LONG TERM PASTURE

TILLED IN A
CORN/SOYBEAN/WHEAT
ROTATION


Loss of Organic
Matter



Soil structure
Soil microbial
biomass



Release of CO2



Soil Erosion



Why Till?


...




This is what separates us
(Missouri) from Central Iowa,
Illinois, Minnesota, Indiana,
etc
In these areas climatic
co...


Nutrient Cycling






Water Dynamics





Nutrient Holding
Capacity
Pool of Nutrients
Food for soil organisms
I...








Bacteria-100
million-1 Billion!
Fungal FilamentsSeveral Yards
Protoza-Several
Thousand
Nematodes-10-20
Courtesy Brady and Weil, 2012
Nodules-Symbiotic Relationship Between the Plant and the Bacteria.
Atmospheric Nitrogen is Fixed by the Bacteria For Use b...




Each Species of
Legume has a
Different Species of
Bacteria

You must match them
together.






A lot of biomass-2-3
tons/acre
Winter Hardy
High Nitrogen Fixation100 plus lbs/acre
Wide window of
planting
Augu...


Adapted from Gallagher, Penn State
2007
Time
Early (May 4)
Middle (May 15)
Late (May 31)
2008
Early (May 1)
Middle (May...
Early May

Late May







Large Biomass
High N fixation-80120 lbs/acre
Plant fall or early
spring
Not as winter hardy


Seedling Disease...







Plant AugustSeptember
Early spring maturity
Not as much biomass
as Hairy Vetch or Peas
Can reseed
themselves







Inexpensive Seed
Rye is very winter
hardy
Rye tremendous dry
matter
Suppress weeds




Allelopathy or
Blockin...


Spring or Winter






Spring planted in the
fall will winter kill

Quick Growth in the
Fall
Great Companion
Crop








Cross between wheat
and cereal rye
Hardiness of cereal
rye
Good forage potential
Does not have the
allelopathi...









Plant in Fall
Overwinter-most of
the time
Deep Roots-5-6 ft
Scavenge Nitrogen
Dense matt controls
weeds
Can...


Late Summer Planted



Sequester Nitrogen



Loosen Soil



Weed Control?
Fall

Spring


Species

Crude Protein

ADF

NDF

%







Arrowleaf clvr
Field Pea
Cereal Rye
Ryegrass
Hairy Vetch

24.9 ab
23.2 ...


Following Wheat


Summer Annual
Legumes
 Sunn Hemp
 Sesbania
 Cowpea

Cowpea
Sesbania

Sunn Hemp
Nutrient Scavenge, Loosen Soil, Weed
Control
Ohio State
University
Courtesy of
Steve Groff
Open
field

Tillage
Radish®
field

Soil compaction
decreased by >40%

Loosen...
Gruver, et al, 2012
Williams and Weil, 2004
100%
90%

80%

36 to 48

70%

29 to 36

60%

24 to 29

50%

18 to 24

40%

12 to 18

30%

9 to 12

3 to 9

20%

0 to 3

10...
140
120

lb K/acre

100

80

none

60

Crimson Clover

Rye
Hairy Vetch

40
20
0
0 to 3

3 to 6

6 to 12

Hargrove et al, 1...
1.25 inch

2 inches

White and Weil, 2011
150

Soybean

Soybean

130

Lbs/acre

110
90

Shoot

70
50

CornCorn

Root

30
10
-10
Dean and Weil, J Eniv. Quality 2009
100
90
80

lbs/acre

70
60
50

Rye

40

Crimson Clover

30

Hairy Vetch

20
10
0
2

4

8

Weeks

12

16

From Wagger, 1989...


Weed Control






Smothering or
Allelopathy

Soil Health
-soil microbes
If no-till: soil and
water conservation
From Steve Groff

Cover Crop

No Cover Crop
27,427
25,606


7 more Bushels/acre



Seed Cost-$45/acre





7 bushel/acre @
$13/bushel=$91/acre
Or about $46/acre
profit
160

140

120

Hairy Vetch

187 lb N/acre
100

Crimson Clover

50 lb N/acre

80

Rye

36 lb N/acre

60

Control

40

20

0...















Soybean Yield 2013
Cover Crops Overseeded into Corn Sept. 2012
Treatment
Yield
Bu/acre
Control...
















Corn Yield 2013
Cover Crops Overseeded into Soybean September 2012
Corn
Treatment
Yield
Bu/a...
Brief









Hairy Vetch-$2.0/lb or $40-60/acre
Austrian Winter Pea-$0.73/lb or $29-44/acre
Crimson Clover-$1.2/lb or ...







Hairy Vetch-$40@ 100 lb N/acre=$0.40/lb
Austrian Winter Pea-$29@80 lb
N/acre=$0.36/lb
Crimson Clover-$24@75 lb...
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients
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Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients

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An update on the research at the MU Bradford Research Center on Cover Crop Management

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Overview of Cover Crops in Relation to Soil and Nutrients

  1. 1. LONG TERM PASTURE TILLED IN A CORN/SOYBEAN/WHEAT ROTATION
  2. 2.  Loss of Organic Matter   Soil structure Soil microbial biomass  Release of CO2  Soil Erosion  Why Till?  Weed Control
  3. 3.   This is what separates us (Missouri) from Central Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, Indiana, etc In these areas climatic conditions favor the accumulation of Organic Matter  Slower breakdown, long history of deep rooted native perennial plants
  4. 4.  Nutrient Cycling     Water Dynamics    Nutrient Holding Capacity Pool of Nutrients Food for soil organisms Improves water infiltration Improves water holding capacity Structure   Reduces crusting, compaction, erosion Encourages root development
  5. 5.     Bacteria-100 million-1 Billion! Fungal FilamentsSeveral Yards Protoza-Several Thousand Nematodes-10-20
  6. 6. Courtesy Brady and Weil, 2012
  7. 7. Nodules-Symbiotic Relationship Between the Plant and the Bacteria. Atmospheric Nitrogen is Fixed by the Bacteria For Use by the Plant.
  8. 8.   Each Species of Legume has a Different Species of Bacteria You must match them together.
  9. 9.     A lot of biomass-2-3 tons/acre Winter Hardy High Nitrogen Fixation100 plus lbs/acre Wide window of planting August-mid October March Hard Seed, late maturing  Problem When Wheat is in the Rotation   
  10. 10.  Adapted from Gallagher, Penn State 2007 Time Early (May 4) Middle (May 15) Late (May 31) 2008 Early (May 1) Middle (May 14) Late (May 29) Hairy Vetch lbs/acre %N N lbs/acre 1,400 3.82 55 4,300 4.43 190 6,600 4.15 274 3,204 4,005 4,361 2.49 2.92 4.55 80 117 197 Corn Yield-0 N 113 132 140 92 121 79
  11. 11. Early May Late May
  12. 12.     Large Biomass High N fixation-80120 lbs/acre Plant fall or early spring Not as winter hardy  Seedling Disease problems
  13. 13.     Plant AugustSeptember Early spring maturity Not as much biomass as Hairy Vetch or Peas Can reseed themselves
  14. 14.     Inexpensive Seed Rye is very winter hardy Rye tremendous dry matter Suppress weeds   Allelopathy or Blocking Light Good to mix with legumes
  15. 15.  Spring or Winter    Spring planted in the fall will winter kill Quick Growth in the Fall Great Companion Crop
  16. 16.     Cross between wheat and cereal rye Hardiness of cereal rye Good forage potential Does not have the allelopathic potential as cereal rye
  17. 17.       Plant in Fall Overwinter-most of the time Deep Roots-5-6 ft Scavenge Nitrogen Dense matt controls weeds Can become a weed!  Herbicide resistance problem
  18. 18.  Late Summer Planted  Sequester Nitrogen  Loosen Soil  Weed Control?
  19. 19. Fall Spring
  20. 20.  Species Crude Protein ADF NDF %      Arrowleaf clvr Field Pea Cereal Rye Ryegrass Hairy Vetch 24.9 ab 23.2 b 19.1 c 19.1 c 26.4 a 21.5 bc 21.4 bc 25.1 a 24.7 ab 19.7 c 26.0 cd 30.2 c 46.4 a 41.8 b 25.1 d
  21. 21.  Following Wheat  Summer Annual Legumes  Sunn Hemp  Sesbania  Cowpea Cowpea
  22. 22. Sesbania Sunn Hemp
  23. 23. Nutrient Scavenge, Loosen Soil, Weed Control
  24. 24. Ohio State University Courtesy of Steve Groff Open field Tillage Radish® field Soil compaction decreased by >40% Loosen SoilIncrease root growth and water infiltration?
  25. 25. Gruver, et al, 2012
  26. 26. Williams and Weil, 2004
  27. 27. 100% 90% 80% 36 to 48 70% 29 to 36 60% 24 to 29 50% 18 to 24 40% 12 to 18 30% 9 to 12 3 to 9 20% 0 to 3 10% 0% P K Clark and Reinbott, 2012
  28. 28. 140 120 lb K/acre 100 80 none 60 Crimson Clover Rye Hairy Vetch 40 20 0 0 to 3 3 to 6 6 to 12 Hargrove et al, 1986
  29. 29. 1.25 inch 2 inches White and Weil, 2011
  30. 30. 150 Soybean Soybean 130 Lbs/acre 110 90 Shoot 70 50 CornCorn Root 30 10 -10 Dean and Weil, J Eniv. Quality 2009
  31. 31. 100 90 80 lbs/acre 70 60 50 Rye 40 Crimson Clover 30 Hairy Vetch 20 10 0 2 4 8 Weeks 12 16 From Wagger, 1989. Agronomy Journal
  32. 32.  Weed Control    Smothering or Allelopathy Soil Health -soil microbes If no-till: soil and water conservation
  33. 33. From Steve Groff Cover Crop No Cover Crop
  34. 34. 27,427 25,606
  35. 35.  7 more Bushels/acre  Seed Cost-$45/acre   7 bushel/acre @ $13/bushel=$91/acre Or about $46/acre profit
  36. 36. 160 140 120 Hairy Vetch 187 lb N/acre 100 Crimson Clover 50 lb N/acre 80 Rye 36 lb N/acre 60 Control 40 20 0 0 50 100 From Ebelhar et al, 1986
  37. 37.              Soybean Yield 2013 Cover Crops Overseeded into Corn Sept. 2012 Treatment Yield Bu/acre Control 29 Hairy Vetch 24 Crimson Clover 28 Radish 27 Cereal Rye 36 Hairy Vetch+Rye 28 Crimson Clv. +Rye 33 Radish + Rye 29 Rye+Radish+HV+CC 27 Reinbott, 2013
  38. 38.               Corn Yield 2013 Cover Crops Overseeded into Soybean September 2012 Corn Treatment Yield Bu/acre Control 175 Hairy Vetch 199 Crimson Clover 165 Radish 174 Cereal Rye 175 Hairy Vetch+Rye 187 Crimson Clv. +Rye 181 Radish + Rye 173 Rye+Radish+HV+CC 174 Reinbott, 2013
  39. 39. Brief
  40. 40.         Hairy Vetch-$2.0/lb or $40-60/acre Austrian Winter Pea-$0.73/lb or $29-44/acre Crimson Clover-$1.2/lb or $24/acre Radish-$4 lb or $32/acre Cereal Rye-$0.23 or $14-21/acre Annual Rye-$0.80 or $16/acre Sunn Hemp-$2.5/lb or $50-75/acre Sesbania-$2.4/lb or $48/acre
  41. 41.      Hairy Vetch-$40@ 100 lb N/acre=$0.40/lb Austrian Winter Pea-$29@80 lb N/acre=$0.36/lb Crimson Clover-$24@75 lb N/acre=$0.32/lb Sunn Hemp-$50@80 lb N/acre=$0.62/lb Sesbania-$48@80 N/acre=$0.60/lb

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