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Research Journal of Education
ISSN(e): 2413-0540, ISSN(p): 2413-8886
Vol. 2, No. 2, pp: 22-33, 2016
URL: http://arpgweb.com/?ic=journal&journal=15&info=aims
*Corresponding Author
22
Academic Research Publishing Group
Shaqra University Staff’s Degree of Practicing the Necessary
Academic Requirements for Improving Their Performance, from
their Viewpoints
Adnan Al Warthan* PhD. Assistant Professor Foundations of Education Dear of Quality Assurance and Development at
Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia
Sanaa Ali Ahmed Youssef PhD. Assistant Professor Foundations of Education, Saudi Arabia
1. This Vision can be Useful
The vision suggests improving university staff's performance in different performance areas such as (Education-
Scientific research- Community service- Administrative spheres and career development) and improving university's
faculties according to quality criteria and academic accreditation.
The University staff's performance is considered an important component in the academic organization, and
therefore deficiency of this performance is one of the challenges faced by the university. In different universities,
university staff are deemed cornerstone in the educational process, and developing tool of the university, for what
they do in terms of diverse tasks regarding teaching and scientific research, as well as community service. To focus
on developing their performance and coping up with the international criteria in different domains is quite essential
for improvement. Performance's degree of university staff is considered a yardstick of measuring the degree of
services offered by the educational institutions, apart from spreading the thought, the philosophy, and the academic
Abstract: This study aims at pointing out Shaqra university staff’s degree of practicing the necessary
academic requirements needed for improving their performance in the spheres of the university academic
performance. The survey-descriptive approach and the measurement approach (questionnaire) are applied
to achieve the purpose of this study. The number, on which the study is applied, is 358 members of the
university staff. The questionnaire is divided into three sections related to the following domains: the first
section is about Shaqra university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of education and learning; the second
section is about Shaqra university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of scientific research; the third
section is about Shaqra university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of community service.
Concerning Shaqra university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of education and learning, the results is
more than 50 % of the university staff members. From their viewpoint, they consider the degree of
practicing the necessary academic requirements for improving their performance in the sphere of education
and learning is good. Besides, 37.5 % of the university staff regards their practice performance as medium
and low. While, in regard of the university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of scientific research, less
than 50 % of the university staff members consider the practice of the university staff’s is good, in the light
of their standpoint regarding the essential academic requirements for improving the scientific research.
Moreover, 53.4 % views their practice for the advancement of their performance is medium and low. In
respect of the practice degree of the university staff in the sphere of community service, 50 % of the
university staff regards it as good, in the light of their viewpoint of practicing the essential academic
requirements for improving their performance in the domain of the community service. Besides, 50 % of
the university staff considers their participation for the improvement is medium and low. The study’s result
indicates that there is a firm direct correlation between the section of education and learning and the section
of scientific research, in addition to that medium direct correlation between the section of scientific research
and the section of community service. The research’s most obvious recommendations are: establishing
special strategy and criterion for improving the performance, offering training courses in this respect, and
concentrating on the interaction of the section of education and learning and the section of scientific
research, with the section of community service.
Keywords: Descriptive approach, Measurement approach, Questionnaire, Academic requirements, University staff,
Community service, Performance.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
23
accreditation since it is regarded as an effective evaluative sample of measuring the quality of the educational
institutions.
The committee of the academic accreditation in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia determines the referential frame for
the academic practicing criteria of the university professor; stemmed from the best international, regional and local
experiments. Such frame is regarded as a base for all high education's institutions that are supposed to advance the
vocational performance of the university staff in four main domains: (education- scientific research - community
service - administrative sides and vocational improvement). Since Shaqra university is an emerging one, applying
such quality criteria and academic accreditation helps the university to take effective steps towards accreditation and
quality guarantee, through recognizing the real performance of university staff and the educative requirements of
improving their performance in the university in domains like (education- scientific research - community service -
administrative sides and vocational improvement).
This takes place in the light of:
A- Determining the university staff's degree of knowing and practicing knowledge and different skills that
reflect performance degree of each member in the university staff.
B- Degree of knowing and practicing knowledge and different skills for university staff and that show the
required skills on the tangible level.
2. Improvement Levels
Levels of improving university staff's performance is according to:
1- Level of determining degree of available skills for university staff (questionnaire)
2- Level of determining the required skills on the tangible level (questionnaire).
3- Level of planning training courses.
4- Application level.
5- Level of evaluating improvement's process.
6- Level of feedback and constant supervision.
2.1. First Level: Determining the Level of University Staff's Available Skills
This will appear by knowing university staff's degree of available skills through determining university staff's
level of practicing different skills. The vision is to concentrate on the skills towards which the responses are directed,
in the light of two responses (medium, low) and translated in terms of training courses and workshops. This is
clarified through the following level.
2.2. Second Level: Determining the Required Skills on the Tangible Level and Converting
Them into Training Courses and Workshops
This will be shown through knowing the importance of diverse skills for university staff, and the vision will
concentrate on the skills towards which the responses are directed, in the light of two responses (high, low) and
converting them into training courses and workshops in terms of four performance's domains (education- scientific
research - community service - administrative sides and vocational improvement).
2.2.1. First: Needs of Education's Domain
1- Modern ways in teaching.
2- Exams' system and students' evaluation.
3- Ethics and career moral.
4- Creative teaching.
5- Electronic teaching.
6- Self and reactive teaching.
7- Employing technology in teaching.
8- Provoking motives' skills.
9- Quality criteria in educational process.
10- Skills of academic guide and students' aid.
11- Thinking skills.
12- Communication skills.
2.2.2. Second: Needs of Scientific Research's Domain
1- Using SPSS data.
2- Modern curricula and methods in scientific research.
3- Writing competitive research schemes.
4- Writing scientific research's reports.
5- International publication of scientific researches.
6- Skills of team work and research team's management.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
24
7- Ethics of scientific research.
8- Criteria for defining priorities of carrying out scientific researches.
9- Criteria of forming integral research teams.
10- Criteria of scientific research in the light of quality guarantee.
2.2.3. Third: Needs of Community Service's Domain
1- Partnership between university and community.
2- Methods of defining community's needs.
3- Participating in community development's programs.
4- Employing scientific researches' results in improving community researches.
2.2.4. Fourth: Needs of Administrative Sides and Vocational Improvement's Domain
1. University management.
2. Knowledge management.
3. Decision making and creative leadership.
4. Electronic administration.
5. Academic quality and accreditation.
6. Academic criteria.
7. Strategic planning.
8. Preparing executive plans.
9. Description of programs and curriculum.
10. Stating programs and curriculum.
11. Internal supervision's systems.
12. Self-evaluation and annual report.
13. Credit hour systems.
14. Time management, meetings and work pressure.
2.3. Third Level: Planning of Training Courses
1- Analysis and defining training needs
Training needs are defined as "list of changes in knowledge, directions and skills that are changed in respect of
the trainee's performance with the aim of satisfying the efficient work's requirements. Besides, the training need
means the gap between the effective performance, on the one hand, and the expected performance of university staff
member.
2- Framing training course's aims:
A- Training course's general aims:
 Elevating self-competence for university staff
 Connecting university staff with their academic reality.
 Bridging the gap of knowledge and cognition between effective performance of university staff and the
expected performance.
B- Behavioral aims of the training course:
Terms and characteristics of the training course's behavioral aims:
 Specialized in every topic and part of the course (knowledge, skill, behavioral modification)
 Stemmed from the general goals.
 Specific and able to measurement.
 Achieved through each educational situation.
 Suitable and realistic.
 Allotted to specific period of time.
C- The training content and curriculum for the training course:
The following conditions must be put into account when the training content and curriculum are defined:
 Continuation and tracing data.
 Integration between knowledge and skills.
 Combination and integration between goals and methods.
 Balance in presenting data.
 Concentration on the idea of self-learning and self-training.
 Text's explicitness and style's appropriateness.
D- Defining the humane and financial abilities:
 Choosing trainers.
 Determining period of time and location of holding the course.
 Determining the training requirements (training portfolio –presentation's devices - …….)
 Taking appropriate administrative procedures.
 Saving appropriate financial budgets.
 Mass media.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
25
2.4. Fourth Level: Implementation
A- Procedures:
1. Preparing the training portfolio.
2. Determining the trainers.
3. Determining the trainees.
4. Determining suitable time and place of the course.
5. Preparing the training requirements ( presentation's devices,
6. Applying the training course.
B- The most important training methods and tools:
The training course can be presented in one or more methods of the following:
1. The training lecture: method of conveying knowledge by less cost. It allows many individuals to
participate and inserts workshops.
2. Debates: in which ideas are exchanged in terms of a topic or a problem with an endeavor to solving it,
apart from giving the trainee a chance to take part and to introduce their ideas.
3. Playing roles: in which one or two persons perform it and the rest of the participants are to observe
what is going on.
4. Brainstorming:is a method for developing the creative thinking for group consisting of 10-15 persons,
and the coordinator presents the problem and the ideas, afterward.
5. Training portfolio:is relatively a modern method that consists of one comprehensive file of the
scientific subject and what the program requires. Besides, it consists of introduction, guidelines for
trainees, guidelines of trainers, goals, training units, session's system, evaluation sample, some study
cases or practical exercises and films.
6. Training workshops: are used when the participants own new experiences in workshops' field. This
leads to cooperation and collective training, as well as requires high skill from the trainers.
7. Scientific exercises: in which learning occurs through practice, application, as well as usually normal
time is determined for achieving the exercise, apart from putting into account the work of the
participants solely.
Some aspects affect the choice of the training method:
Humane aspects: in which the training management, the trainer, the nature of the trainees, and their scientific
background control. The training goals: are directed towards gaining skill, knowledge, or behavior modification.
Training and financial aspects: include the equipment, the machines, the techniques, the hall, the budgets, and others.
Fields and specialization: are limited in the sense that they are directed towards a specific category or a general one
that includes board and large sectors.
2.5. The Fifth Level: Evaluation
It means the process of investigating- in a scientific and objective way- the appropriateness of the courses, the
training programs that are carried out and how it is connected with the goals, and its ability to self-develop the
trainees.
A. The basic aspects that must be evaluated in the training courses:
1. Strategy of defining the training needs of the university staff.
2. Strategy of defining the training goals, and their draft.
3. The efficiency of the training courses in achieving the defined goals.
4. The degree of the trainee's satisfaction from the program.
5. The degree of the changes in the trainee's behavior as a result of their learning and acquiring skills.
6. The positive results in respect of how the tasks are achieved distinctively and efficiently.
7. The efficiency degree of the applied training methods and ways' and their suitability with the
training subject.
8. The efficiency of the evaluating methods and their suitability with the trainees' nature.
B. The evaluating types:
1. Evaluating during implementation:
Evaluating during implementation and direct evaluation are to define the deficient sides early, to
avoid them and to make sure of the participation and the trainees' interaction.
2. Evaluating after implementation:
Aims at recognizing how programs are carried out. It can be directed towards the supervisors to
make sure that the trainees' knowledge and skills have actually changed as a result of this program.
C. Methods and ways of evaluating the training's results:
1. Knowing the trainees' reaction:
This happens through questionnaire during and after the program to know the participants'
reactions and opinions regarding the program.
2. Field evaluation for the trainees:
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
26
This evaluation happens after the training so as to know the effect of the training and this is the
most expressive way used to know how effective the training is.
3. Direct observation:
This happens through the observation of the colleagues, the head of departments, and deans after
the training's operations.
2.6. Sixth Level: Feedback and Constant Follow-Up
Feedback means the process through which the trainer recognizes the results of his work and how the trainees'
respond to it, as well as the information that the trainee's receive after the performance as it helps them know how
much they master the task they achieved.
A. Feedback's conditions:
1- To be characterized with continuity.
2- To take place in the light of obvious goals.
3- Its interpretation requires deep comprehension and profound scientific analysis.
4- Including all the elements of the training process.
A vision for improving the performance in different colleges at university
Establishing several developing units that pave the way for accuracy and mastering the academic work in
different faculties at the university:
1- Statistics unit
2- Graduates unit
3- Crisis and disaster unit
4- Information technology unit
Each unit in the faculty has its vision and goals, and looks forward to achieve them. It is chaired by a
coordinator who forms different committees that seek achieving their goals.
3. Results of the Research Questionnaire's Analysis Entitled
The university staff's practice degree of the essential academic requirements for improving their performances in
academic performance's fields
This questionnaire is applied on a sample consisting of 358 university staff members and is divided into three
different facets; discussed as follows:
3.1. First Facet: - (Degree of University Staff's Practice in the Field of Education and
Learning)
The first facet of the questionnaire compromises of 40 different items whose analysis reveals that:
General average for the facet's items is 47, 2 out of 4 and the standard deviation 0.33. It reveals that the
arithmetic mean for all the facet's items falls between (1.95) & (2.78) out of (3); this reflects the fact that most of the
responses regarding practicing the items falls between medium and high. From their viewpoints, any university
staff's practice of the essential academic requirements for improving their performances in the education and
learning field were good. Results of the standard deviation differ as it rises above 50 %. It is noticed that the items
(27 & 30 & 31 & 38) exceed (0.8) and the items (15 & 26 & 28) exceed (0.7) and the items (7 & 12 & 14 & 15 & 16
& 21 & 24 & 25 & 29 & 32 &39) have exceeded (0.6) which reflects the fact that there are incomplete
comprehension of the item's content or that presenting the items should be done in a different way.
It is revealed that the number of the items of which the percentage of the responses exceed by –the number- (3
high) 50% of the individual sample reach 25 items out of total 40 items by 62.5 %. This reflects that in 37.5 % items,
the degree of university staff's practice of the essential academic requirements for improving their performances in
education and learning's field is medium and low. Such percentage is so far high comparing to the community
sample of university staff.
The following table shows the findings of the statistic analysis's results for the first facet's items:
Item's number Arithmetic mean Mode Standard deviation
1 2.75 3 0.434
2 2.65 3 0.478
3 2.68 3 0.523
4 2.4 2 0.569
5 1.95 2 0.783
6 2.22 2 0.342
7 2.5 3 0.634
8 2.65 3 0.50
9 2.57 3 0.549
10 2.34 3 0.630
11 2.42 3 0.533
12 2.52 3 0.607
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
27
13 2.7 3 0.578
14 2.49 3 0.602
15 2.46 3 0.646
16 2.49 3 0.602
17 2.74 3 0.495
18 2.59 3 0.541
19 2.69 3 0.585
20 2.44 3 0.594
21 2.38 3 0.654
22 2.55 3 0.557
23 2.46 3 0.557
24 2.69 3 0.606
25 2.18 2 0.652
26 2.28 3 0.782
27 2.22 3 0.80
28 2.23 3 0.716
29 2.25 2 0.603
30 2.22 3 0.838
31 1.99 2 0.808
32 2.66 3 0.626
33 2.44 3 0.599
34 2.78 3 0.472
35 2.48 3 0.548
36 2.6 3 0.490
37 2.52 3 0.50
38 2.44 3 0.810
39 2.61 3 0.638
40 2.78 3 0.638
Here is a schematic shape that illustrates the arithmetic mean for the items (1-20) as items are drawn into two
shapes in respect of their multiplicity.
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Arithmetic Mean
‫الحسابي‬ ‫الوسط‬
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
28
The following schematic shape illustrates the arithmetic mean for the items 21-40:
3.2. The Second Facet: Shaqra University Staff's Practice Degree in the Field of Scientific
Research
The second facet of the questionnaire contains 15 different items that reveal upon analysis that:
The general average of the facet's items is 2.3 out of 3, the standard deviation is 0.43, and the arithmetic mean
for all the facet's items falls between (1.76) & (2.75) out of (3) which reflects that fact that most of the answers for
practicing the item take a medium and a high degree. That is to say, university staff's practicing of the essential
academic requirements for improving their performances in scientific research is good, from their viewpoint.
The results of the standard deviation differ according to its highness than 50 % as it is noticed that the items (6
& 10 & 11 & 12 & 13 & 15) transcend (0.8), the items (5 & 14) transcends (0.7), and the items (4 & 7& 8) transcend
(0.6) which reveals that there is not complete comprehension of the items' content caused by the sample's individuals
or that the items should have been introduced in a different way.
The number of the items whose answers' percentage exceeds (3 high) number 50 % of the sample's individuals
reaches 7 items -with the percentage 46.6 %- out of 15 items- the total. This reflects that 53.4 % of the items in
which the university staff's practice degree of the essential academic requirements for improving their performance
in the field of education and learning are medium and low. It is a big percentage among the sample's community of
university staff.
The following chart illustrates the statistical analysis' results of the second facet's items:
Items' numberArithmetic meanPatternStandard Deviation
12.7530.55
22.7530.502
32.5130.574
42.2720.636
52.0120.756
62.1730.830
72.1820.673
82.6630.631
92.5630.599
102.2030.897
112.1730.833
121.8710.840
131.7610.814
142.2730.795
152.4230.822
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Series1
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
29
The following chart clarifies the distribution of the arithmetic mean for each item of the second facet's items:
3.3. Third Facet: (Degree of University Staff's Practicing in the Field of Service
Community)
The third facet compromises 10 different items that reveal upon analysis:
The general average of the facet's items is 2.35 out of 3 and the standard deviation is 0.39. It is shown that the
arithmetic mean for all the facet's items falls between (1.82) & (2.78) out of (3) which reflects that most of the
answers for practicing the item are medium and high degree. That is to say, university staff's practicing the essential
academic requirements for improving their performances in the field of education and learning is good, from their
viewpoint. The results of the standard deviation differ in terms of its highness more than 50%. It is noticed that the
items (9&10) exceed (0.8), the items (2 & 4& 7) exceed (0.7), and the items (1 & 3 & 8) exceed (0.6). This reflects
that there is not complete comprehension of the content of the questionnaire's item by the sample's individuals.
The number of the items whose answer's percentage exceeds the number (3 high) 50 % out of the sample's
individuals, reaches 5 items out of 10 items by the percentage 50%. This reflects that 50 % of the items in which the
university staff's practice degree of the academic requirements essential for improving their performances in the field
of service community are medium and low; it is a big percentage among the samples' community of university staff.
The following chart illustrates the statistical analysis' results of the of the third facet's items:
Item's numberArithmetic MeanPatternStandard Deviation
12.3920.616
22.4130.70
32.6330.664
41.9920.799
52.7830.411
62.6530.592
72.2830.748
82.4430.644
92.1530.814
101.8210.908
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Arthemtic Mean
‫الحسابي‬ ‫الوسط‬
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
30
The following chart clarifies the distribution of the arithmetic mean of each item of the third facet's items:
Upon studying the relation between the questionnaire's facets, it is shown that there is a direct corelation
between the facet of education and learning and of the facet of scientific research.Pearson Correlation Coefficient
reaches (0.84). In addition, it indicates that there is a direct correlation between the facet of scientific research and
the facet of community service in which Pearson Correlation Coefficient reaches (0.63) & (the facet of scientific
research and the facet of community service ) in which Pearson Correlation Coefficient reaches (0.64). This reflects
the necessity of taking into account the interreaction of both the facet of education and learning and the facet of
scientific research with community service.
The following chart illustrates Pearson Correlation Coefficient among the questionnaire's facets:
First FacetSecond FacetThird Facet
First Facet‫ــــــــــــــــ‬0.841‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬
Second Facet‫ـــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــ‬0.637
Third Facet0.644‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬
4. Attachments
Questionnaire
Honorable/ university staff member……. Respectable
May Peace Mercy and Blessing of ALLAH be bestowed upon you ..and thereafter,
In respect of the university's journey towards vocational progress of the university staff, and towards defining the
academic requirements for improving their performances in the university regarding the field of academic
performance (education – scientific research – community service), the two researchers do a research entitled:
The University Staff’s degree of practicing the necessary academic requirements for improving their performances,
from their viewpoints.
Please, objectively answer the questionnaire's items so as to reach real results. Knowing that such information is for
the sake of the scientific research's field and for the academic improvement of the university staff, it compromises of
the following facets:
1- First facet: university staff's practice degree in the field of education and learning.
2- Second facet: university staff's practice degree in the field of scientific research.
3- Third facet: university staff's practice degree in the field of community service.
Put the sign (√) on each item of the questionnaire's items - after thoroughly reading- in the column you see suitable
from your standpoint. There are three levels for the questionnaire (high = 3) (medium = 2) (low = 1). Be sure that
those presented opinions and responses will be used for nothing but the purposes of scientific research through this
research.
My very thanks and appreciation for your sincere practical contribution
Please send the questionnaire- after filling- to any of the two researchers as whether hard copy or soft copy.
First Facet: university staff's practice degree of the academic requirements essential for improving their
performances in the field of education and learning:
Practice DegreeItemTerm
LowMediumHigh
Coping up with and applying the most modern
trends in the specialty's topic.
1
Arranging the logical sequence of the
curriculum's content and connecting its parts
2
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Arthimetic Mean
‫الحسابي‬ ‫الوسط‬
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
31
during the teaching process
Putting into account the individual differences
among the learners.
3
Setting up a teaching plan in the light of
students' needs.
4
Setting up a long-term plan for different
education and learning activities.
5
Setting up a short-term plan for different
education and learning activities.
6
Planning for using diverse learning strategies7
Defining suitable learning methods for
specialty. (Applying strategies and suitable
modern teaching methods for specialty)
8
Applying different education methods in terms
of the educational situation.
9
Modifying strategies and teaching methods in
the light of feedbacks.
10
Employing modern technology in building the
educational material.
11
Arousing the students' interest s in education
by all possible means.
12
Diversification in using the suitable
educational methods
13
Investing different learning sources in terms of
the curriculum's parts.
14
Employing educational activities efficiently in
serving the curriculum.
15
Employing modern educational technology in
academic activities.
16
Vocational treating the students according to
their different characters.
17
Arousing students' interest for learning.18
Managing available time to achieve its
effectively.
19
Building evaluating tools appropriate for the
desired learning results.
20
Guiding the students to use self-evaluation.21
Providing the students with feedbacks
according to constant evaluation's results.
22
Using enriching methods for improving
students' performances in the light of the
evaluation's results.
23
Applying skills for designing academic
programs.
24
Applying education-quality definitions in the
academic process.
25
Participation in planning for the academic
guidance for the students in the department.
26
Activating and practicing the academic
guidance for the students in the department.
27
Participation in activating the students'
activities.
28
Employing structural-evaluation (formational)
process during teaching.
29
Developing high thinking skills among
students.
30
Using diverse statistical methods for data
analysis.
31
Managing the educational situation in a good
way.
32
Employing effective communication skills in
the educational process.
33
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
32
Ability to make decision and solve problems.34
Helping the learner to gain self-learning skills.35
Enriching and developing curricula.36
Setting collective exams according to
specification's schedule.
37
Using diverse methods in evaluating and
supervising learning.
38
Preparing curriculum's description according to
the national body's model.
39
Consistency and agreement between the
scientific content of curriculum and the study
plan of the program.
40
Second Facet: university staff's practice degree of the academic requirements essential for improving their
performances in the field of scientific research:
Practice DegreeItemTerm
LowMediumHigh
Knowing the methodology and methods of the scientific
research.
1
Evaluating different research sources in a scientific
way.
2
Carrying out researches in the field of specialization.3
Participation in carrying out innovative scientific
researches in the in-between specializations related to
their majors.
4
Employing research results' in improving the
educational process.
5
Taking part in seminars and conferences in the field of
specialty.
6
Making use of seminars and conferences in the field of
improving the educational process.
7
Sticking to the ethics and morals of the scientific
research.
8
Ability to work within research teamwork.9
Ability to manage research teamwork.10
Providing database about the scientific fields in the
major.
11
Taking part in research projects funded by the
university.
12
Taking part in research projects funded from outside the
university.
13
Publish researches in specialized journals on the local
level.
14
Publish researches in specialized journals on the
international level.
15
Third Facet: university staff's practice degree of the academic requirements essential for improving their
performances in the field of community research:
Practice DegreeItemTerm
LowMediumHigh
Introducing realistic ideas for improving society.1
Participating in solving societal problems.2
Participating in developing-society programs.3
Investing the scientific researches' results in improving
society institutions.
4
Respecting prevalent morals in society.5
Introducing good example for society.6
Making use of the existed facilities in society in a way
that serves the educational process.
7
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33
33
Participating in the local society; in celebrations of
national and religious occasions
8
Participating in associations and institutions' activities
inside the society.
9
Contribution in supporting and funding scientific
activities for community service.
10
Bibliography
Coffy, M. and Gibbs, G. (2000). Can academics benefit from training? Some preliminary evidence. Teaching in
Higher Education, 5(3): 385-89.
Jeanette, T. (2001). The impact of performance indicator on the work of university academics: Evidence from
Australian Universities, . Higher Education Quarterly, 55(1): 42-61.
Naidoo Kogi (2002). Staff development: Alener for quality assurance. Massy University (K. Naidoo and Massy .A
C, N Z): New Zealand.
Partington and Brown, G. (1997). Quality assurance, staff development and cultural change. Journal of Quality
Assurance in Education, 5(4): 208-07.

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Shaqra University Staff?s Degree of Practicing the Necessary Academic Requirements for Improving Their Performance, from their Viewpoints

  • 1. Research Journal of Education ISSN(e): 2413-0540, ISSN(p): 2413-8886 Vol. 2, No. 2, pp: 22-33, 2016 URL: http://arpgweb.com/?ic=journal&journal=15&info=aims *Corresponding Author 22 Academic Research Publishing Group Shaqra University Staff’s Degree of Practicing the Necessary Academic Requirements for Improving Their Performance, from their Viewpoints Adnan Al Warthan* PhD. Assistant Professor Foundations of Education Dear of Quality Assurance and Development at Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia Sanaa Ali Ahmed Youssef PhD. Assistant Professor Foundations of Education, Saudi Arabia 1. This Vision can be Useful The vision suggests improving university staff's performance in different performance areas such as (Education- Scientific research- Community service- Administrative spheres and career development) and improving university's faculties according to quality criteria and academic accreditation. The University staff's performance is considered an important component in the academic organization, and therefore deficiency of this performance is one of the challenges faced by the university. In different universities, university staff are deemed cornerstone in the educational process, and developing tool of the university, for what they do in terms of diverse tasks regarding teaching and scientific research, as well as community service. To focus on developing their performance and coping up with the international criteria in different domains is quite essential for improvement. Performance's degree of university staff is considered a yardstick of measuring the degree of services offered by the educational institutions, apart from spreading the thought, the philosophy, and the academic Abstract: This study aims at pointing out Shaqra university staff’s degree of practicing the necessary academic requirements needed for improving their performance in the spheres of the university academic performance. The survey-descriptive approach and the measurement approach (questionnaire) are applied to achieve the purpose of this study. The number, on which the study is applied, is 358 members of the university staff. The questionnaire is divided into three sections related to the following domains: the first section is about Shaqra university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of education and learning; the second section is about Shaqra university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of scientific research; the third section is about Shaqra university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of community service. Concerning Shaqra university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of education and learning, the results is more than 50 % of the university staff members. From their viewpoint, they consider the degree of practicing the necessary academic requirements for improving their performance in the sphere of education and learning is good. Besides, 37.5 % of the university staff regards their practice performance as medium and low. While, in regard of the university staff’s practice degree in the sphere of scientific research, less than 50 % of the university staff members consider the practice of the university staff’s is good, in the light of their standpoint regarding the essential academic requirements for improving the scientific research. Moreover, 53.4 % views their practice for the advancement of their performance is medium and low. In respect of the practice degree of the university staff in the sphere of community service, 50 % of the university staff regards it as good, in the light of their viewpoint of practicing the essential academic requirements for improving their performance in the domain of the community service. Besides, 50 % of the university staff considers their participation for the improvement is medium and low. The study’s result indicates that there is a firm direct correlation between the section of education and learning and the section of scientific research, in addition to that medium direct correlation between the section of scientific research and the section of community service. The research’s most obvious recommendations are: establishing special strategy and criterion for improving the performance, offering training courses in this respect, and concentrating on the interaction of the section of education and learning and the section of scientific research, with the section of community service. Keywords: Descriptive approach, Measurement approach, Questionnaire, Academic requirements, University staff, Community service, Performance.
  • 2. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 23 accreditation since it is regarded as an effective evaluative sample of measuring the quality of the educational institutions. The committee of the academic accreditation in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia determines the referential frame for the academic practicing criteria of the university professor; stemmed from the best international, regional and local experiments. Such frame is regarded as a base for all high education's institutions that are supposed to advance the vocational performance of the university staff in four main domains: (education- scientific research - community service - administrative sides and vocational improvement). Since Shaqra university is an emerging one, applying such quality criteria and academic accreditation helps the university to take effective steps towards accreditation and quality guarantee, through recognizing the real performance of university staff and the educative requirements of improving their performance in the university in domains like (education- scientific research - community service - administrative sides and vocational improvement). This takes place in the light of: A- Determining the university staff's degree of knowing and practicing knowledge and different skills that reflect performance degree of each member in the university staff. B- Degree of knowing and practicing knowledge and different skills for university staff and that show the required skills on the tangible level. 2. Improvement Levels Levels of improving university staff's performance is according to: 1- Level of determining degree of available skills for university staff (questionnaire) 2- Level of determining the required skills on the tangible level (questionnaire). 3- Level of planning training courses. 4- Application level. 5- Level of evaluating improvement's process. 6- Level of feedback and constant supervision. 2.1. First Level: Determining the Level of University Staff's Available Skills This will appear by knowing university staff's degree of available skills through determining university staff's level of practicing different skills. The vision is to concentrate on the skills towards which the responses are directed, in the light of two responses (medium, low) and translated in terms of training courses and workshops. This is clarified through the following level. 2.2. Second Level: Determining the Required Skills on the Tangible Level and Converting Them into Training Courses and Workshops This will be shown through knowing the importance of diverse skills for university staff, and the vision will concentrate on the skills towards which the responses are directed, in the light of two responses (high, low) and converting them into training courses and workshops in terms of four performance's domains (education- scientific research - community service - administrative sides and vocational improvement). 2.2.1. First: Needs of Education's Domain 1- Modern ways in teaching. 2- Exams' system and students' evaluation. 3- Ethics and career moral. 4- Creative teaching. 5- Electronic teaching. 6- Self and reactive teaching. 7- Employing technology in teaching. 8- Provoking motives' skills. 9- Quality criteria in educational process. 10- Skills of academic guide and students' aid. 11- Thinking skills. 12- Communication skills. 2.2.2. Second: Needs of Scientific Research's Domain 1- Using SPSS data. 2- Modern curricula and methods in scientific research. 3- Writing competitive research schemes. 4- Writing scientific research's reports. 5- International publication of scientific researches. 6- Skills of team work and research team's management.
  • 3. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 24 7- Ethics of scientific research. 8- Criteria for defining priorities of carrying out scientific researches. 9- Criteria of forming integral research teams. 10- Criteria of scientific research in the light of quality guarantee. 2.2.3. Third: Needs of Community Service's Domain 1- Partnership between university and community. 2- Methods of defining community's needs. 3- Participating in community development's programs. 4- Employing scientific researches' results in improving community researches. 2.2.4. Fourth: Needs of Administrative Sides and Vocational Improvement's Domain 1. University management. 2. Knowledge management. 3. Decision making and creative leadership. 4. Electronic administration. 5. Academic quality and accreditation. 6. Academic criteria. 7. Strategic planning. 8. Preparing executive plans. 9. Description of programs and curriculum. 10. Stating programs and curriculum. 11. Internal supervision's systems. 12. Self-evaluation and annual report. 13. Credit hour systems. 14. Time management, meetings and work pressure. 2.3. Third Level: Planning of Training Courses 1- Analysis and defining training needs Training needs are defined as "list of changes in knowledge, directions and skills that are changed in respect of the trainee's performance with the aim of satisfying the efficient work's requirements. Besides, the training need means the gap between the effective performance, on the one hand, and the expected performance of university staff member. 2- Framing training course's aims: A- Training course's general aims:  Elevating self-competence for university staff  Connecting university staff with their academic reality.  Bridging the gap of knowledge and cognition between effective performance of university staff and the expected performance. B- Behavioral aims of the training course: Terms and characteristics of the training course's behavioral aims:  Specialized in every topic and part of the course (knowledge, skill, behavioral modification)  Stemmed from the general goals.  Specific and able to measurement.  Achieved through each educational situation.  Suitable and realistic.  Allotted to specific period of time. C- The training content and curriculum for the training course: The following conditions must be put into account when the training content and curriculum are defined:  Continuation and tracing data.  Integration between knowledge and skills.  Combination and integration between goals and methods.  Balance in presenting data.  Concentration on the idea of self-learning and self-training.  Text's explicitness and style's appropriateness. D- Defining the humane and financial abilities:  Choosing trainers.  Determining period of time and location of holding the course.  Determining the training requirements (training portfolio –presentation's devices - …….)  Taking appropriate administrative procedures.  Saving appropriate financial budgets.  Mass media.
  • 4. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 25 2.4. Fourth Level: Implementation A- Procedures: 1. Preparing the training portfolio. 2. Determining the trainers. 3. Determining the trainees. 4. Determining suitable time and place of the course. 5. Preparing the training requirements ( presentation's devices, 6. Applying the training course. B- The most important training methods and tools: The training course can be presented in one or more methods of the following: 1. The training lecture: method of conveying knowledge by less cost. It allows many individuals to participate and inserts workshops. 2. Debates: in which ideas are exchanged in terms of a topic or a problem with an endeavor to solving it, apart from giving the trainee a chance to take part and to introduce their ideas. 3. Playing roles: in which one or two persons perform it and the rest of the participants are to observe what is going on. 4. Brainstorming:is a method for developing the creative thinking for group consisting of 10-15 persons, and the coordinator presents the problem and the ideas, afterward. 5. Training portfolio:is relatively a modern method that consists of one comprehensive file of the scientific subject and what the program requires. Besides, it consists of introduction, guidelines for trainees, guidelines of trainers, goals, training units, session's system, evaluation sample, some study cases or practical exercises and films. 6. Training workshops: are used when the participants own new experiences in workshops' field. This leads to cooperation and collective training, as well as requires high skill from the trainers. 7. Scientific exercises: in which learning occurs through practice, application, as well as usually normal time is determined for achieving the exercise, apart from putting into account the work of the participants solely. Some aspects affect the choice of the training method: Humane aspects: in which the training management, the trainer, the nature of the trainees, and their scientific background control. The training goals: are directed towards gaining skill, knowledge, or behavior modification. Training and financial aspects: include the equipment, the machines, the techniques, the hall, the budgets, and others. Fields and specialization: are limited in the sense that they are directed towards a specific category or a general one that includes board and large sectors. 2.5. The Fifth Level: Evaluation It means the process of investigating- in a scientific and objective way- the appropriateness of the courses, the training programs that are carried out and how it is connected with the goals, and its ability to self-develop the trainees. A. The basic aspects that must be evaluated in the training courses: 1. Strategy of defining the training needs of the university staff. 2. Strategy of defining the training goals, and their draft. 3. The efficiency of the training courses in achieving the defined goals. 4. The degree of the trainee's satisfaction from the program. 5. The degree of the changes in the trainee's behavior as a result of their learning and acquiring skills. 6. The positive results in respect of how the tasks are achieved distinctively and efficiently. 7. The efficiency degree of the applied training methods and ways' and their suitability with the training subject. 8. The efficiency of the evaluating methods and their suitability with the trainees' nature. B. The evaluating types: 1. Evaluating during implementation: Evaluating during implementation and direct evaluation are to define the deficient sides early, to avoid them and to make sure of the participation and the trainees' interaction. 2. Evaluating after implementation: Aims at recognizing how programs are carried out. It can be directed towards the supervisors to make sure that the trainees' knowledge and skills have actually changed as a result of this program. C. Methods and ways of evaluating the training's results: 1. Knowing the trainees' reaction: This happens through questionnaire during and after the program to know the participants' reactions and opinions regarding the program. 2. Field evaluation for the trainees:
  • 5. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 26 This evaluation happens after the training so as to know the effect of the training and this is the most expressive way used to know how effective the training is. 3. Direct observation: This happens through the observation of the colleagues, the head of departments, and deans after the training's operations. 2.6. Sixth Level: Feedback and Constant Follow-Up Feedback means the process through which the trainer recognizes the results of his work and how the trainees' respond to it, as well as the information that the trainee's receive after the performance as it helps them know how much they master the task they achieved. A. Feedback's conditions: 1- To be characterized with continuity. 2- To take place in the light of obvious goals. 3- Its interpretation requires deep comprehension and profound scientific analysis. 4- Including all the elements of the training process. A vision for improving the performance in different colleges at university Establishing several developing units that pave the way for accuracy and mastering the academic work in different faculties at the university: 1- Statistics unit 2- Graduates unit 3- Crisis and disaster unit 4- Information technology unit Each unit in the faculty has its vision and goals, and looks forward to achieve them. It is chaired by a coordinator who forms different committees that seek achieving their goals. 3. Results of the Research Questionnaire's Analysis Entitled The university staff's practice degree of the essential academic requirements for improving their performances in academic performance's fields This questionnaire is applied on a sample consisting of 358 university staff members and is divided into three different facets; discussed as follows: 3.1. First Facet: - (Degree of University Staff's Practice in the Field of Education and Learning) The first facet of the questionnaire compromises of 40 different items whose analysis reveals that: General average for the facet's items is 47, 2 out of 4 and the standard deviation 0.33. It reveals that the arithmetic mean for all the facet's items falls between (1.95) & (2.78) out of (3); this reflects the fact that most of the responses regarding practicing the items falls between medium and high. From their viewpoints, any university staff's practice of the essential academic requirements for improving their performances in the education and learning field were good. Results of the standard deviation differ as it rises above 50 %. It is noticed that the items (27 & 30 & 31 & 38) exceed (0.8) and the items (15 & 26 & 28) exceed (0.7) and the items (7 & 12 & 14 & 15 & 16 & 21 & 24 & 25 & 29 & 32 &39) have exceeded (0.6) which reflects the fact that there are incomplete comprehension of the item's content or that presenting the items should be done in a different way. It is revealed that the number of the items of which the percentage of the responses exceed by –the number- (3 high) 50% of the individual sample reach 25 items out of total 40 items by 62.5 %. This reflects that in 37.5 % items, the degree of university staff's practice of the essential academic requirements for improving their performances in education and learning's field is medium and low. Such percentage is so far high comparing to the community sample of university staff. The following table shows the findings of the statistic analysis's results for the first facet's items: Item's number Arithmetic mean Mode Standard deviation 1 2.75 3 0.434 2 2.65 3 0.478 3 2.68 3 0.523 4 2.4 2 0.569 5 1.95 2 0.783 6 2.22 2 0.342 7 2.5 3 0.634 8 2.65 3 0.50 9 2.57 3 0.549 10 2.34 3 0.630 11 2.42 3 0.533 12 2.52 3 0.607
  • 6. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 27 13 2.7 3 0.578 14 2.49 3 0.602 15 2.46 3 0.646 16 2.49 3 0.602 17 2.74 3 0.495 18 2.59 3 0.541 19 2.69 3 0.585 20 2.44 3 0.594 21 2.38 3 0.654 22 2.55 3 0.557 23 2.46 3 0.557 24 2.69 3 0.606 25 2.18 2 0.652 26 2.28 3 0.782 27 2.22 3 0.80 28 2.23 3 0.716 29 2.25 2 0.603 30 2.22 3 0.838 31 1.99 2 0.808 32 2.66 3 0.626 33 2.44 3 0.599 34 2.78 3 0.472 35 2.48 3 0.548 36 2.6 3 0.490 37 2.52 3 0.50 38 2.44 3 0.810 39 2.61 3 0.638 40 2.78 3 0.638 Here is a schematic shape that illustrates the arithmetic mean for the items (1-20) as items are drawn into two shapes in respect of their multiplicity. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Arithmetic Mean ‫الحسابي‬ ‫الوسط‬
  • 7. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 28 The following schematic shape illustrates the arithmetic mean for the items 21-40: 3.2. The Second Facet: Shaqra University Staff's Practice Degree in the Field of Scientific Research The second facet of the questionnaire contains 15 different items that reveal upon analysis that: The general average of the facet's items is 2.3 out of 3, the standard deviation is 0.43, and the arithmetic mean for all the facet's items falls between (1.76) & (2.75) out of (3) which reflects that fact that most of the answers for practicing the item take a medium and a high degree. That is to say, university staff's practicing of the essential academic requirements for improving their performances in scientific research is good, from their viewpoint. The results of the standard deviation differ according to its highness than 50 % as it is noticed that the items (6 & 10 & 11 & 12 & 13 & 15) transcend (0.8), the items (5 & 14) transcends (0.7), and the items (4 & 7& 8) transcend (0.6) which reveals that there is not complete comprehension of the items' content caused by the sample's individuals or that the items should have been introduced in a different way. The number of the items whose answers' percentage exceeds (3 high) number 50 % of the sample's individuals reaches 7 items -with the percentage 46.6 %- out of 15 items- the total. This reflects that 53.4 % of the items in which the university staff's practice degree of the essential academic requirements for improving their performance in the field of education and learning are medium and low. It is a big percentage among the sample's community of university staff. The following chart illustrates the statistical analysis' results of the second facet's items: Items' numberArithmetic meanPatternStandard Deviation 12.7530.55 22.7530.502 32.5130.574 42.2720.636 52.0120.756 62.1730.830 72.1820.673 82.6630.631 92.5630.599 102.2030.897 112.1730.833 121.8710.840 131.7610.814 142.2730.795 152.4230.822 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Series1
  • 8. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 29 The following chart clarifies the distribution of the arithmetic mean for each item of the second facet's items: 3.3. Third Facet: (Degree of University Staff's Practicing in the Field of Service Community) The third facet compromises 10 different items that reveal upon analysis: The general average of the facet's items is 2.35 out of 3 and the standard deviation is 0.39. It is shown that the arithmetic mean for all the facet's items falls between (1.82) & (2.78) out of (3) which reflects that most of the answers for practicing the item are medium and high degree. That is to say, university staff's practicing the essential academic requirements for improving their performances in the field of education and learning is good, from their viewpoint. The results of the standard deviation differ in terms of its highness more than 50%. It is noticed that the items (9&10) exceed (0.8), the items (2 & 4& 7) exceed (0.7), and the items (1 & 3 & 8) exceed (0.6). This reflects that there is not complete comprehension of the content of the questionnaire's item by the sample's individuals. The number of the items whose answer's percentage exceeds the number (3 high) 50 % out of the sample's individuals, reaches 5 items out of 10 items by the percentage 50%. This reflects that 50 % of the items in which the university staff's practice degree of the academic requirements essential for improving their performances in the field of service community are medium and low; it is a big percentage among the samples' community of university staff. The following chart illustrates the statistical analysis' results of the of the third facet's items: Item's numberArithmetic MeanPatternStandard Deviation 12.3920.616 22.4130.70 32.6330.664 41.9920.799 52.7830.411 62.6530.592 72.2830.748 82.4430.644 92.1530.814 101.8210.908 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Arthemtic Mean ‫الحسابي‬ ‫الوسط‬
  • 9. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 30 The following chart clarifies the distribution of the arithmetic mean of each item of the third facet's items: Upon studying the relation between the questionnaire's facets, it is shown that there is a direct corelation between the facet of education and learning and of the facet of scientific research.Pearson Correlation Coefficient reaches (0.84). In addition, it indicates that there is a direct correlation between the facet of scientific research and the facet of community service in which Pearson Correlation Coefficient reaches (0.63) & (the facet of scientific research and the facet of community service ) in which Pearson Correlation Coefficient reaches (0.64). This reflects the necessity of taking into account the interreaction of both the facet of education and learning and the facet of scientific research with community service. The following chart illustrates Pearson Correlation Coefficient among the questionnaire's facets: First FacetSecond FacetThird Facet First Facet‫ــــــــــــــــ‬0.841‫ــــــــــــــــــــــــ‬ Second Facet‫ـــــــــــــــ‬‫ــــــــــــــــــ‬0.637 Third Facet0.644‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬‫ـــــــــــــــــــ‬ 4. Attachments Questionnaire Honorable/ university staff member……. Respectable May Peace Mercy and Blessing of ALLAH be bestowed upon you ..and thereafter, In respect of the university's journey towards vocational progress of the university staff, and towards defining the academic requirements for improving their performances in the university regarding the field of academic performance (education – scientific research – community service), the two researchers do a research entitled: The University Staff’s degree of practicing the necessary academic requirements for improving their performances, from their viewpoints. Please, objectively answer the questionnaire's items so as to reach real results. Knowing that such information is for the sake of the scientific research's field and for the academic improvement of the university staff, it compromises of the following facets: 1- First facet: university staff's practice degree in the field of education and learning. 2- Second facet: university staff's practice degree in the field of scientific research. 3- Third facet: university staff's practice degree in the field of community service. Put the sign (√) on each item of the questionnaire's items - after thoroughly reading- in the column you see suitable from your standpoint. There are three levels for the questionnaire (high = 3) (medium = 2) (low = 1). Be sure that those presented opinions and responses will be used for nothing but the purposes of scientific research through this research. My very thanks and appreciation for your sincere practical contribution Please send the questionnaire- after filling- to any of the two researchers as whether hard copy or soft copy. First Facet: university staff's practice degree of the academic requirements essential for improving their performances in the field of education and learning: Practice DegreeItemTerm LowMediumHigh Coping up with and applying the most modern trends in the specialty's topic. 1 Arranging the logical sequence of the curriculum's content and connecting its parts 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Arthimetic Mean ‫الحسابي‬ ‫الوسط‬
  • 10. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 31 during the teaching process Putting into account the individual differences among the learners. 3 Setting up a teaching plan in the light of students' needs. 4 Setting up a long-term plan for different education and learning activities. 5 Setting up a short-term plan for different education and learning activities. 6 Planning for using diverse learning strategies7 Defining suitable learning methods for specialty. (Applying strategies and suitable modern teaching methods for specialty) 8 Applying different education methods in terms of the educational situation. 9 Modifying strategies and teaching methods in the light of feedbacks. 10 Employing modern technology in building the educational material. 11 Arousing the students' interest s in education by all possible means. 12 Diversification in using the suitable educational methods 13 Investing different learning sources in terms of the curriculum's parts. 14 Employing educational activities efficiently in serving the curriculum. 15 Employing modern educational technology in academic activities. 16 Vocational treating the students according to their different characters. 17 Arousing students' interest for learning.18 Managing available time to achieve its effectively. 19 Building evaluating tools appropriate for the desired learning results. 20 Guiding the students to use self-evaluation.21 Providing the students with feedbacks according to constant evaluation's results. 22 Using enriching methods for improving students' performances in the light of the evaluation's results. 23 Applying skills for designing academic programs. 24 Applying education-quality definitions in the academic process. 25 Participation in planning for the academic guidance for the students in the department. 26 Activating and practicing the academic guidance for the students in the department. 27 Participation in activating the students' activities. 28 Employing structural-evaluation (formational) process during teaching. 29 Developing high thinking skills among students. 30 Using diverse statistical methods for data analysis. 31 Managing the educational situation in a good way. 32 Employing effective communication skills in the educational process. 33
  • 11. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 32 Ability to make decision and solve problems.34 Helping the learner to gain self-learning skills.35 Enriching and developing curricula.36 Setting collective exams according to specification's schedule. 37 Using diverse methods in evaluating and supervising learning. 38 Preparing curriculum's description according to the national body's model. 39 Consistency and agreement between the scientific content of curriculum and the study plan of the program. 40 Second Facet: university staff's practice degree of the academic requirements essential for improving their performances in the field of scientific research: Practice DegreeItemTerm LowMediumHigh Knowing the methodology and methods of the scientific research. 1 Evaluating different research sources in a scientific way. 2 Carrying out researches in the field of specialization.3 Participation in carrying out innovative scientific researches in the in-between specializations related to their majors. 4 Employing research results' in improving the educational process. 5 Taking part in seminars and conferences in the field of specialty. 6 Making use of seminars and conferences in the field of improving the educational process. 7 Sticking to the ethics and morals of the scientific research. 8 Ability to work within research teamwork.9 Ability to manage research teamwork.10 Providing database about the scientific fields in the major. 11 Taking part in research projects funded by the university. 12 Taking part in research projects funded from outside the university. 13 Publish researches in specialized journals on the local level. 14 Publish researches in specialized journals on the international level. 15 Third Facet: university staff's practice degree of the academic requirements essential for improving their performances in the field of community research: Practice DegreeItemTerm LowMediumHigh Introducing realistic ideas for improving society.1 Participating in solving societal problems.2 Participating in developing-society programs.3 Investing the scientific researches' results in improving society institutions. 4 Respecting prevalent morals in society.5 Introducing good example for society.6 Making use of the existed facilities in society in a way that serves the educational process. 7
  • 12. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(2): 22-33 33 Participating in the local society; in celebrations of national and religious occasions 8 Participating in associations and institutions' activities inside the society. 9 Contribution in supporting and funding scientific activities for community service. 10 Bibliography Coffy, M. and Gibbs, G. (2000). Can academics benefit from training? Some preliminary evidence. Teaching in Higher Education, 5(3): 385-89. Jeanette, T. (2001). The impact of performance indicator on the work of university academics: Evidence from Australian Universities, . Higher Education Quarterly, 55(1): 42-61. Naidoo Kogi (2002). Staff development: Alener for quality assurance. Massy University (K. Naidoo and Massy .A C, N Z): New Zealand. Partington and Brown, G. (1997). Quality assurance, staff development and cultural change. Journal of Quality Assurance in Education, 5(4): 208-07.