Composite Operations: Owner-Occupied Strategy: Daylight autonomy without glare or thermal load gain Benefit: •  Narrow floor plate allows WWR 15-26%, cuts thermal heat gain and capex •  Enhances visual-thermal comfort Pic: AB Lall Architects Pic: AB Lall Architects DD: Envelope & Passive Design
  44. 44. 44 Orientation studies Courtesy: AB Lall Architects DD: Envelope & Passive Design
  45. 45. N Courtesy: AB Lall Architects 45 18.7Meters 5.7 Meters (Internal Courtyard) South-West WWR = 16.75% North-East WWR= 26% South-West WWR = 24.86% South-East= 6% North-East WWR= 16.5% 12.5 Meters
  46. 46. N Courtesy: AB Lall Architects 46 18.7Meters 5.7 Meters (Internal Courtyard) South-West WWR = 16.75% North-East WWR= 26% South-West WWR = 24.86% South-East= 6% North-East WWR= 16.5% 12.5 Meters
  47. 47. 47 Maximize Daylight Autonomy Without Glare Results: Envelope Strategies Climate: Temperate Operations: Owner-Occupied Strategy: Daylight autonomy without glare or thermal load gain, through shading by building mass and extensive louvers Benefit: •  Capex optimized though specific targeted use of low-E glass •  Enhanced visual-thermal comfort Courtesy: Suzlon
  48. 48. 48 Maximize Daylight Autonomy Without Glare Results: Envelope Strategies Climate: Hot-dry Operations: Owner-Occupied Strategy: Daylight autonomy without glare or thermal load gain, using optimized WWR (20-30%), lightshelves, vertical sectioning of fenestration, narrow floorplate) Benefit: •  Brighter light enters at higher wall levels and gains deeper penetration, without adding glare at the lower vision-level work planes Courtesy: Infosys Green IniEaEves Team
  49. 49. 49 Results: Envelope Strategies
  50. 50. Plug and Lighting loads 50 313 432 733 767 304 429 149 583 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 People External Light Plug Loads Annual Heat Gains [GJ] Before After Results: Internal Load Strategies 0.0 4.0 8.0 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 Plug load [W/ m²] ~3:1 peak to base raEo Power density reduction by 55% HVAC consumption reduction by 44% provides
  51. 51. Provide lighting sensors & controlsImplement a highly efficient equipment and lighting layout An envelope promoting natural, glare- free daylight is a critical ECM Courtesy: Sears Pune Team Courtesy: ITC Courtesy: Suzlon Results: Internal Load Strategies
  52. 52. 52 Results: Internal Loads Plug and Lighting loads 32 16 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 No Daylight No Daylight With Daylight Sensors LPD: 10 W/m² LPD: 5 W/m² Light ConsumpEon [kWh/m²] Climate: Hot-dry Operations: Owner-Occupied Strategy: Daylighting to reduce lighting power density reduced to 5 W/m2 Benefit: •  55% whole-building savings in lighting consumption •  provision of daylighting sensors reduced the remaining consumption by half •  Artificially lit hours contained to a narrow evening band ( opex savings) 1 0.45 0.45 0.17 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 Average 2007 levels SDB-1 HYD LighGng power Density [W/ m²] Installed LighEng Capacity OperaEng LighEng Load 0.0 2.0 4.0 00:00 02:00 04:00 06:00 08:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 LighGng power Density [ W/m²] ConvenEonal side Radiant side Courtesy: Infosys
  53. 53. 53 •  Set aggressive power management settings •  Provide a computing infrastructure •  Pursue direct current based improvements •  Install hardware solutions such as smart power strips that monitor and control the loads intelligently •  Encourage responsible occupant behavior Results: Plug, lighGng metrics •  Optimize daylighting design •  Implement efficient equipment and layout •  Provide lighting sensors and controls Plug and Lighting loads
  54. 54. HVAC: Case studies and best practices 54 •  Right-size the equipment, and build in modularity •  Consider low-energy cooling options o  Split air conditioning systems o  Displacement Ventilation o  Underfloor Air Distribution o  Radiant Cooling o  Active Chilled Beam System o  Evaporative Cooling Systems •  Provide thermal storage options •  Consider progressive and hybrid systems •  Implement component-level strategies Results: HVAC
  55. 55. 55 Results: HVAC Courtesy: Infosys Climate: Hot-dry Operations: Owner-Occupied Strategy: Radiant cooling with ceiling fans Benefit: •  Medium temperature chillers with lower “lift” requirement optimizes system first cost cost, despite the separation of ducts for DOAS and pipes for chilled water •  Radiant system provides cooling at ~700 W/m2, compared to VAV at~ 1500 W/m2 •  Gentler, more comfortable, draft-free cooling •  50-60% better performance from baseline ( ECBC). HVAC: Case studies and best practices
  56. 56. 56 Results: HVAC Courtesy: Infosys, Pune Climate: Temperate Operations: Owner-Occupied Strategy: Chilled beams with ceiling fans Benefit: •  Medium temperature chillers with lower “lift” requirement, and hence lower opex •  Gentler, more comfortable, draft-free cooling •  Prefab unit •  The HVAC annual energy consumption is ~37 kWh/m2/yr. Normalized per occupant consumption is 844 kWh/full-time equivalent (FTE)/year. HVAC: Case studies and best practices
  57. 57. 57 Results: HVAC Climate: Warm humid Operations: Tenanted Strategy: District cooling exploiting loads diversity, and thermal energy storage Benefits: •  The use of TES has reduced the initial peak load requirement by 2 chillers, and it provides a four-hour HVAC backup •  Exploits differential tariffs to save opex •  Campus tenants receive power savings benefits Courtesy: Infosys, Pune HVAC: Case studies and best practices
  58. 58. 58 Results: HVAC Climate: Moderate Operations: Tenanted Strategy: Multiple HVAC types exploiting diversity : Under floor air distribution for offices, VAV for gym, packaged units for server room; thermal stratification tank. Benefits: •  Chilled water produced at off peak hours provides opex benefit •  Exploits differential tariffs to save opex •  Just in time, and just right air conditioning with a diversity of schedules HVAC: Exploiting the Diversity
  59. 59. 59 Results: HVAC Typical office module: Minimal false ceilings are installed to house HVAC and fresh air ducts which supply into cabins through openings designed into structural beams Climate: Composite Operations: Owner occupied Strategy: Multiple HVAC types exploiting diversity : Under floor air distribution for auditorium, radiant for offices with ceiling fans, VRF for guest houses Benefits: •  16 deg C medium temperature water has significant operational benefits •  Extremely comfortable AC spaces HVAC: Exploiting the Diversity
  60. 60. 60 Results: HVAC Dedicated Outdoor Air System, DOAS - 100% Fresh Air: no recirculation of air for cooling • Improved indoor air quality • Increases productivity and mental agility • Increased moisture control and oxygen infusion • Decrease IAQ related health risks from exposure to indoor pollutants • Reduce environmental triggers of asthma HVAC: A Healthier System
  61. 61. 61 Results: HVAC 61 HVAC: Strategies
  62. 62. 62 Results: Modeling results EnergyConsumption[kWh/m²] 0 13 25 38 50 VAV RADIANT VAV RADIANT VAV RADIANT VAV RADIANT 5 9 5 8 5 9 5 6 9 20 10 16 8 20 6 14 10 18 11 22 10 19 3 8 Cooling Fans Pumps TEMPERATE HOT & DRY WARM & HUMID COMPOSITE
  63. 63. 63 Results: HVAC metrics
  64. 64. 64 Results: Climate Controls •  Integrate fully or partially naturally ventilated and mixed-mode cooling •  Educated choice of sensor type and location •  Demand controlled ventilation •  Monitor and control operable shadings and windows •  Simple rule-based control: Night setback , night ventilation, economizer •  Adopt a flexible setpoint and lifestyle changes
  65. 65. 65 Results: Energy InformaGon Systems
  66. 66. 66 Facility Daily Dashboard: Building Pulse at a Glance How much energy (by fuel) and cost is my building consuming, where and when? 1. Energy Use Area Chart Showing daily energy consumpEon for electricity or gas 2. Power Demand Trendlines Showing hourly power demand to expose daily trends of electrical or gas consumpEon 3. Fuel Cost and ConsumpEon Showing a quick look of the building performance over a day/week EIS Visualization Results: Energy InformaGon Systems
  67. 67. 67 Monthly/Annual Dashboard 1. Annual Consumption 2. Annual Cost Trends 3. Average Hourly Loads 4. Monthly Energy Use 5. Cross-sec. Benchmarking 6. Whole Building Heat Map Facility managerExecutive level charts Results: Energy InformaGon Systems EIS Visualization
  68. 68. 68 Building automation system Energy data-driven insights for all through energy information system, and provision of feedback loops to the BAS (ideally) Results: Energy InformaGon Systems EIS enbales data-driven action
  69. 69. 69 Results: Energy InformaGon Systems
  70. 70. 70 Part 5: Conclusions
  71. 71. 71 Conclusions Primary drivers and stakeholders
  72. 72. 72 Environmental Metrics 1. Whole-building and systems energy use [kWh/m2/ year] 2. Annual energy use per occupant [kWh/ year / person] 3. Whole-building and systems peak load [W/m2] 4. HVAC plant efficiency [kW/TR] 5. Cooling load efficiency [m2/TR] Financial Metrics 6. Cost [INR/sqft] 7. Payback period [years] Comfort Metrics 8. Ratio of uncomfortable hours to total occupied hours 8 Key MetricsConclusions
  73. 73. 73 Conclusions A MoScoW matrix for prioritization of strategies
  74. 74. 74 Conclusions: Design, build, operate
  75. 75. 75 Conclusions: Procure
  76. 76. 76
  77. 77. Questions? GReshmaSingh@Gmail.com 77 DEMOCRATIZE, DIGITIZE, DECARBONIZE High-Performance, Smart, Energy-Efficient Buildings “BIG” DOWNLOAD: BIT.LY/BUILDINGINNOVATIONGUIDE

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