Dr. Rana Sobh
Abeer Ali Mossa Nuha Mohamed Al - Dasouqi
Rehab Mohd. Abu-Jalala Shua’a Masoud Al-Khater
Table of contents
1- The monkey’s story
2- What do we mean by culture?
3- Culture is dynamic
4- What is organization culture?
5- Dr. Schein’s definition about organizational culture
6- How an employee learns culture
7- Three main culture levels
8- The usefulness of understanding organizational culture
9- When strategic & culture change are required ?
10- Culture as a tool of the general manager
12- Evaluating culture in Mergers & Acquisitions
14 Q- Chem Company (Video)
What do we mean by "culture"?
Culture refers to the shared beliefs, values and norms of
a group. It includes
• Cognitive schemas (Scripts and frames that mold our
expectations and help us assign meaning and order to
the stream of experience)
• Shared meanings (Perceptions (How the world is, how
things work. Implicit theories of the market, of
management, of politics, of human nature)
• Prescriptions and Preferences (What the best way to
do things is; What they want to happen
• Behavioral codes (How to dress, how to act, what
kinds of things you can joke about, is it cool to be
• Basic values (What is really important; what is evil)
• Myths and legends (Stories about the past: knowledge
of the stories identifies you as belonging, and often
the stories have hidden points like this is what
happens to people who...)
• Heroes and heroines.
Characteristics of Culture
1. Culture is dynamic so that it can evolve with new
experiences by two ways :
a. As a result of a clear present crisis.
b. Through a managed developing under a skilled
2. Culture is powerful tool for pursuing a particular set of
3. Culture can constitute a disability at times when change is
critical to addressing new competitive or technological
challenges from unexpected directions .
• Observed behavioral regularities
that occur when people interact.
• The norms that evolve in close
• The dominate values espoused by
• The philosophy that guides an
organization policy toward
employees & customers.
• The rules for getting along with
other people in the organization,
and the feeling or climate of a
What is Organizational
A pattern of basic assumptions (Invented, discovered, developed)
by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external
adaptation & internal integration. That has worked well enough
to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new
members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation
to those problems.
A learned result of a group experience and it is only found where there is a definable group
with a significant history of togetherness.
Who is Edgar Schein ?
Foremost scholars of organization culture.
• Edgar H. Schein was educated at the University of
Chicago , at Stanford University, where he received a
master's degree in psychology; and at Harvard
University, where he received his Ph.D. in social
• Dr. Schein has received many honors recently the
Lifetime Achievement Award in Workplace Learning
• Schein has been a prolific researcher, writer, teacher,
Schein’s Organizational Culture’s definition
Dr. Edgar H. Schein
These basic assumptions
& beliefs are learned
responses to the
problems to survive in
the face of challenges
from external & internal
How to form organizational Culture
Members share their
experiences in solving
Members form a
shared view “ how
the world works “.
They have methods
for solving problems
This will lead to form
basic assumptions &
beliefs to be taken for
granted because they
repeatedly & reliably.
The most common methods of
How an employee learn culture?
BEHAVIOR AND ARTIFACTS
The most visible level is behavior and artifacts. consists of behavior
patterns perquisites provided to executives, dress codes, level of technology
utilized and the physical layout of work spaces.
Three main culture levels
Values underlie and to a large extent determine behavior, but they are not
directly observable, as behaviors are. People will attribute their behavior to
ASSUMPTIONS AND BELIEFS
Assumptions grow out of values, until they become taken for granted and
drop out of awareness.
The understanding of organizational culture is
useful in :
• Helping a manager to predict how his organization
is likely to respond to different situations.
• Assessing the difficulties that organization might
experience as it confront a changing future.
• Identify the priority issues for the leadership to
address as they prepare the organization to compete
• Affects and regulates the way members of the
organization think, feel and act within the
framework of that organization.
When strategic & culture change are required
• When the future they foresee finally arrive
in the present.
• This done by creating a separate team of
people & confronting them with a new task,
which represents as closely as possible the
sort of problems the organization will
confront in the future.
• Strong culture is one of the
most powerful tools a skilled
manager can wield.
• It is essential to consistent
decision-making as the
organization’s size & scope
• It becomes impossible for the
general manager to
participate in or oversee every
process that solve problems.
Culture as a tool of the general manager :
• Often there are several cultures operating within the larger
organization. There can be managerial culture , nationality
or geography - based culture , occupationally – based
culture, Functional unit culture and business culture. As a
group acquires history, It acquires culture
• Groups often maintain their identity by comparing &
constructing themselves with surrounding groups.
• The most effective group are those that form a culture of
their own with their own language, assumptions for
operations, and sets of attitudes.
• When a sub-group develop their own strong “independent
culture” they experience problems communication with
other groups & become more inflexible in their own
Evaluating culture in Mergers & Acquisitions
When a company decides to acquire another, It pays over the book value for three classes
of factors :
• Resources :
People, Technology, Products, facilities, equipments, information, relationships with
customers, distributors & suppliers.
• Processes :
Capabilities & disabilities historically has resulted from its processes & decisions
• Business model :
Ways of working together & making decisions (organization culture).
1. The view of culture is most relevant to the analysis
and evaluation of organizational culture and to
culture change strategies that leaders can employ to
improve organizational performance.
2. One of the most important functions of leaders is
the creation and management of it’s culture.
3. One of the important objective of any manager is
“Building maintaining and creating a feeling of
togetherness among group members so that they
become capable of accomplishing things that
individuals can not accomplish a lone”
• It established at Qatar in 2003.
• It’s One of the best safety companies in the world.
• Their priorities are :
Q-CHEM CULTURE :
1- Training & Learning System :
( Experiences –Methods for solving problems – View of how the world works
- beliefs – Priorities – Procedures ).
2- Observing :
( Check safety during the work , Manufacturing Operations , follow up the
procedures , Quality , Team Work , …)
3- Reward and Punishment system.