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Fuel gas quality control for gas mode operations

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The fuel gas quality is measured as a methane number. By means of a catalytic technology, in the presence of steam, the methane number of a low-grade fuel gas can be improved, allowing highest efficiency. Moreover, converting wasted side streams into fuel gas reduces green house gas emissions of the offshore & maritime industry.

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Fuel gas quality control for gas mode operations

  1. 1. © Wärtsilä FUEL GAS QUALITY CONTOL FOR GAS MODE OPERATIONS METHANE NUMBER 4th April 2017, Chiba Reetta Kaila Product Manager, GasReformer Wärtsilä Gas Solutions Fuel Gas Handling 18.4.2017 GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila1 April 4-7, 2017 Makuhari Messe, Chiba, Japan
  2. 2. © Wärtsilä LNG-powered vessels – Emissions in Gas Mode operation 18.4.20172 EMISSIONS IN LOW PRESSURE GAS MODE OPERATION Wärtsilä 31DF 0 20 40 60 80 100 CO2 NOx SOx PM DF/ Gas (LP) GD/ Gas (HP) Diesel/HFO -25% -25% -25% -37% -85% -96% -100% -100% Shifting from diesel to gas reduces GHG emissions by -25% Low pressure (LP) operation with Wärtsilä Dual Fuel and WINGD 2-stroke engines TIER III compliant NOx emissions (without SCRs) SOx & PM free emissions (without scrubbers) GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  3. 3. © Wärtsilä Methane Number (MN) is as a measure for knock sensitivity and can be calculated from the gas composition 18.4.20173 Fuel Gas Requirements for Gas Mode Operation: LHV & MN METHANE NUMBER Component MN Methane CH4 100 Ethane C2H4 43 Propane C3H8 34 Butane+ C4H10+ 10 Carbon dioxide CO2 200 Nitrogen N2 200 Hydrogen H2 0 Wärtsilä Methane Number Calculator http://www.wartsila.com/products/marine-oil-gas/gas-solutions/methane-number- calculator Derating required Lower performance Better knocking resistance • Lower heating value, LHV > 28 MJ/Nm3 • Methane Number, MN > 80 GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  4. 4. © Wärtsilä • The natural gas composition varies substantially between the various production fields. • LNG quality depends also on the LNG train and is affected by aging when stored: Generally LNG contains more C2+ hydrocarbons than pipeline NG • No CO2 • Negliglible N2 MN between 65 – 85 18.4.20174 LNG Composition and Quality as a Fuel Gas LNG QUALITY Typical LNG composition CH4 >90% C2-C4 < 10% N2 < 4% LNG tank Boil-off gas (BOG) Heat ingress The lighter fractions will boil-off first, resulting in a gradual increase of density of the remaining part Density differences cause rollover GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  5. 5. © Wärtsilä 18.4.20175 Examples of NG and LNG compositions and Methane Numbers LNG COMPOSITION Typical compositions Vol% CH4 PIPELINE NG PRELUDE LNG QATAR LNG LOTOS LNG GASUM LNG Methane CH4 100 % 83 % 83 % 90 % 93 % 99 % Ethane C2H6 0 % 5 % 13 % 6 % 7 % 1 % Propane C3H8 0 % 3 % 3 % 2 % 0 % 0 % Butanes C4H10 0 % 1 % 0 % 1 % 0 % 0 % Pentanes+ C5H12+ 0 % 1 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 0 % Carbon dioxide CO2 0 % 6 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 0 % Nitrogen N2 0 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 0 % 0 % Molar weight (MW) kg/kmol 16.0 20.5 19.0 18.0 17.0 16.2 METHANE NUMBER 100.0 69.0 67.5 72.5 83.7 95.6 Trace amounts of chlorine, fluorine, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, particles. GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  6. 6. © Wärtsilä 18.4.20176 Fuel flexibility on LNG-powered vessels FUEL FLEXIBILITY LNG bunkering vessel WSD59 10K 1. Flexibility in bunkering 2. Varying LNG quality 3. Full load operation MN >80 LNG NATURAL BOIL-OFF MN 65-85 GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  7. 7. © Wärtsilä MN 65-85 LNG NATURAL BOIL-OFF 18.4.20178 Wärtsilä GasReformer to improve the Methane Number GASREFORMER MN >80 MN 100 Steam Water GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  8. 8. © Wärtsilä LPG/BOG (MN 20-40) APG (MN 40-60) LNG (MN 60-80) 18.4.20179 Wärtsilä GasReformer – a catalytic process GASREFORMER With help of steam all heavier hydrocarbons of the feed gas are turned into methane Methane Number of the product gas is improved to100±5 Feed gas flexibility • Fluctuating gas quality • Presence of higher HCs (C2+) • Low methane content, <50% • Low methane numbers (MN20) No side products are formed Energy content (98.5%) not lost into side products (NGLs) GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  9. 9. © Wärtsilä10 GASREFORMER PERFORMANCE GasReformer Performance 10 MW APG GR 2x High Cube 20” container 18.4.2017 C2H6 3 % C3H8 38 % C4H10 12 % C4H10 24 % C5H12 11 % C5H12 10 % C6H14 2 % CO2 1 % Feed Gas, MN 20 C4H10 36% C3H8 38% C5H12 22% GASREFORMER Unit FEED GAS (MN 20-60) 170-175 g/kWh PRODUCT GAS (MN 95-110) 195-260 g/kWh FRESH WATER (for STEAM) 40-90 (200-300) g/kWh OPEX 0.12-0.17 cent/kWh H2 7 % CH4 75 % CO2 18 % Product Gas MN 109 CH4 75% GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  10. 10. © Wärtsilä Prototype 2.7 MW GR Test Unit 1 MW 18.4.201711 GASREFORMER REFERENCE GR Pilot 8 MW Prototype Pilot unit Test unit Year 2006-2008 2010-2012 2015-2016 Capacity 2.7 MW 8 MW 1 MW Feedstock LPG Simulated APG LVOC/LPG/samples MN, feed 40 100/75/65/52/43 20 MN, product 107 95-103 109 Engine 6L34SG 6L34SG 6L20DF Dimensions ~5*2.5*3 m 9*2.5*3.5 m 6*2.5*2.9 m Weight 22 ton 9.4 ton Application and location - Drilling platform, South-China Sea Test site, Bermeo, Spain Owner - CNOOC/NewField Wärtsilä GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  11. 11. © Wärtsilä VLGC/LPG carriers – BOG utilization in Gas Mode 12 APPLICATIONS: VLGC/LPG CARRIERS LPGDF ENGINES GasReformer C3 C4C1 Clean power generation C4 = Butane C3 = Propane C1 = Methane LEG MN 43 DF derating to 73% Propane MN 34 DF derating to 65% C3/C4+ MN <30 DF derating is not feasible 18.4.2017 FULL RE- LIQUEFACTION PLANT LIQUEFIED PROPANE/ LPG NATURAL BOIL-OFF BOG MN 20-30 Natural Gas MN 105 Consumption of LPG/ BOG: • 20 days voyage • average load of 14 MW 2.4% of a full 83k LPG cargo For comparison: Consumption of HFO: • 14 MW power output • ~ 20 000 ton/a fuel oil • HFO price US$ 370/ton US$ 7.4 Million/a GasTech2017 - WärtsiläGasReformer/ Reetta Kaila
  12. 12. reetta.kaila@wartsila.com #GasBassador #GasTech2017 #WartsilaKnowsGas Thank you

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