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Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”...
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Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation

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This is the presentation accompanying an SAE paper I wrote in 2012: http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946.

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Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation

  1. 1. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation Reno Filla Volvo Construction Equipment 2012-01-1946
  2. 2. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946
  3. 3. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946
  4. 4. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 Many different machines...
  5. 5. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 ...many different applications
  6. 6. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 Which application to choose? How to test?
  7. 7. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 How will the results be used? Acceptable level of simplification? “Get your facts first and then you can distort them as much as you wish.” Mark Twain Imagesource:http://www.twainquotes.com/Lookalikes/AppletonsJournal4July74.jpg
  8. 8. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 How will the results be used? • Legislative / certification • Benchmark, external use • Benchmark, internal use • Design optimization Higher demands for practicality and cost efficiency Higher demands for resolution and representativeness
  9. 9. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 Acceptable level of simplification? • Example: Wheel loader Short loading cycle (real use) vs. NRTC (emission test cycle)
  10. 10. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 WL, bucket loading in short cycle vs. NRTC
  11. 11. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 NRTC Nonroad Transient Test Cycle • Compromise for testing compliance of engine emission legislation – A huge number of greatly different machines in greatly different applications – Practicality issues – Cost efficiency requirements – “One cycle to rule them all” • Punishes innovative, non-conventional machines (like hybrids) (prescribes engine duty rather than machine work) • Not to be used for testing of fuel consumption & CO2 emissions (unlike the NEDC) Imagesource: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Unico_Anello.png/200px-Unico_Anello.png
  12. 12. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 NEDC New European Driving Cycle • Compromise originally for testing compliance of emissions of light duty vehicles (cars) – Practicality issues – Cost efficiency requirements – “One cycle to rule them all” • Misused for – Benchmarking, external use – Benchmarking, internal use – Design optimizationImage source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:New_European_Driving_Cycle.svg
  13. 13. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 How will the results be used? • Legislative / certification • Benchmark, external use • Benchmark, internal use • Design optimization Higher demands for practicality and cost efficiency Higher demands for resolution and representativeness
  14. 14. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 • Extremely simplified “Dig & Dump” cycle (“Trench Excavation”) – No digging – Lifting an empty bucket – All hydraulic functions at maximum speed • The logic behind – Operator and environment a challenge for repeatability Conclusion: let’s neglect them – Makes it also easier to simulate (no need for mathematical models) Possibly good correlation between virtual and real testing • The problem: “Dig & Dump” cycles are about… digging and lifting in order to dump JCMAS H020 Excavator Test Cycle
  15. 15. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 JCMAS H020 Excavator Test Cycle
  16. 16. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 • Ideal counter-balanced linkage – Requires only energy for lifting a load (no friction) – Zero fuel consumption for lifting an empty bucket – H020 will lead to many disappointed customers of innovative, non-conventional machines (like hybrids) JCMAS H020 Excavator Test Cycle Imagesourcebeforemodification:http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/13100/13143/pulley_13143.htm
  17. 17. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 How will the results be used? • Legislative / certification • Benchmark, external use • Benchmark, internal use • Design optimization Higher demands for practicality and cost efficiency Higher demands for resolution and representativeness
  18. 18. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 How to test for Design Optimization? 1. Find working cycles representative for the majority of applications 2. Standardize to minimize variations
  19. 19. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 How to test for Design Optimization? 3. Utilize recorded statistics from entire machine population to find characteristic parameters - Distribution of machine speed - Mean fuel consumption 4. Measure characteristic parameters in standardized cycles 5. Determine weighing factors to approximate distribution of the characteristic parameters of the entire machine population in the field 6. Done! You now have a representative mix of standardized test cycles with weighing factors.
  20. 20. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 Summary
  21. 21. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 Always consider:
  22. 22. Reno Filla (2012) “Representative Testing of Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Working Machines in Reality and Simulation”. SAE paper 2012-01-1946. http://papers.sae.org/2012-01-1946 Thank you! • Reno Filla, Ph.D. Specialist Operability & Adaptive Automation Emerging Technologies, Advanced Engineering Volvo Construction Equipment AB TCA 11 SE - 631 85 Eskilstuna Sweden reno.filla@volvo.com

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