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Flame retardancy is it environment-friendly ?


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flame retardancy life cycle Assessment

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Flame retardancy is it environment-friendly ?

  1. 1. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova Can LCA tell whether flame retardancy is environment-friendly? Olivier Talon Mons, 17/03/2016
  2. 2. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova Can LCA tell whether flame retardancy is environment-friendly? … LCA? What is LCA?
  3. 3. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova LCA means Life Cycle Assessment LCA is a tool for quantifying the potential environmental impacts of a system LCA can be used for comparison of the environmental impacts of two systems
  4. 4. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova OK. But what’s the point of talking LCA today?
  5. 5. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova halogen-free bio-based eco-friendly sustainable renewable green emissions Does green keyword mean green technology? LCA could help giving an answer…
  6. 6. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova How does it work? LCA in a nutshell
  7. 7. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova LCA is meant for identifying / solving environmental issues without inducing impact switches (towards other LC steps or impact types) initial situation impact after modification impact
  8. 8. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova LCA quantifies exchanges between a product system and the environment
  9. 9. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova LCA makes links between these exchanges and impact categories ozone depletion acidification water depletion ecotoxicity land use eutrophication toxicity climate change ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;; ;;;; CO2 CH4 HCl
  10. 10. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova LCA translates these flows into environmental impacts Results from InnoREX project The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7; NMP.2012.3.0-1) under grant agreement number 309802.
  11. 11. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova LCA and flame retardancy
  12. 12. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova …before going any further… quick reminder… LCA is based on (very) simple mathematics EI(A+B) = EI(A) + EI(B)
  13. 13. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova LC step 1 emission of 1 kg X IC1(X) = x1 IC2(X) = x2 IC3(X) = 0 Overall Life Cycle Impacts Imp Cat 1 impact Imp Cat 2 Imp Cat 3 LC step 2 emission of 1 kg Y IC1(Y) = y1 IC2(Y) = 0 IC3(Y) = y3 EI(Life Cycle) = ∑(EIsteps)
  14. 14. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova Impact of a system EI(system) = EI(production) + EI(use) + EI(end of life) Any system Non-fire retarded system EI(FR) = EI(prodFR) + EI(useFR) + EI(eolFR) Fire retarded system EI(FR) = EI(prodFR) + EI(useFR) + EI(eolFR)
  15. 15. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova FR vs. FR What do we compare? In LCA, everything is related to the function of the system What is the common function of FR and FR? Not to burn? No. To be used.
  16. 16. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova FR vs. FR Therefore, if FR = FR + fr EI(FR) = EI(FR) + EI(fr) EI(FR) > EI (FR) because, obviously: EI(prodfr) + EI(usefr) + EI(eolfr) > 0
  17. 17. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova So what? That’s it? Fire retardants are not green, just because they are? No, of course… Such systems should not be considered by LCA as if they would never burn. Because they may burn. Each of them.
  18. 18. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova But how? In LCA, usually, systems are described under “normal” operation conditions. With no accident, therefore no burning. SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute proposed the so-called “Fire-LCA” model.
  19. 19. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova Principle of Fire-LCA Include fire statistics and environmental consequences of fire events in the comparative LCA study
  20. 20. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova Source: Simonson, 2000
  21. 21. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova What if FR burns? Consequences of the fire event System has to be replaced. Even partly. People may have to be healed. Room may have to be cleaned. Walls may have to be painted. Building may have to be rebuilt. Burnt system has to be discarded / treated. CO2, particles, dioxins etc. are emitted. …
  22. 22. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova What if FR burns? Consequences of the fire event Similar consequences. Maybe even worse consequences in terms of emissions. Marzi, 2006 Toxic combustion products green: FR; orange & red: FR
  23. 23. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova Impacts of the two systems p(fire)*EI(consequences) + (1-p(fire))*normal EI(FR) FR p’(fire)*EI’(consequences) + (1-p’(fire))*normal EI(FR) FR
  24. 24. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova Appropriate end-of-life treatment has to be considered, also… Source: Jonkers, 2015 LCA comparison of brominated and halogen-free retardant, laptop application
  25. 25. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova Therefore… In order to know whether one flame retardant is greener than another one… … it is definitely not enough to say renewable or halogen-free…
  26. 26. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova Data are needed about: - impacts of fr production - impacts of FR system production - impacts of “normal” use phase - impacts of disposal / treatment after “normal” use - probability of fire events - emissions directly linked to fr in case of fire - other fire consequences - impacts of disposal / treatment of burnt system …
  27. 27. ©MateriaNova–Allrightsreservedforallcountries Cannotbedisclosed,usedorreproducedwithoutpriorwrittenspecificauthorizationofMateriaNova contact: Thanks for your attention