   A lot of biomass-2-3    tons/acre   Winter Hardy   High Nitrogen Fixation-    100 plus lbs/acre   Wide window of   ...
   Adapted from Gallagher, Penn State          2007          Hairy Vetch                   Corn Yield-0 N      Time      ...
Early May   Late May
   Large Biomass   High N fixation-80-    120 lbs/acre   Plant fall or early    spring   Not as winter hardy       Se...
   Plant August-    September   Early spring maturity   Not as much biomass    as Hairy Vetch or Peas   Can reseed    ...
    Some New Varieties are 7-14 days earlierCrimson Clover           Days to 50% flowering   Dry Matter yield            ...
   Following Wheat       Summer Annual        Legumes         Sunn Hemp         Sesbania         Cowpea              ...
Sesbania   Sunn Hemp
   Summer Cover Crops       lb/acre         %N     lb N/acre   Sesbania                 4051            1.97     79   S...
   Each Species of    Legume has a    Different Species of    Bacteria   You must match them    together.
   Very Short Growing    season-60 days   Some Weed Control-    Allelopathy   Inexpensive Seed-    much like wheat or r...
   Inexpensive Seed   Rye is very winter hardy   Spring Oats is not winter    hardy and will winter    kill-can be used...
   Plant in Fall   Overwinter-most of    the time   Deep Roots-5-6 ft   Scavenge Nitrogen   Dense matt controls    we...
   Late Summer Planted   Sequester Nitrogen   Loosen Soil   Weed Control?
5.75 lbs0.75 lbs
Fall       Spring
Nutrient Scavenge, Loosen Soil, Weed              Control
Tillage Radish Root dug out-32”Courtesy of Steve Groff-Pennsylvania
Ohio State      Loosen Soil-              University              Courtesy of     Increase root              Steve Groff  ...
Depth    pHs      OM    P         Ca        Mg        K         CEC        MnInches            %     lb/acre   lb/acre   l...
K content      ppmCrop           0-3 inch       3-6 inch   6-12 inchnone           105 b          100 ab     109 aRye     ...
   Rye and Radish can capture 100 or more    lbs/acre of N                Shoot Dry wt   Root Dry Wt Shoot N Content Root...
Brief
   Hairy Vetch-$2.0/lb or $40-60/acre   Austrian Winter Pea-$0.73/lb or $29-44/acre   Crimson Clover-$1.2/lb or $24/acr...
   Hairy Vetch-$40@ 100 lb N/acre=$0.40/lb   Austrian Winter Pea-$29@80 lb    N/acre=$0.36/lb   Crimson Clover-$24@75 l...
   Divide monoculture    seeding by number of    species:   Ex) Hairy Vetch-30    lb/acre, Cereal Rye-90    lb/acre, Aus...
Table 1. Typical herbicide rates, sensitive species, half- life, and potential for carryover injury tosensitive crops (car...
8/25/12 10 lbs./ac. Ryegrass broadcast                    8/27/12 5 lbs./ac. Radish planted                    10/19/21 Ph...
Bio Strip-tillSpring, Steve Groff
Plant Into the Radish andThen Kill the Ryegrass
Cereal Rye and Hairy Vetch          Oats and Hairy Vetch OverseededOverseeded into Corn on September   Into Corn on Septem...
Crimson Clover overseeded into   Crimson Clover drilled into soybeanCorn on September 6th 2011       Residue on October 12
1200-1500 lbs/acre   2,000 lbs/acre
2-5,000 lb/are depending upon the year
Courtesy of Penn State Extension, 2012
100                                Corn germination when planted into rye cover crop                          90          ...
DAY OF DESICCATION    5 DAYS LATER  Flailed    Rolled     Rolled       Flailed
PLANT PERPENDICULAR TO   SEED TO SOIL CONTACTTHE WAY IT WAS ROLLED    CAN BE A CHALLENGE
From Wagger, 1989. Agronomy Journal           100           90           80           70           60lbs/acre           50...
From Wagger, 1989, Agronomy Journal
Cover Crop     Harvest Time Dry Wt N Concentration N C:N                                             Total                ...
May           Corn           Grain SorghumMissouri 1997-1999Cover Crop     Cover Crop    Fertilizer N   Fertilizer NCover ...
   Weed Control       Smothering or        Allelopathy   Soil Health    -soil microbes   If no-till: soil and    water...
From Steve GroffCover Crop       No Cover Crop
1991-2003CORN-SOYBEAN MULCH-TILL   2003-2012 NO-TILL + COVER CROP                                                Soybean-W...
Centralia 88-Acre Research Field
   Better Water    Infiltration   Nutrient Cycling   Root Development
   Bacteria-100    million-1 Billion!   Fungal Filaments-    Several Yards   Protoza-Several    Thousand   Nematodes-1...
                                      Tillage   Cereal   Time              No Cover         Radish    Rye              ...
   Cover Crop                 Broad Grasses   Peren.   Total   2007                             Number/ft2   Hairy Vetc...
   Corn/Soybean       Corn/rye/Soybean/radish+oats       Corn/rye+legume/Soybean/polyculture including        legumes ...
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
Cover Crops in Missouri
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Cover Crops in Missouri

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A presentation about using cover crops in Missouri

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Cover Crops in Missouri

  1. 1.  A lot of biomass-2-3 tons/acre Winter Hardy High Nitrogen Fixation- 100 plus lbs/acre Wide window of planting  August-mid October  March  Hard Seed, late maturing  Problem When Wheat is in the Rotation
  2. 2.  Adapted from Gallagher, Penn State 2007 Hairy Vetch Corn Yield-0 N Time lbs/acre %N N lbs/acre Early (May 4) 1,400 3.82 55 113 Middle (May 15) 4,300 4.43 190 132 Late (May 31) 6,600 4.15 274 140 2008 Early (May 1) 3,204 2.49 80 92 Middle (May 14) 4,005 2.92 117 121 Late (May 29) 4,361 4.55 197 79
  3. 3. Early May Late May
  4. 4.  Large Biomass High N fixation-80- 120 lbs/acre Plant fall or early spring Not as winter hardy  Seedling Disease problems
  5. 5.  Plant August- September Early spring maturity Not as much biomass as Hairy Vetch or Peas Can reseed themselves
  6. 6.  Some New Varieties are 7-14 days earlierCrimson Clover Days to 50% flowering Dry Matter yield From February 1 lb/acreSunrise 51 1471Robin 58 1587Tibbee 67 1946Chief 65 1921Dixie 66 1872 Courtesy of Auburn University
  7. 7.  Following Wheat  Summer Annual Legumes  Sunn Hemp  Sesbania  Cowpea Cowpea
  8. 8. Sesbania Sunn Hemp
  9. 9.  Summer Cover Crops lb/acre %N lb N/acre Sesbania 4051 1.97 79 Sunn Hemp 5097 1.87 83 Cowpea 3325 2.47 81 From MU Bradford Research Center 2012
  10. 10.  Each Species of Legume has a Different Species of Bacteria You must match them together.
  11. 11.  Very Short Growing season-60 days Some Weed Control- Allelopathy Inexpensive Seed- much like wheat or rye Attract Beneficial Insects Many uses for Vegetable production Nutrient Cycling
  12. 12.  Inexpensive Seed Rye is very winter hardy Spring Oats is not winter hardy and will winter kill-can be used to our advantage Rye tremendous dry matter Suppress weeds  Allelopathy or Blocking Light Good to mix with legumes
  13. 13.  Plant in Fall Overwinter-most of the time Deep Roots-5-6 ft Scavenge Nitrogen Dense matt controls weeds Can become a weed!  Herbicide resistance problem
  14. 14.  Late Summer Planted Sequester Nitrogen Loosen Soil Weed Control?
  15. 15. 5.75 lbs0.75 lbs
  16. 16. Fall Spring
  17. 17. Nutrient Scavenge, Loosen Soil, Weed Control
  18. 18. Tillage Radish Root dug out-32”Courtesy of Steve Groff-Pennsylvania
  19. 19. Ohio State Loosen Soil- University Courtesy of Increase root Steve Groff growth and Open water field infiltration?TillageRadish®field Soil compaction decreased by >40%
  20. 20. Depth pHs OM P Ca Mg K CEC MnInches % lb/acre lb/acre lb/acre lb/acre meq/100g ppm0-3 5.6 4.2 16 3393 279 170 12.4 25.23-9 6.0 3.2 8 4211 318 85 14 25.09-12 6.0 2.5 7 3513 480 136 13.5 4.312-18 5.4 2.4 3 5459 1262 285 23.8 0.118-24 4.8 2.2 1 4598 1393 340 23.7 0.724-29 5.1 1.6 16 5101 1525 308 24 16.229-36 5.4 0.9 28 3728 906 267 16.4 35.436-48 5.7 0.9 32 4102 1244 244 17.8 26.0 From MU Bradford-2012
  21. 21. K content ppmCrop 0-3 inch 3-6 inch 6-12 inchnone 105 b 100 ab 109 aRye 97 b 89 c 96 abCrimson Clover 96 b 72 d 71 cHairy Vetch 127 a 108 a 86 bcFrom Hargrove, 1986. Agronomy Journal
  22. 22.  Rye and Radish can capture 100 or more lbs/acre of N Shoot Dry wt Root Dry Wt Shoot N Content Root N Content Shoot N Root NAfter Corn lbs lbs % % lbs lbsRadish 2165 2599 1.86 1.15 39.3 30Rye 1757 2.39 37.9After SoybeanRadish 3345 1989 3.93 3.12 132 62Rye 2545 3.94 100 From Dean and Weil, 2009 Journal of Environmental Quality
  23. 23. Brief
  24. 24.  Hairy Vetch-$2.0/lb or $40-60/acre Austrian Winter Pea-$0.73/lb or $29-44/acre Crimson Clover-$1.2/lb or $24/acre Radish-$4 lb or $32/acre Cereal Rye-$0.23 or $14-21/acre Annual Rye-$0.80 or $16/acre Sunn Hemp-$2.5/lb or $50-75/acre Sesbania-$2.4/lb or $48/acre
  25. 25.  Hairy Vetch-$40@ 100 lb N/acre=$0.40/lb Austrian Winter Pea-$29@80 lb N/acre=$0.36/lb Crimson Clover-$24@75 lb N/acre=$0.32/lb Sunn Hemp-$50@80 lb N/acre=$0.62/lb Sesbania-$48@80 N/acre=$0.60/lb
  26. 26.  Divide monoculture seeding by number of species: Ex) Hairy Vetch-30 lb/acre, Cereal Rye-90 lb/acre, Austrian Winter Pea-60 lb/acre in monoculture When mixed: Hairy Vetch-10 lb/acre, Cereal Rye 30 lb/acre, and Austrian Winter Pea-20 lb/acre
  27. 27. Table 1. Typical herbicide rates, sensitive species, half- life, and potential for carryover injury tosensitive crops (carryover potential based on half lives and soil availability). Herbicide half-lifeestimates derived from the WSSA Herbicide Handbook, 2007 or other scientific literature. Herbicide Typical rate/acre Sensitive species Half life (days) Carryover potentialAccent 2/3 oz brdlfs+grass 21 LowAssure/Targa 8 oz grass 60 LowAtrazine 1 lb brdlfs+grass 60 ModerateAuthority 4 oz brdlfs 32-302 ModerateBalance Pro 2 fl oz brdlfs+grass 50-120 ModerateCallisto 6 fl oz brdlfs 5-32 ModerateClassic 2 oz brdlfs 40 ModerateDual II Mag 1.67 pt brdlfs+grass 15-50 LowFirstRate 0.33 oz brdlfs 8-33 LowHarmony 1/8 oz brdlfs 12 LowHarness 2 pt brdlfs+grass 10-20 LowImpact 0.75 fl oz brdlfs+grass 14 LowLaudis 3 fl oz brdlfs+grass 14 LowOutlook 16 fl oz brdlfs+grass 20 LowPeak 1 oz brdlfs 9-152 ModeratePermit 2/3 oz brdlfs 9-27 LowProwl H2O 3 pt brdlfs+grass 44 LowPursuit 4 fl oz brdlfs+grass 60-90 ModerateRaptor 5 fl oz brdlfs+grass 20-30 LowReflex 1.5 pt brdlfs 100 ModerateResolve 2 oz brdlfs+grass 2-4 LowSelect 10 oz grass 3 NoneSencor 0.33 lb brdlfs+grass 14-60 LowSharpen 3 fl oz brdlfs 7-35 LowSimazine 1 lb brdlfs+grass 60 ModerateStinger 5 oz brdlfs 40 ModerateValor 2.5 oz brdlfs 12-20 Low
  28. 28. 8/25/12 10 lbs./ac. Ryegrass broadcast 8/27/12 5 lbs./ac. Radish planted 10/19/21 PhotosEllis and Hoorman, 2012
  29. 29. Bio Strip-tillSpring, Steve Groff
  30. 30. Plant Into the Radish andThen Kill the Ryegrass
  31. 31. Cereal Rye and Hairy Vetch Oats and Hairy Vetch OverseededOverseeded into Corn on September Into Corn on September 6th 20116th 2011
  32. 32. Crimson Clover overseeded into Crimson Clover drilled into soybeanCorn on September 6th 2011 Residue on October 12
  33. 33. 1200-1500 lbs/acre 2,000 lbs/acre
  34. 34. 2-5,000 lb/are depending upon the year
  35. 35. Courtesy of Penn State Extension, 2012
  36. 36. 100 Corn germination when planted into rye cover crop 90 80 70Plant count per 10 feet 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 chop roll chop roll chop roll chop roll before cc destroyed same day cc destroyed 1 week after cc destroyed 2 weeks after cc destroyedFrom MU Bradford Research Center, 212
  37. 37. DAY OF DESICCATION 5 DAYS LATER Flailed Rolled Rolled Flailed
  38. 38. PLANT PERPENDICULAR TO SEED TO SOIL CONTACTTHE WAY IT WAS ROLLED CAN BE A CHALLENGE
  39. 39. From Wagger, 1989. Agronomy Journal 100 90 80 70 60lbs/acre 50 Rye 40 Crimson Clover 30 Hairy Vetch 20 10 0 2 4 8 12 16 Weeks
  40. 40. From Wagger, 1989, Agronomy Journal
  41. 41. Cover Crop Harvest Time Dry Wt N Concentration N C:N Total lbs/acre % lbs/acreRye Early 6355 1.49 94 27:1Rye Late 8144 1.25 101 32:1Crimson Clover Early 3827 2.76 106 14:1Crimson Clover Late 5260 2.48 131 16:1Hairy Vetch Early 3720 3.69 131 11:1Hairy Vetch Late 6337 3.22 204 12:1 From Wagger, 1989. Agronomy Journal
  42. 42. May Corn Grain SorghumMissouri 1997-1999Cover Crop Cover Crop Fertilizer N Fertilizer NCover Crop Seeding rate Dry Matter Equivalent Equivalent lb/acre lb/acre lb/acreHairy Vetch 30 1744 37.3 54.8Hairy Vetch 20 1451 40.2 46.5Austrian Winter Pea 60 712 26.4 35.1Austrian Winter Pea 40 757 33.6 6.5HV+Oat 30+90 1197 28.5 40.9HV+Oat 20+90 1059 18.6 21.7AWP+Oat 60+90 990 -24.2 15AWP+Oat 40+90 481 -16.8 -3.6Oat 90 0 -24.5 -4.2 From Reinbott, et al, 2004. Agronomy Journal
  43. 43.  Weed Control  Smothering or Allelopathy Soil Health -soil microbes If no-till: soil and water conservation
  44. 44. From Steve GroffCover Crop No Cover Crop
  45. 45. 1991-2003CORN-SOYBEAN MULCH-TILL 2003-2012 NO-TILL + COVER CROP Soybean-Wheat Soybean-Corn
  46. 46. Centralia 88-Acre Research Field
  47. 47.  Better Water Infiltration Nutrient Cycling Root Development
  48. 48.  Bacteria-100 million-1 Billion! Fungal Filaments- Several Yards Protoza-Several Thousand Nematodes-10-20
  49. 49.  Tillage Cereal Time No Cover Radish Rye % Late Fall 96 0 0 Late March 99 3 1 Late April 75 37 0From Lawley, et al, 2011. Agronomy Journal
  50. 50.  Cover Crop Broad Grasses Peren. Total 2007 Number/ft2 Hairy Vetch 1.2 2.1 6.8 10.4 None 1.8 8.0 9.9 20.1 2008 Hairy Vetch 0.7 0.7 0.6 2.0 None 5.1 6.3 0.9 12.3 From Mischler, et al 2010 Agronomy Journal
  51. 51.  Corn/Soybean  Corn/rye/Soybean/radish+oats  Corn/rye+legume/Soybean/polyculture including legumes Corn/Corn-plant early  Overseed oats+radish or oats+radish+crimson clover Corn/Soybean/Wheat  Similar to above except after wheat follow a tropical legume such as sunn hemp, cowpea, and then other cover crops in the fall

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