Cil FloresRegina Munoz   Kim Ocana
   Monkeys with bilateral medial temporal    lobectomies have major problems forming    long-term memories for objects en...
   Intact , well-trained monkeys performed    correctly on about 90% of delayed    nonmatching-to-sample trials when the ...
100 80 60                                             Medial temporal lobe 40                                          les...
   The development of the delayed nonmatching-to-    sample test for monkeys provided a means of    testing the assumptio...
Aspiration lesions of   the hippocampus in     monkeys and rats.Because of differences         in the size and         loc...
   Mumby box     David Mumby     Delayed nonmatching-to-sample test for rats     It was assumed that rats could not pe...
   Hippocampal lesions consistently disrupt the    performance of tasks that involve the    memory for spatial location....
   Radial arm maze test    ◦ Reference memory-memory for the general      principles and skills that are required to perf...
   Place cells    ◦ Neurons that respond only when a subject is in      specific locations.    ◦ By placing a rat in an a...
   Species of birds that    remember where    they store seeds have    larger    hippocampuses than    birds that do not ...
   Experiment with humans in virtual-reality    towns (show activity in hippocampus using    positron emission tomography...
   Cognitive map theory    ◦ O’Keefe and Nadel    ◦ There are several systems in the brain that      specializes in the m...
Brown and AggletonTheory of the role of hippocampus in object  recognition that emphasizes its relation to the  perirhin...
   Configural association memory    ◦ Based on the premise that spatial memory is one      specific manifestation of the ...
   Inferotemporal Cortex    ◦ The cortex of the inferior temporal lobe    ◦ Involved in the perception of objects, it is ...
   Amygdala    ◦ Plays a role in memory for experiences with      emotional significance.    ◦ Rats with amygdalar lesion...
   Prefrontal Cortex    ◦ The area of frontal cortex anterior to motor cortex    ◦ Are not grossly amnesic; they often di...
   Cerebellum    ◦ Thought to participate in the storage of memories      of learned sensorimotor skills through its vari...
   What is happening within the brain structures    involved in memory?   The efficiency of synaptic transmission were  ...
   Hebb hypothesized that consistent with the    synaptic changes are the neural basis of    learning and memory    LTP ...
The idea that LTP is related to the neural   mechanisms of learning and memory has   some several observations:(1) Elicite...
    All of the evidence is indirect that supports a     role of LTP in learning and Memory    Has three part process:1. ...
   Usually studied at synapses at which NMDA    receptor is prominent.   NMDA receptor is a receptor for glutamate    wh...
   Learning Calcium influx only occurs if there is    the co-occurrence that is needed for    LTP, leading to the binding...
   The maintenance and expression of LTP    involve changes in both presynaptic and    postsynaptic neurons.   Only thos...
   The discovery of structural changes in    neurons following the induction of LTP    stimulated a search for a mechanis...
Final biopsyCHOLOGY REPORT
Final biopsyCHOLOGY REPORT
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Final biopsyCHOLOGY REPORT

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our report in BioPsych.. this ppt is incomplete since the first part of the topic was not included here.
i have uploaded our documents and presentations because i don't want to have it deleted.. these files can still be usefull to me and to others. i hope this can help..


book: BioPsych
author: J.P. Pinel

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Final biopsyCHOLOGY REPORT

  1. 1. Cil FloresRegina Munoz Kim Ocana
  2. 2.  Monkeys with bilateral medial temporal lobectomies have major problems forming long-term memories for objects encountered in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample test.
  3. 3.  Intact , well-trained monkeys performed correctly on about 90% of delayed nonmatching-to-sample trials when the retention intervals were a few minutes or less. In contrast, monkeys with bilateral medial temporal lobe lesions had major object- recognition deficits.
  4. 4. 100 80 60 Medial temporal lobe 40 lesions Normal controls 20 0 8 15 1 minute 10 seconds seconds minutes
  5. 5.  The development of the delayed nonmatching-to- sample test for monkeys provided a means of testing the assumptions that the amnesia resulting from medial temporal lobe damage is entirely the consequence of hippocampal damage.
  6. 6. Aspiration lesions of the hippocampus in monkeys and rats.Because of differences in the size and location of the hippocampus in monkeys and inrats, hippocampectomy typically involves the removal of large amounts of rhinal cortex in monkeys, but not in rats.
  7. 7.  Mumby box  David Mumby  Delayed nonmatching-to-sample test for rats  It was assumed that rats could not perform a task as complex as that required for the delayed nonmatching-to-sample test. Combined bilateral lesions of rats’ hippocampus, amgdala, & rhinal cortex produce major retention deficits at all but the shortest retention intervals.
  8. 8.  Hippocampal lesions consistently disrupt the performance of tasks that involve the memory for spatial location. Morris water maze test ◦ Rats with hippocampal lesions learn the task with great difficulty. Radial arm maze test ◦ Intact rats readily learn to visit only those that contain food, without visiting the same arm more than once each day.
  9. 9.  Radial arm maze test ◦ Reference memory-memory for the general principles and skills that are required to perform a task ◦ Ability to visit only the baited arms of the radial arm maze. ◦ Working memory-temporary memory that is necessary for the successful performance of a task on which one is currently working. ◦ Ability to refrain from visiting an arm more than once in a given day ◦ Rats with hippocampal lesions display major deficits on both ref. & working memory.
  10. 10.  Place cells ◦ Neurons that respond only when a subject is in specific locations. ◦ By placing a rat in an ambiguous situation in a familiar test environment, it is possible to determine whether the rat thinks it is from the route that it takes to get to the location in the environment where it has previously been rewarded
  11. 11.  Species of birds that remember where they store seeds have larger hippocampuses than birds that do not store seeds, supporting the idea that hippocampus is important for spatial memory in many, if not all, species.
  12. 12.  Experiment with humans in virtual-reality towns (show activity in hippocampus using positron emission tomography, PET) and with taxi drivers (bigger hippocampuses measured with magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) also support this idea.
  13. 13.  Cognitive map theory ◦ O’Keefe and Nadel ◦ There are several systems in the brain that specializes in the memory for different kinds of information, and the specific function of the hippocampus is the storage of memories for spatial location.
  14. 14. Brown and AggletonTheory of the role of hippocampus in object recognition that emphasizes its relation to the perirhinal cortex.◦ Perirheral cortex, not the hippocampus, plays a key role in most object-recognition tasks.
  15. 15.  Configural association memory ◦ Based on the premise that spatial memory is one specific manifestation of the hippocampus’s more general function. ◦ Hippocampus plays a role in the retention of the behavioral significance of combinations of stimuli, but not of individual stimuli.
  16. 16.  Inferotemporal Cortex ◦ The cortex of the inferior temporal lobe ◦ Involved in the perception of objects, it is thought to participate, in concert with perirhinal cortex, in storing memories of visual paterns.
  17. 17.  Amygdala ◦ Plays a role in memory for experiences with emotional significance. ◦ Rats with amygdalar lesions, unlike intact rats, do not respond with fear to a neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly followed y electric foot shocks.
  18. 18.  Prefrontal Cortex ◦ The area of frontal cortex anterior to motor cortex ◦ Are not grossly amnesic; they often display no deficits at all on conventional tests of memory. Two memory abilities that are often lost by patients with large prefrontal lesion  deficit in memory for the temporal order of events, even when they remember the events themselves  Deficits in working memory- the ability to maintain relevant memories while a task is being completed.
  19. 19.  Cerebellum ◦ Thought to participate in the storage of memories of learned sensorimotor skills through its various neuroplastic mechanisms Striatum ◦ Thought to store memories for consistent relationships between stimuli and responses- the type of memories that develop incremental over many trials.
  20. 20.  What is happening within the brain structures involved in memory? The efficiency of synaptic transmission were the basis of long-term memory- Hebb Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) - synapses are effectively made stronger by repeated stimulation
  21. 21.  Hebb hypothesized that consistent with the synaptic changes are the neural basis of learning and memory LTP can last for many weeks after multiple stimulations It is developed only if the firing of presynaptic neuron is followed by the firing of the postsynaptic neuron. Hebb’s Postulate for learning- The Co- occurrence is necessary for learning and memory
  22. 22. The idea that LTP is related to the neural mechanisms of learning and memory has some several observations:(1) Elicited by levels of stimulation that mimic normal neural activity(2) LTP effects greatest in brain areas involved in learning and memory(3) Learning can produce LTP-like changes(4) Drugs that impact learning often have parallel effects on LTP
  23. 23.  All of the evidence is indirect that supports a role of LTP in learning and Memory Has three part process:1. Induction (learning),2. maintenance (memory) and3. expression (recall)
  24. 24.  Usually studied at synapses at which NMDA receptor is prominent. NMDA receptor is a receptor for glutamate which is the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain. NMDA receptors do not respond maximally unless glutamate binds and the neuron is already depolarized Calcium channels do not open fully unless both conditions are met
  25. 25.  Learning Calcium influx only occurs if there is the co-occurrence that is needed for LTP, leading to the binding of glutamate at an NMDA receptor that is already depolarized Calcium influx may activate protein kinases that induces changes causing LTP
  26. 26.  The maintenance and expression of LTP involve changes in both presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons. Only those synapses that were depolarized before high-frequency stimulation were involved in LTP The maintenance of LTP involves structural changes which depend on protein synthesis
  27. 27.  The discovery of structural changes in neurons following the induction of LTP stimulated a search for a mechanism by which neuron’s activity could change its structure which led to the discovery of transcription factors. Nitric oxide synthesized in postsynaptic neurons in response to calcium influx may diffuse back to presynaptic neurons Structural changes are now a well-established consequence of LTP

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