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Chemistry to life


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Chemistry to life

  1. 1. Unit I Part II: From Chemistry to Life A. Atomic Theory <ul><li>Atoms are building blocks of elements </li></ul>
  2. 2. 1. Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass Electron e - 1- 0 Proton p + + 1 Neutron n 0 1 a. Atomic Number <ul><li>Counts the number of protons in an atom </li></ul>
  3. 3. b. Periodic Table <ul><li>Represents physical and chemical behavior of elements </li></ul><ul><li>Arranges elements by increasing atomic number </li></ul><ul><li>Repeats similar properties in columns known as chemical families or groups </li></ul>
  4. 4. Atomic Number on the Periodic Table <ul><li>11 </li></ul><ul><li>Na </li></ul>Atomic Number Symbol All atoms of an element have the same number of protons 11 protons
  5. 5. c. Number of Electrons <ul><li>An atom is neutral </li></ul><ul><li>The net charge is zero </li></ul><ul><li>Number of protons = Number of electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic number = Number of electrons </li></ul>d. Mass Number Counts the number of protons and neutrons in an atom
  6. 7. e. Isotopes <ul><li>Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different mass numbers </li></ul><ul><li> Isotopes of chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>35 Cl 37 Cl </li></ul><ul><li>17 17 </li></ul><ul><li> chlorine - 35 chlorine - 37 </li></ul>
  7. 8. f. Radioactive (decay) Isotopes <ul><li>They change their chemical identity as they shed particles and emit high-energy radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>They decay until they become lighter and stable. </li></ul><ul><li>This rate they decay at is the half-life </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Electrically charged atoms made by gaining or losing electrons </li></ul>g. Ions h. Molecules <ul><li>Combination of 2 or more atoms O 2 </li></ul>i. Compound <ul><li>A molecule composed of atoms of 2 or more different elements H 2 O, Co 2 </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Atoms share electrons </li></ul>j. Covalent Bond k. Polar Covalent Bonds l. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>(Water) 1 attracts the electrons more than the other (Oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>When electron is transferred from one atom to another </li></ul><ul><li>Creates ionic compounds (salts) </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Homogeneous mixtures (don’t chemically combine) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually associated with liquids but also happens in the air </li></ul>m. Solutions n. Water Molecules <ul><li>Able to support life because of it’s chemical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Strong cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>High specific heat </li></ul><ul><li>Expands when freezing </li></ul><ul><li>Bond well with polar molecules </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Determine acidity, a small amount of water molecules separate forming a hydrogen (H + ) ion and a hydroxide (OH - ) ion. </li></ul><ul><li>Pure water contains equal numbers of each making it neutral (10 -7 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater H + is acidic and greater OH - is basic </li></ul><ul><li>pH less than 7 = acidic </li></ul><ul><li>pH greater than 7 = basic </li></ul>1) Hydrogen Ions
  12. 13. <ul><li>An organic compound is one that has carbon as the principal element. Carbon’s ability to build big molecules results in millions of different organic compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>An inorganic element is any compound that is not an organic compound. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Hydrocarbons- consist of only hydrogen and carbon (crude oil and petroleum) </li></ul><ul><li>1) Methane = simplest hydrocarbon and is the key component of natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>2) smallest = gas, Larger = liquids, largest = solids </li></ul>B. Matter
  13. 14. C. Macromolecules <ul><li>Proteins- some provide structure, produce tissues, store energy, defend organisms, and some transport substances, and also serve as enzymes. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic Acids- DNA and RNA- carry hereditary information. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates- sugars (monosaccharide) provides energy that fuels plant and animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids- do not dissolve in water. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats and oils- store energy and release it when burned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phospholipids- one side attracted to water other side is not so forms cell membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waxes- structural roles (bee’s wax) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids- produce hormones </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. D. Synthetic Polymers <ul><li>Human made polymers are plastics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They resist chemical breakdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products make our lives easier because of this but also have long term effects on the environment. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. E. Energy Fundamentals <ul><li>Energy- intangible, can change the position, physical composition, or temperature of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Types: Potential, Kinetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Chemical energy – potential energy held in the bonds between atoms. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. 3. Laws of thermodynamics <ul><li>First law- energy can change form but not be created or destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Second law- the nature of energy will change from a more-ordered state to a less-ordered state if no force intervenes. </li></ul>4. Light Energy <ul><li>Sun is primary energy source for all life </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophs are primary producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis produces food for plants and animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration occurs because organisms use the chemical energy created by photosynthesis. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. 5. Geothermal Energy <ul><li>Powered by radiation from radioisotopes deep inside the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>(drives the plates to move, volcanoes, warms groundwater and causes geysers) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrothermal vents deep in the oceans produce enourmous amounts of heat energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemosynthesis occurs here – process where inorganic carbon is turned into organic compounds </li></ul></ul>