Rodríguez, F.A., Iglesias X., Barrero A., Ábalos X.,    Moreno D., Abellán R., Segura J. Intermittent    Hypobaric Hypoxia...
Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Exposure  Increases Ventilatory Threshold But Not    Running Performance In Triathletes   R...
Contemporary                                    Applications of Hypoxia                                      to Athletic T...
Please see keynote conference by Dr. Randy Wilber               "Training in Altitude“                      (12 h)
Contemporary                                    Applications of Hypoxia                                      to Athletic T...
The short-term IHE model     • Short-term IHE in climbers and endurance athletes       9-21 d, 1.5-5 h/d, 4000-5500 m1-8  ...
Intermittent Hypoxia Study 2003          IHE at hypobaric chamber          Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled st...
Aims• To examine the effect on triathletes of 4 weeks of moderate-severe  IHE in a hypobaric chamber (SA 4,000-5,500 m) on...
Subjects• 14 male triathletes• Age 19-37 y, height 172-185 cm, body mass 66-84 kg• Regular training 7-25 h/wk• Competing a...
Experimental Design• Randomised controlled trial• Subjects assigned to HYPO or NORM group (n=7 each)• Very similar trainin...
Chronogram                         6000Simulated altitude (m)                         5000                                ...
Running Field Testing           • Université de Montréal Track Test (UMTT)*             to determine MAS (vVO2max) in a sy...
Treadmill Running Test• Maximal, incremental test on a running treadmill        v0 = 6 km·h-1        v = 1 km·h-1 / 1 min...
Statistical Analysis• MANOVA (general linear model, SPSS)• Main effects         time: Pre, Post, Post 1 wk, Post 2 wk     ...
VO2max             NORM                           HYPO            NORM                            HYPO       % Change of V...
VT1                NORM                                                            HYPO               NORM                ...
VT2               NORM               NORM                                      HYPO                                       ...
Running Performance           NORM                               HYPO                   NS main effects (MANOVA) 7 5 3 1-1...
Field Running Performance• No changes in MAS          in contrast with increased performance                    +2.9% in 4...
Discussion: VO2max        • NS change in VO2max (+3.7%, p=0.2)          lower than in              Runners (+5%) Hi-Lo at ...
VT and VCO2max      • Significant increase              AT1 +3.5%              VT2 +3.8%        consistent with LT improve...
Intermittent Hypoxia Study 2003                                              HYPO Swimmers                                ...
Erythropoietic Response          • EPO secretion stimulated (mean=100-440%)          • No subsequent erythropoietic respon...
Conclusions      • IHE combined with SL training to moderate-severe        hypoxia did not improve track running performan...
Conclusions• IHE significantly increased VT and decreased VCO2max  suggesting improved aerobic endurance capacity       no...
IMASInstitut Municipald’Investigació Mèdica. IMIMPharmacology Research Unit
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Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia exposure increases ventilatory treshold but not running performance in triathletes

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Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia exposure increases ventilatory treshold but not running performance in triathletes

  1. 1. Rodríguez, F.A., Iglesias X., Barrero A., Ábalos X., Moreno D., Abellán R., Segura J. Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Exposure increases ventilatory treshold but not running performance in triathletes. 1st WORLD CONFERENCE OF SCIENCE IN TRIATHLON. Alacant, 2011.Sport Sciences Research Group INEFC BarcelonaGrup de Recerca en Ciències de lEsport INEFC BarcelonaGrup Consolidat (2009 SGR1054)Institut Nacional d’Educació Física de CatalunyaAv. de l’Estadi, 12-2208038 Barcelona (Spain)+34 93 425 54 45 grce@gencat.cat @Recerca_INEFC
  2. 2. Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Exposure  Increases Ventilatory Threshold But Not  Running Performance In Triathletes Rodríguez FA, Iglesias X, Barrero A, Ábalos X,  Moreno D, Abellán R, Segura J IMAS Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica. IMIM Pharmacology Research Unit
  3. 3. Contemporary Applications of Hypoxia to Athletic Training Altitude Training Intermittent Hypoxia Natural hypobaric hypoxia Artificial hypoxia at altitude (mountains) (Hypobaric / Normobaric) LH-TH LH-TL LL-TH IHE IHT IHITHigh-High High-Low Low-High Intermittent Intermittent IH Interval Hypoxia Hypoxic Training Exposure TrainingLH-THO2+ Suppl. O2 Rodríguez 2005 ECSS Congress
  4. 4. Please see keynote conference by Dr. Randy Wilber "Training in Altitude“ (12 h)
  5. 5. Contemporary Applications of Hypoxia to Athletic Training Altitude Training Intermittent Hypoxia Natural hypobaric hypoxia Artificial hypoxia at altitude (mountains) (Hypobaric / Normobaric) LH-TH LH-TL LL-TH IHE IHT IHITHigh-High High-Low Low-High Intermittent Intermittent IH Interval Hypoxia Hypoxic Training Exposure TrainingLH-THO2+ Suppl. O2 Rodríguez 2005 ECSS Congress
  6. 6. The short-term IHE model • Short-term IHE in climbers and endurance athletes 9-21 d, 1.5-5 h/d, 4000-5500 m1-8 • Erythropoietic response EPO, PCV, retics1-7 but not Hbmass increase8 • Increased VO2max in climbers (+6.2%)1 and swimmers +5.4%6, +3.3%8, but not in runners8 • Improved performance in middle-distance swimmers +0.9% in 200-m time6, world-class track cyclists +2.9% in 4’ trial)7 but not in swimmers and runners81 Casas et al. 1998 J Sports Sci 5 Rodríguez et al. 2000 Eur J Appl Physiol2 Casas et al. 2000 Aviat Space Environ Med 6 Rodríguez et al. 2002 IX WSBMS3 Rodríguez et al. 1998 J Sports Sci 7 Rodríguez et al. 2002 7th ECSS Congress, Athens4 Rodríguez et al. 1999 Med Sci Sports Exerc 8 Rodríguez et al. 2007 J Appl Physiol
  7. 7. Intermittent Hypoxia Study 2003 IHE at hypobaric chamber Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study 23 trained athletes (10 runners, 13 swimmers) 3-km and 100/400-m time trial (performance markers) submax and maximal VO2 (treadmill or flume) 3 h/d, 5 d/wk, 4 wksGore et al. 2006 J Appl PhysiolRodríguez et al. 2007 J App PhysiolTruijens et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol
  8. 8. Aims• To examine the effect on triathletes of 4 weeks of moderate-severe IHE in a hypobaric chamber (SA 4,000-5,500 m) on aerobic capacity running performance• Hypothesis: aerobic capacity and running performance would further improve in the IHE group as compared to sea level control group
  9. 9. Subjects• 14 male triathletes• Age 19-37 y, height 172-185 cm, body mass 66-84 kg• Regular training 7-25 h/wk• Competing at regional/national level• Continued to train at sea level throughout the study
  10. 10. Experimental Design• Randomised controlled trial• Subjects assigned to HYPO or NORM group (n=7 each)• Very similar training schedule at SL (ave. 20 h/wk)• Same supplementation (Fe, folate, vitamins A, C, & E, Mg) HYPO Sea level training IHE at rest: 4 weeks, 5 d/wk, 3 h/d at 4,000-5,500 m NORM SL training only
  11. 11. Chronogram 6000Simulated altitude (m) 5000 Treadmill test 4000 Field test (UMTT) 3000 Blood tests 2000 1000 0 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 Time (days) t1 t2 t3 t1´ t2´ Pre Post 1 Post 2
  12. 12. Running Field Testing • Université de Montréal Track Test (UMTT)* to determine MAS (vVO2max) in a synthetic 400-m track v0 = 7 km·h-1 v = 1 km·h-1 / 2 min* Léger & Boucher 1980 Can J Appl Sports Sci
  13. 13. Treadmill Running Test• Maximal, incremental test on a running treadmill v0 = 6 km·h-1 v = 1 km·h-1 / 1 min slope 5%• Expired gas continuously measured BxB CPXII, Medical Graphics, USA• Highest 15 s averaged VO2 = VO2max• Ventilatory thresholds VT1 VT2 = RCP
  14. 14. Statistical Analysis• MANOVA (general linear model, SPSS)• Main effects time: Pre, Post, Post 1 wk, Post 2 wk treatment: HYPO vs NORM• Time x treatment interaction• Post-hoc paired comparisons (Student)
  15. 15. VO2max NORM HYPO NORM HYPO % Change of VO2max % Change of VO2max1814 +3.7%10 p=0.2 6 2 -2 -6-10-14 Pre Post 1 Pre Post 1
  16. 16. VT1 NORM HYPO NORM HYPO12 % Change in VT1 (% VO2max) Group (NORM, HYPO) x Period Change in VT1 (% VO2max) % (pre, post1) = 0.017 8 4 0 -4 +3.5% -8 p<0,05-12 Pre Post 1 Pre Post 1 Group (NORM, HYPO) x Period (pre, post1) = 0.017
  17. 17. VT2 NORM NORM HYPO HYPO12 Group % Change in VT2 (% VO2max) (NORM, HYPO) x Time (pre, post1) = 0.00032 2max) % Change in VT2 (% VO * 8 4 +3.8% p<0,001 0 -4 -8 **-12 Pre Post 1 Pre Post 1
  18. 18. Running Performance NORM HYPO NS main effects (MANOVA) 7 5 3 1-1-3-5-7 Pre Post Post 2 Pre Post Post 2
  19. 19. Field Running Performance• No changes in MAS in contrast with increased performance +2.9% in 4-min trial in world-class track cyclists (IHE 15)1 +0.9% in 200-m time-trial in swimmers (IHE 10 d)2 consistent with no improvement in 100-400 m and 3 km time-trials in swimmers and runners31 Gore et al. (1998) J Sci Med Sport2 Rodríguez et al. (2002) IX WSBMS3 Rodríguez et al. 2007 J Appl Physiol
  20. 20. Discussion: VO2max • NS change in VO2max (+3.7%, p=0.2) lower than in Runners (+5%) Hi-Lo at 2,500 m for 4 wk1 Trained climbers (+6.2%), IHE for 17 days2 Swimmers (+5.4%), IHE for 10 days3 similar to Swimmers (+3.3%), IHE for 4 wks4 • Limited scope for increase in highly endurance-trained athletes or reduced sample effect?1 Levine & Stray-Gundersen (1997) J Appl Physiol 4 Rodríguez et al. (2004) Med Sci Sports Exerc2 Casas et al. (2000) Aviat Space Environ Med 5 Gore et al. (1998) J Sci Med Sport3 Rodríguez et al. (2002) IX WSBMS
  21. 21. VT and VCO2max • Significant increase AT1 +3.5% VT2 +3.8% consistent with LT improvement in climbers1,2 and swimmers3 • Significant decrease VCO2max -8.7% • Changes suggesting improvement of aerobic endurance and lower reliance on glycolitic metabolism: mechanism?1 Rodríguez et al. 1999 Med Sci Sports Exerc2 Casas et al. 2000 Aviat Space Environ Med3 Rodríguez et al. 2007 J Appl Physiol
  22. 22. Intermittent Hypoxia Study 2003 HYPO Swimmers NORM Swimmers 30 HYPO NORM +12.1% [7.0 to 17.2] +8.9% [5.4 to 12.5] p < 0.001 20 p = 0.007 % Change in VO2 at VT +0.4% [-2.1 to 2.9] 10 p = 0.98 0 -10 -3.5% [-0.7 to -6.2] p = 0.56 PRE-MEAN POST1 POST2 PRE-MEAN POST1 POST2Rodríguez et al. 2007 J Appl Physiol Group x Test F(1,10) = 6.80, p = 0.006
  23. 23. Erythropoietic Response • EPO secretion stimulated (mean=100-440%) • No subsequent erythropoietic response1 • Changes not attributable to an increase in total Hbmas as in a double-blind study with runners and swimmers21 Abellán et al. 2004 Haematologica2 Gore et al. 2007 J Appl Physiol
  24. 24. Conclusions • IHE combined with SL training to moderate-severe hypoxia did not improve track running performance (MAS) in triathletes • Unlike in swimmers1, change in VO2max were NS, • This may be explained by limited scope for further increase in ET triathletes limited sample effect1 Rodríguez et al. 1999 Med Sci Sports Exerc
  25. 25. Conclusions• IHE significantly increased VT and decreased VCO2max suggesting improved aerobic endurance capacity not due to increased erythropoiesis or efficiency other adaptations (ventilatory, mitochondrial)?• Although benefits can be expected, more research is needed to clarify the effect of IHE in endurance athletes
  26. 26. IMASInstitut Municipald’Investigació Mèdica. IMIMPharmacology Research Unit

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