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325_-_Sports_Nutrition_and_Performance

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325_-_Sports_Nutrition_and_Performance

  1. 1. Sport Nutrition & Performance Scott Josephson www.scottjosephson.net 1 Scott Josephson, M.S. www.scottjosephson.net AFPA & Can-Fit Pro Advisory Board 2011 ECA World Fitness Citizen of the Year 2005 Presenter & 2010 Specialty Presenter of the Year SPORT NUTRITION & PERFOMANCE 3 nutrients in specific caloric combinations & timing. Required to maximize performance, recovery & repair. Maximum physical output requires quality energy input. WHAT IS SPORT NUTRITION? Foundation of dietary intake: 55% Fats, Fruits, Veggies, CHO & Protein. Dairy? 6 FOOD GROUPS & 6 BODY PARTS! NUTRITION STRATEGIES Nutrient timing for training: 30% CHO & protein before, during & after. Daily % of protein & fluids? Supplements: 5% 5% 30% 55% 90% FITNESS PROTCOL 1. Goal: ¯ fat, - muscle, aesthetics. 2. Trains ~1hr, 2-3 times a week. 3. Minimal muscle damage. 4. Recovery, non-issue. 5. Adequate fuel? ATHLETES PROTOCOL 1. Goal: Strength/wt ratio, performance. 2. Moderate/severe muscle damage. 3. Train ~1-2 hrs, 1-2 times a day. 4. At risk for ¯ immune function. 5. At risk for fuel depletion. 6. RECOVERY CRITICAL! Donovan Darius Colin Kaepernick Robert Turbin ATHLETES DO DIFFER! 1. Intense training increases: 2. Myofibril muscle tissue -(Amino Acids) 3. Micronutrient loss (Electrolytes) 4. Metabolic stress (B Vitamins) 5. Repair needs (Glutamine) 6. Antioxidant needs. AJ GreenAllyson Felix
  2. 2. Sport Nutrition & Performance Scott Josephson www.scottjosephson.net 2 NUTRIENT INTAKE FUEL Moderate training relies on glucose & fat. Source Glycogen & fatty acids. Duration Extended minutes. Intensity Less than 85% maximum heart rate. Examples Spinning or group exercise classes. Examples 1-2 mile run. NUTRIENT INTAKE FUEL High intensity training relies on glucose & ATP. Source CP & ADP = ATP. Duration Less than 30 seconds. Intensity 95% - 100% maximum heart rate. Examples A few reps, all out! Examples 100 yard sprint. DIETARY INTAKE 1. CHO: 45% - 65% (130g for optimal brain function) 2. FAT: 20% - 30% 3. PROTEIN: 10% - 35% 4. ADDED SUGARS: < 15% of total K’s. NHANES 2013 DIETARY INTAKE BREAKDOWN Carbs: 4 calories per gram,15 gram = 60k’s. Proteins: 7 grams per ounce. 1. Very lean: 35 calories per ounce, ½ gram of fat. 2. Lean: 55 calories per ounce, 3 grams of fat. 3. Medium fat: 75 calories per ounce, 5 grams of fat. 4. High fat: 100 calories per ounce, 8 grams of fat. Fats: 9 calories per gram, 5 grams = 45 k’s. mono, poly, saturated & trans fats. PRECISION CALORIE INTAKE Rule of Thumb: 35 to 40 k’s per kg/bw or more! Intake varies on: FFM, body type & diet history. Protein pre & post to - myofibrils & ¯ catabolism. Total calorie intake is crucial for performance! SAMPLE CARB INTAKE Ex: 125 lb female weighs 57 kgs. 35-40 k’s per kg/bw ® 57 x 35 = 2000k’s. CHO: ~ 60% or 325g (1,300 k’s) 1. Pre-workout: 60g 2. During training: 47g 3. Post-workout: 103g 210g = pre during & post (65%) Rest of the day: 115g = 35% IFBB Pro Julie Lohre
  3. 3. Sport Nutrition & Performance Scott Josephson www.scottjosephson.net 3 PRECISION CALORIE INTAKE Ex: 125 lb female runs 5 miles per day. 1. ~ 8 minute pace, average 7½ mph. 2. ~ 1,875 to calories for REE. 3. ~ 625 more for training. 4. ~ 2,500 calories per day. WOMEN BEWARE!......OF MEDIA! Some females (athletes too) tend to restrict calories! Low K’s alter reproduction & contribute to B.A.D. Bone Loss, Amenorrhea & Disordered Eating. MORE K’S = WEIGHT! CALORIC REDUCTION Lowering K’s beyond your needs starts survival mechanisms decreasing metabolic rate ~ 20%! POPULAR DIETS ! Eating patterns and meal frequency of elite athletes. International J Sport NutritionExercise Metabolism.2003 Dec; 13(4):521-38. LOW CALORIE INTAKE Lowers metabolic rate! Studies show an - in fat storage with K restriction! Studies on elite athletes. The lowest K intake had the highest body fat! Deutz, R. (2009) Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 32(3), 659-668 CARB INTAKE Females: ~ 4 grams per kg/bw daily. Males: ~ 6-8 grams per kg/bw daily. Athletes up to 12g per kg/bw daily. Eating carbs prior to and within 2 hours after training, allows insulin to regulate catabolic hormones. PROTEIN INTAKE Females: ~ 1 gram per kg/bw daily. Female Athletes: ~ 1.2 to 1.5g per kg/bw daily. Males: ~ 1.5g per kg/bw daily. Male Athletes: ~ 1.5 to 2g per kg/bw daily. High BV.
  4. 4. Sport Nutrition & Performance Scott Josephson www.scottjosephson.net 4 FAT INTAKE, OMEGA’S Research: - CHO metabolism, ¯ BP. Omega 3’s maintain healthy triglyceride levels. Acts as a lubricant. To much ¯ nutrient absorption. Cold water fish, algae, eggs & green leafy veggies. OIL & SEEDS: Hemp, Flax, Olive, Canola & Walnut. PRE EXERCISE NUTRIENT INTAKE 20-30 grams of protein. 30-60g CHO ¯ fat & fiber. High BV protein prior to training - nitrogen retention. Consume, ½ your body weight in fluid ounces daily. Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. Eating Before Exercise. Feb 2013 PROTEIN INTAKE 1. AA’s pre-training minimize catabolism & - synthesis. 2. Excess protein may affect calcium absorption. 3. Need ~ 5-6% K’s in amino acids to replace excretion. TRAINING WITH LOTS OF FUEL Moderate Glycemics• CHO • Drinks Time (hours) 1 2 3 Muscle Fuel Levels 100% Muscles Have Fuel For Longer Output Low Fuel 0% Protein WHEN FUEL RUNS OUT? Glycogen fuels muscles! Protein as fuel? 1. Hypoglycemia ® stress response ® cortisol. 2. Hypoglycemia, low brain fuel. 3. ¯ CHO ® excess fat in blood. 4. Beta oxidation. Strength loss over time. EAT DURING TRAINING 1. Training for hypertrophy or hyperplasia. 2. Sub-optimal eating pattern: ¯ calorie, ¯ carb, etc. 3. Cardio for duration. 4. - intensity training. 5. Long training sessions. 6. Training after fasting >4 hrs. Tiki Barber
  5. 5. Sport Nutrition & Performance Scott Josephson www.scottjosephson.net 5 EAT DURING TRAINING Carbs: ~ ½ -1 gram of carbs per kg/bw per hour. Electrolytes: ½ cup OJ, 1½ cups water, pinch of salt. More effective every 20 to 30 minutes as per every hr. Protein: “Controversial during exercise”. Exercise Sports Science Review 2006:19;1-40. If used, 0.3g kg/bw per hour in addition to carbs. Whey protein & BCAA’s - absorption. Leucine & Valine are ~ ½ of our bodies muscles. QUICK CARBS AND GRAMS 1 cup oatmeal 25 Granola bar 25 2 slices wheat bread 23 2 fig cookies 23 10 crackers 21 Small bag of pretzels 21 1 cup low-fat milk 12½ Medium baked potato 51 Medium bagel 45 1 cup rice 41 1 cup low-fat yogurt 43 Power bar 42 1 cup beans 41 1 cup pasta (cooked) 40 Banana 27 8 oz juice 26 1 cup cereal 25 POST- WORKOUT NUTRITION Within 30 minutes: Drink a liquid protein with CHO. Whey protein is fast digesting & starts the rebuilding process. Eat a meal within 2 hours! ~ 2:1 CHO to protein ratio to replenish glycogen stores. ~ .8g of CHO per kg/bw, & .4g of pro per kg/bw for hyperplasia. 35 – 40k’s per kg/bw to support aerobic & an-aerobic activity. WAY BETTER THAN WHEY? Sprouted whole grain brown rice or pea protein. 100% Organic enzymes, 98.2% BV, 23 AA’s. Non-GM, hypoallergenic & gluten free. CRUCIAL POST- WOKOUT NUTRITION 1. RE-FUEL – Replenish glycogen storage! 30min/2hr. 2. REPAIR THE SYSTEM – Protein post training to minimize damage. ~ 2:1 CHO to protein ratio. 3. GROWTH – Mitochondrial density and myofibril recruitment ® for size/strength/endurance/power. 4. RE-HYDRATE – Replenish fluids for recovery. 5. The immune system is ~ 70% water. ADDING ANTIOXIDANTS Help prevent damage by neutralizing free radicals. Free Radicals: Substances that damage tissues. (heart disease, exercise recovery, etc) Antioxidants: A (beta-carotene), C, E, & Selenium.
  6. 6. Sport Nutrition & Performance Scott Josephson www.scottjosephson.net 6 OXYGEN RADICAL ABSORBTION ORA MEASURES ANTIOXIDANTS 13. Red Delicious apple 593 14. Granny Smith apple 538 15. Raspberries 525 16. Pecans 509 17. Cranberries 487 18. Black plum 484 19. Russet potato 464 20. Black beans 418 21. Plum 411 22. Gala apple 390 VITAMIN A - absorption juiced, blended & pureed. Essential for vision, growth & reproduction. Sources: Red, orange, yellow, green fruits & veggies. VITAMIN C Vulnerable to heat & ¯ in cooking. - iron absorption & immune function. Sources: Broccoli, citrus, leafy greens, mango, cantaloupe, peppers, papaya, tomatoes & berries. IRON ¯ Iron Absorption Acid in buckwheat. ~ 300mg caffeine. - fiber intake. - soy intake. (Diosgenin) - Iron Absorption Meat, fish & poultry. Fruits: Cantaloupe, lemon & strawberries. Vegetables: Peppers, broccoli & sprouts. Wine. IRON Deficiency can lead to anemia. Dairy ¯ iron absorption. (MUCOID PLAQUE) Helps red blood cells carry oxygen & enzymes. Age Males (mg/day) Females (mg/day) Pregnancy (mg/day) Lactation (mg/day) 7 to 12 months 11 11 N/A N/A 1 to 3 years 7 7 N/A N/A 4 to 8 years 10 10 N/A N/A 9 to 13 years 8 8 N/A N/A 14 to 18 years 11 15 27 10 19 to 50 years 8 18 27 9 51+ years 8 8 N/A N/A VITAMIN E - level in sprouts. Vulnerable to heat & ¯ in cooking. Sources: Nuts, seeds, avocados, olives & cereal. Protects cells from damage that can turn cancerous.
  7. 7. Sport Nutrition & Performance Scott Josephson www.scottjosephson.net 7 SELENIUM Helps convert thyroxin to usable form. T3 ® 2-4mcg/dl T4 ® 4-12mcg/dl Antioxidant in conjunction with vitamin E. Sources: Nuts, asparagus, walnuts, grapes & raisins. ACID & ALKALINE INTAKE 1. PH level affects all cells. 2. Acid imbalance ¯ the metabolic process. 3. Over-acidic PH can damage body tissue. 4. Potentially leads to sickness & disease? ACIDIC WASTE CHO, protein & fat contain nitrogen, carbon, oxygen & hydrogen. 97% of consumption are these 4. 3% are acid forming phosphorous, sulfur & chlorine. Waste can be deposited in the liver, pancreas & colon. Acid waste = fatty acid, cholesterol & kidney stones. ACIDIC –ALKALINE NUMBERS - ACID INTAKE ¯ VITAMIN B12 Deficiency can ¯ BMD. Dosage: ~ 2.5 mcgs daily. Stomach acid & aging ¯ absorption. Sources: Fish, beef, pork, milk & cheese. Vegan Sources: Algae, nuts, seeds & yeasts. ENZYMES 1. YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT? (Absorb) 2. Foods must be broken down into liquid form. 3. Step one……..CHEW! Enzymes liquefy food! 4. Teeth in your stomach? 5. DRINKING? Theoretically, wait one hour? 6. Drinking while eating dilutes the enzymes?
  8. 8. Sport Nutrition & Performance Scott Josephson www.scottjosephson.net 8 ENZYMES 1. Amylase: Breaks ¯ CHO. 2. Pepsin: Breaks ¯ protein. 3. Hydrochloric Acid: Breaks ¯ bacteria. THE JOURNEY THE JOURNEY dietary PH for optimal acid to alkaline conversion SMALL INTESTINE 1. 90% of absorption takes place here. 2. About 22 feet long X 1 inch in diameter. 3. Villi: tongue-shaped projections, help absorption. WHAT’S UP WITH FOOD COMBINNG? WHAT’S UP WITH FOOD COMBINNG? FOOD COMBINING…ANY ISSUES? Are all the rules right? Can be debatable!
  9. 9. Sport Nutrition & Performance Scott Josephson www.scottjosephson.net 9 WHAT’S UP WITH FOOD COMBINING? Concept: Developed in the 1930’s by Dr. Hay. Belief: Do not eat protein & starch together. Why? Alkalinity & acidity nullify each other. Facts: 1. Plant foods contain protein, carbs & fat. 2. Body adjusts to digest these combinations. 3. Stomach is acidic & the small intestine alkaline. FOOD COMBINING FACTS Protein is not digested in the mouth. Stomach acids used to covert to AA’s. Protein & CHO are digested differently. CHO digestion starts in the mouth (saliva) FRUIT CLASSIFICATIONS Sweet: Banana, dates, raisins, papaya, figs & dried. Sub-Acid: Mango, plum, apricot, peach, nectarine, apple, pear, cherry, berries & most grapes. Acid fruits: Orange, grapefruit, strawberry, tangerine, pineapple, lemon, lime & kiwi. FRUIT SEQUENCE Mixing may spell trouble for your digestion! Eat watery 1st: Leaves your stomach the fastest! Acid & sub acid has more water than sweet. Dried are concentrated & stay in your stomach longer. NUTRIENT DIGESTION Different foods digest at different rates. Speed of digestion: sugar, starch, fat then protein. Starch digests quickly, protein takes time! Combined, protein putrefies & sits in the intestines! THANKS FOR LISTENING! Scott Josephson, M.S. www.scottjosephson.net AFPA & Can-Fit Pro Advisory Board 2011 ECA World Fitness Citizen of the Year 2005 Presenter & 2010 Specialty Presenter of the Year

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