TTI PEC Nairobi Workshop - Stakeholder and Policy Mapping

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TTI PEC Nairobi Workshop - Stakeholder and Policy Mapping

  1. 1. Mapping stakeholders and policy environments A Presentation to TTI PEC Anglophone Africa Workshop 28 April 2014 Nicholas Benequista
  2. 2. Why map policy stakeholders? • Informs strategic and tactical decisions about research and communication. • Helps think tanks to be better interlocutors – and better translators. • Is a valuable form of research itself - a window into larger issues – and essential for policy analysis.
  3. 3. So where to start?
  4. 4. • What are the attitudes or misconceptions your research has the potential to change or dispel? • Which specific policies does your research have the potential to influence? • What are the issues that divide opinions in the policy debate? What ideological direction is the policy currently trending toward? • Who supports the policy trend strongly, moderately? Who opposes it? Which supporters and which opponents are allied? Begin with your researchers
  5. 5. • What are the different points through which policies on this topic pass to become approved and implemented? • Which other actors informally influence those policy paths? NGOs, activist groups, CBOs, etc? • Have you interacted with any of these actors? How? How strong is your relationship with them? • What major events occurring in the next eighteen months have the potential to influence the policy environment? More questions for researchers
  6. 6. Define the issue and policy • Angolan Decentralisation Policy • Decree Law 02/07 • Budgetary Units • Social Consultation and Coordination Councils • The topic of decentralization is not ideologically controversial, but the practice can be, especially with regard to who is selected to participate in the new forums
  7. 7. For more information • Mapping political context, by ODI • Successful communication: a toolkit for researchers, also by ODI
  8. 8. Go deeper • Desk-based: Find and read what you can on the organisations and institutions your researcher describes. You’ll find more as you investigate. • Snowball: Ask the researchers who they think would know more about the policy environment, and interview them. • Consultant: Hire a consultant who is involved in the policy debates to carry out the mapping for you. The mapping itself can be an opportunity for influence, and these translators are crucial. • Mapping Workshop: Get the right people in one room for a few hours of participatory stakeholder mapping.
  9. 9. • Discursive changes: changes in language usage • Procedural changes: changing how something is done • Content changes: the actual letter of the law • Attitudinal changes: changes in the perceptions of key stakeholders • Behavioural changes: changes in the way something is achieved or approached What is your policy objective?
  10. 10. Techniques for stakeholder mapping and policy context analysis
  11. 11. Questions a policy mapping can answer • What is the problem that requires a policy response? • Who are the stakeholders in this problem and what’s at stake for them? • What are the various sites or venues where this policy debate is occurring? • How does the research need to be framed to be relevant the current debate? • How are you connected to all this?
  12. 12. Stakeholder Analysis Interfaith Mediation Centre Supreme Council For Islamic Affairs Christian Association Strategic Empowerment & Mediation Agency Interfaith Mediation Com’s Interfaith Mediation Com’s Interfaith Mediation Com’s Regional Govts Interfaith Mediation Com’s Interfaith Mediation Com’s Interfaith Mediation Com’s Emirate Councils Academic Associate Peace Work DFID National Institute For Policy 2007 Movement Federal Govt Congress For each actor, write 1-2 sentence s summarizing their policy interest/position .
  13. 13. Who influences policy? • Agenda setting: Donors, multi-laterals, regional blocs, social movements, lobbyists and interest groups… • Decision-making: State officials, legislators, congressional staff… • Implementation: State agencies, NGOs, private firms… • Evaluation: Internal auditors, external evaluators, civil society, the media…
  14. 14. Stakeholder analysis table and matrix Stakeholder Type of stakeholder Your relationship? Level of influence: 1- 5 Disposition towards policy X Actor A Advocacy None 3 Opposed…. Actor B Government Cooperative 4 Supportive… High Power Low Power Low Interest High Interest Interfaith Mediation Centre Supreme Council For Islamic Affairs Christian Association Strategic Empowerment & Mediation Agency Interfaith Mediation Com’s Interfaith Mediation Com’s Interfaith Mediation Com’s Regional Govts Interfaith Mediation Com’s Interfaith Mediation Com’s Interfaith Mediation Com’s Emirate Councils Academic Associate Peace Work DFID
  15. 15. Policy Axes/Areas Service Delivery RightsNaripokkho Nijera Kori Samata BSK KN Grameen Brac ASA Proshika Basic Needs Social Mobilisation ASK RDRS Buro Tangail
  16. 16. Policy Network ClosedInvitedCreated SPACES Public Consultation Ministry Of Health World Bank Funasa Funasa Regional Offices Indigenous Missionary Council SSL Indigenous Groups Municipal Health Secretariats Implementing Orgs CEBRAPE President Party Politics National Congress
  17. 17. Spaces for participation • Created • Invited • Closed
  18. 18. CACS President & Prime Minister Ministry of Territorial Administration Ministry of Planning Ministry of Finance ADRA National Assembly (4th Commission) Cabinet & Party Meetings Decentralization Working Group UNDP, World Bank, & Donors National NGOs Provincial/ Municipal Government Regional CSOs Budgetary Units Civil Society Conferences Closed Invited Created ACTORS SPACES C I T I Z E N S Decentralization And Local Government Program International NGOs
  19. 19. CACS President & Prime Minister Ministry of Territorial Administration Ministry of Planning Ministry of Finance ADRA National Assembly (4th Commission) Cabinet & Party Meetings Decentralization Working Group UNDP, World Bank, & Donors National NGOs Provincial/ Municipal Government Regional CSOs Budgetary Units Civil Society Conferences Closed Invited Created ACTORS SPACES C I T I Z E N S Decentralization And Local Government Program International NGOs
  20. 20. CACS President & Prime Minister Ministry of Territorial Administration Ministry of Planning Ministry of Finance ADRA National Assembly (4th Commission) Cabinet & Party Meetings Decentralization Working Group UNDP, World Bank, & Donors National NGOs Provincial/ Municipal Government Regional CSOs Budgetary Units Civil Society Conferences Closed Invited Created ACTORS SPACES C I T I Z E N S Decentralization And Local Government Program International NGOs
  21. 21. CACS President & Prime Minister Ministry of Territorial Administration Ministry of Planning Ministry of Finance ADRA National Assembly (4th Commission) Cabinet & Party Meetings Decentralization Working Group UNDP, World Bank, & Donors National NGOs Provincial/ Municipal Government Regional CSOs Budgetary Units Civil Society Conferences Closed Invited Created ACTORS SPACES C I T I Z E N S Decentralization And Local Government Program International NGOs
  22. 22. Other techniques • Force-field analysis • Problem-tree analysis • SWOT analysis • Triangle analysis • Netmapping • See Tools for Policy Impact by Rapid • Policy entrepreneurship • Power analysis • Drivers of change • See “Mapping Political Context” by RAPID
  23. 23. Angola - Recommendations • ADRA may want to use its contacts with the Decentralisation Working Group, especially the Ministry of Territorial Administration and UNDP, to help develop its policy messages from the research to create a policy brief for top policy makers. • ADRA could facilitate discussions by screening PVs at a series of meetings bringing together local actors, perhaps starting in Benguela, where it has allies in the government. • ADRA may want to partner with local media outlets or international media NGOs (e.g. BBC World Trust) to get out messages via broadcast?
  24. 24. Mapping Kenyan stakeholders
  25. 25. Desk-based review • Reviewed nearly 50 relevant documents • Two categories: constitutional analysis and political economy • Sector-specific summaries for health, agriculture, education, and trade • Issues of donor bias
  26. 26. Desk-based conclusions • TTs needed if increased public participation to succeed • Parliament likely to continue its rise • Private sector actors important, but which? • Single biggest question is how devolution will affect the public policy process • Need to better understand the impact of Kibaki- era reforms
  27. 27. Policy mapping workshops • 3-4 half-day workshops • “Chatham house rules” • Which sectors? • Least understood sectors? • Most strategic sectors for influence? • Sectors with current research?
  28. 28. Participant selection Parliamentary staffer How many of each? Ministerial official Honorarium? Para-statal officer Who invites? County government official Civil society representative Private sector representative Donor representative IEA researcher Who else? Who else?
  29. 29. Workshop: Step 1 • Choose a recent policy proposal of high importance for the sector. • How did that policy proposal end? Approved, modified, rejected? • What were the consequences of that decision for the sector? • Who benefitted? Who didn’t?
  30. 30. Workshop: Step 2 • List all of the stakeholders with an influence or interest over that specific policy. • Government offices • County-level offices • Civil society groups • Private sector groups and companies
  31. 31. Workshop: Step 3 • Sort the list of stakeholders according to when they emerged. • Which of these have appeared since 2002? • Which are older? • Which stakeholders are emerging now?
  32. 32. Workshop: Step 4 • Rank the stakeholders according to interest and power matrix. • Which of these actors has gained power? • Which of these actors has lost power? • Who has taken more interest in policies of this nature?
  33. 33. Workshop: Step 5 • Rank the top five most powerful stakeholders according to the four stages of the policy process. • 1) Agenda setting, 2) Formulation, 3) Debate and passage, 4) M&E • Who influenced these stakeholders? • New relationships of influence? • Any recent changes in the order?
  34. 34. Two Challenges • Challenge donor-driven understanding of the public policy process. • Find a strategy for policy engagement that really works for you – not something imported from Brookings and ODI - and arm yourselves with the evidence to defend your approach.

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