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Review Paper


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Review Paper

  1. 1. Renee SanduskyAdvanced General Psychology 492 Instructor Dr. Darcel Harris Argosy University
  2. 2. Thousands of children receive a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury(TBI) every year (Wade, Cassedy, Walz, Taylor, Stancin, & Yeates,2011). Many studies have previously reported on a child’s overallrecovery process and the potential for long-term post injurybehavioral disorders. The purpose of this literature review is toidentify and evaluate psychosocial attributes that can help enhanceand encourage the overall recovery process, as well as ascertain thevariables that help decrease dysfunctional behaviors in a child whohas undergone a TBI. Several previous peer-reviewed researcharticles were obtained that directly reported on the topic ofchildhood TBI, and the recovery outcomes documented duringvarious time increments. The cumulative findings support thenotion that many psychosocial elements such as familyfunctioning, parenting styles, and overall parent-childrelationships can influence a child’s recovery potential.Implications for future research are assessing the value,enhancement, or hindrance of sibling relationships on a childrecovering from a TBI.
  3. 3. One of the highest causes of death anddisability among children today is dueto obtaining a traumatic brain injury(TBI) (Wade et al., 2011). The recoveryprocess and overall prognosis variesfrom child to child and are influencedby many factors. Several independentstudies highlight significant elements,which can either enhance or inhibit thechild’s full recovery potential. Outsideof the medical requirements andrehabilitation, little has been compliedto educate social services, medicalpersonnel, family members, and eventhe public on the psychosocial elementsthat help, hinder, or otherwise impedethe recovery process. I believe gainingthis insight can help empowercaregivers and offer aid during this verydifficult time in their lives.
  4. 4. When it comes to psychosocial elements…..…what helps or hinders the recovery process?
  5. 5.  Anderson et al. (2006) found that both current family functioning and the status of pre-injury family functioning ultimately influenced the child’s long- term post injury prognosis
  6. 6.  Catroppa, Anderson, Morse, Haritou, and Rosenfeld (2008) reported findings of SES and family functioning to be less significant, while injury severity and pre-injury cognitive and behavioral status to be the main contributors to overall recovery and functioning post- injury
  7. 7.  Chapman et al. (2010) found variables such as “SES, family functioning, and permissible parenting style as significant” (p.55) influencers during the recovery process.
  8. 8.  Negative childhood    Negative family behaviors functioning Kinsella, Ong, Murtagh, Prior, and Sawyer (1999) discovered a reciprocal relationship between families that reported an increase in negative childhood behavioral problems two years following a TBI, and greater overall family dysfunction.
  9. 9.  Potter et al. (2011) reported a direct correlation between parenting styles and behavioral outcomes in children following a TBI.
  10. 10.  Sesma, Slomine, Ding, and McCarthy (2008) reported finding a direct correlation to lower SES, (i.e. families using Medicaid insurance) and an increased caregiver report of childhood executive dysfunction.(
  11. 11.  Taylor et al. (2002) found that when looking at family influences, there is evidence of short-term catch-up growth in math when the family environment was ideal, healthy, and supportive.
  12. 12.  Wade et al. (2008) found that the parent-child relationship demonstrated a disruption after injury and perpetually demonstrated distress and impairment as the recovery process moved forward.
  13. 13. Dysfunctional behaviors Family increases SES as….. decreases Wade et al. (2011) found statistical evidence on the correlation between lower SES family environments and higher levels of post-injury behavioral problems.
  14. 14.  Yeates, Taylor, Walz, and Stancin (2010) found “better family functioning predicted better behavioral adjustment at 18 months post-injury” (p.352).
  15. 15. Common Themes:Psychosocial factors do in fact influence a child’s recovery potential! Elements such as:  Parental involvement  Parental warmness  Family functioning  Parenting styles  SES level All are variables that can help or hinder a child’s recovery!
  16. 16. Implications and Future Research Looking towards the futuremore information is needed todetermine if early identification andintervention of these potentiallyharmful and/or hindering elementscan, and to what extent, make a long-term difference in a child reachingtheir full recovery potential. Someaspects to further consider are theroles of siblings, and the impact thisrelationship may have on the child’srecovery capacity.
  17. 17. In this circle of parent-child relationships and post-injury behavioral issues, how does the sibling variablefit, if at all?
  18. 18. Thank you!
  19. 19. References Anderson, V. A., Catroppa, C., Dudgeon, P., Morse, S. A., Haritou, F., & Rosenfeld, J. V. (2006). Understanding predictors of functional recovery and outcome 30 months following early childhood head injury. Neuropsychology, 20 (1), 42-57. Catroppa, C., Anderson, V. A., Morse, S. A., Haritou, F., & Rosenfeld, J. V. (2008). Outcome and predictors of functional recovery 5 years following pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33 (7), 707-718. Chapman, L. A., Wade, S. L., Walz, N. C., Taylor, H. G., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K. O. (2010). Clinically significant behavior problems during the initial 18 months following early childhood traumatic brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology, 55 (1), 48-57.
  20. 20.  Kinsella, G., Ong, B., Murtagh, D., Prior, M., & Sawyer, M. (1999). The role of the family for behavioral outcome in children and adolescents following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67 (1), 116-123. Potter, J. L., Wade, S. L., Walz, N. C., Cassedy, A., Stevens, M. H., Yeates, K. O., & Taylor, H. G. (2011). Parenting style is related to executive dysfunction after brain injury in children. Rehabilitation Psychology, 1-8. Sesma, H. W., Slomine, B. S., Ding, R., & McCarthy, M. L. (2008). Executive functioning in the first year after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Pediatrics, 121 (6), 1686-1695. Taylor, H. G., Yeates, K. O., Wade, S. L., Drotar, D., Stancin, T., & Minich, N. (2002). A prospective study of short- and long-term outcomes after traumatic brain injury in children: Behavior and achievement. Neuropsychology, 16 (1), 15- 27.
  21. 21.  Wade, S. L., Cassedy, A., Walz, N. C., Taylor, H. G., Stancin, T., & Yeates, K. O. (2011). The relationship of parental warm responsiveness and negativity to emerging behavior problems following traumatic brain injury in young children. Developmental Psychology, 47 (1), 119-133. Wade, S. L., Taylor, H. G., Walz, N. C., Salisbury, S., Stancin, T., Bernard, L. A., Oberjohn, K., & Yeates, K.O. (2008). Parent-child interactions during the initial weeks following brain injury in young children. Rehabilitation Psychology, 53 (2), 180-190. Yeates, K. O., Taylor, H., Walz, N. C., & Stancin, T. (2010). The family environment as a moderator of psychosocial outcomes following traumatic brain injury in young children. Neuropsychology, 24 (3), 345-356.