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Contemporary Brand Management
Volkswagen
Reena Kaur Somal33311957ModuleLeader: Vish
MaheshwariWordCount: 4,085SubmissionDa...
Contemporary Brand Management
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Table of Contents
1.0. THE BRAND.............................................................
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List of Figures
Figure 1 – What a brand is…………………………………………………………………………..……………4
Figure 2 – ...
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1.0. The Brand
1.1. What is a brand?
De Chernatony & Mcdonald (2003) and Johansson & Carls...
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Figure 2 – Evolution of a strong brand
(Source adapted from Johansson & Carlson 2014, p6)
...
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1.3. Background of brand
Volkswagen is one of the world's leading automobile manufacturer ...
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Figure 5 – Brand Architecture Strategies
(Image adapted from Kapferer, 2004).
Brand
Archit...
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2.0. Brand Positioning
2.1.What is brand positioning?
Positioning is key to a brand’s mark...
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These questions outline that Volkswagen’s position is aimed towards the driver
who values ...
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Overall, Volkswagen is successfully positioning itself as the market leader in
its sustai...
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3.0. Brand Analysis
In this section an analysis of Volkswagen will be undertaken in regar...
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In regards to colour, the colour blue works well in relation to automobiles
and links str...
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Figure 8 - Volkswagen’s Brand Identity Prism
Figure 9 - Brand Elements
Memorable Meaningf...
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3.2. Brand Image
Brand image must not be confused with brand identity. According to Kelle...
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which stands for the consumer’s current image construction process
influenced by image he...
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Figure 12 - Image Congruence Hypothesis
Adapted from Heath and Scott, (1998).
Positive br...
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3.3. Brand Equity
Brand equity is important for brands to uphold through consumers’
perce...
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Figure 14 - Brand Equity Pyramid
Source Adapted from: Johansson and Carlson (2014)
Attitu...
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3.4. Brand Personality
Brand personality is essentially the way the “brand walks, talks a...
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3.5. Brand Personality Pyramid
A brand pyramid enables the core promise of the brand to b...
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4.0. Special Interest - Advertising
Advertising is a major factoring in leveraging brand ...
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Figure 18: Brand Attitude Strategy Quadrants from the Rossiter-Percy Grid
Motivation
Info...
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Figure 19 - Hierarchy of Effects Model
Purchase
Conviction
Preference
Liking
Knowledge
Aw...
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5.0. Brand Management Recommendation
After undertaking analysis of Volkswagen, it is evid...
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6.0. Bibliography
Aaker, D.A (1991) Managing Brand Equity. NY: Free Press.
Aaker, D.A and...
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Fill (2009) Marketing Communications: Interactivity, Communities and Content. FT
Prentice...
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Keller, K.L. (2013) Strategic Brand Management (4th Ed). Boston: Pearson.
Little Black Bo...
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Volkswagen Group (2014) Our Strategy UK [online] Available from:
<http://navigator.volksw...
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7.0. Appendices
7.1. Appendix 1 – Company Background
The product spectrum ranges from mot...
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7.5. Appendix 5 – Think Blue Campaign
“Think Blue” is Volkswagen’s holistic philosophy to...
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7.8. Appendix 8 – Consumers viewpoint on how ethical brands are
How would you match the w...
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9.9. Appendix 9 – 2012 Harris Poll EquiTrend – Full Line Automotive Brand of
the Year
(So...
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9.10. Appendix 10 – Survey Questions
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel
...
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9.11. Appendix 11 – Survey Results 1
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel
...
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9.12. Appendix 12 – Survey Results 2
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel ...
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9.13. Appendix 13 – Survey Results 3
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel ...
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9.14. Appendix 14 – Survey Results 4
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel ...
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9.15. Appendix 15 – Survey Results 5
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel ...
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9.16. Appendix 16 – Survey Results 6
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel ...
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9.17. Appendix 17 – Survey Results 7
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel ...
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9.18. Appendix 18 – Survey Results 8
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel ...
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9.19. Appendix 19 – Survey Results 9
This survey is intended to research consumer's perce...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel ...
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9.20. Appendix 20 – Survey Results 10
This survey is intended to research consumer's perc...
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8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel ...
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Contemporary Brand Management Assignment

  1. 1. Contemporary Brand Management Volkswagen Reena Kaur Somal33311957ModuleLeader: Vish MaheshwariWordCount: 4,085SubmissionDate: 12.01.15 L e e d s B e c k e t t U n i v e r s i t y Contemporary BrandManagement
  2. 2. Contemporary Brand Management 2 Table of Contents 1.0. THE BRAND....................................................................................................................................................4 1.1. WHAT IS A BRAND?....................................................................................................................................4 1.2. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A BRAND AND A COMMODITY AND A PRODUCT..........................................5 1.3. BACKGROUND OF BRAND ..........................................................................................................................6 1.4. BRAND STRATEGY......................................................................................................................................6 2.0. BRAND POSITIONING.................................................................................................................................8 2.1.WHAT IS BRAND POSITIONING? ...............................................................................................................8 2.2. NEW POSITIONING STATEMENT .............................................................................................................8 2.3. PERCEPTUAL MAPPING/COMPETITOR POSITIONING.........................................................................9 3.0. BRAND ANALYSIS.....................................................................................................................................11 3.1. BRAND IDENTITY .....................................................................................................................................11 3.2. BRAND IMAGE...........................................................................................................................................14 3.3. BRAND EQUITY.........................................................................................................................................17 3.4. BRAND PERSONALITY .............................................................................................................................19 3.5. BRAND PERSONALITY PYRAMID ...........................................................................................................20 4.0. SPECIAL INTEREST - ADVERTISING.....................................................................................................21 4.1. APPLICATION OF HOW VOLKSWAGEN USES ADVERTISING...............................................................21 4.2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VOLKSWAGEN’S THINK BLUE CAMPAIGN ................................22 5.0. BRAND MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATION...............................................................................24 6.0. BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................................................................................................................25 7.0. APPENDICES................................................................................................................................................29 7.1. APPENDIX 1– COMPANY BACKGROUND .............................................................................................29 7.2. APPENDIX 2– SLOGAN “DAS AUTO”....................................................................................................29 7.3. APPENDIX 3– POSITIONING..................................................................................................................29 7.4. APPENDIX 4– VOLKSWAGEN’S AIMS...................................................................................................29 7.5. APPENDIX 5– THINK BLUE CAMPAIGN...............................................................................................30 7.6. APPENDIX 6– THINK BLUE.BABY TELEVISION ADVERT ...............................................................30 7.7. APPENDIX 7- THINK BLUE BABY CAMPAIGN - COMPLAINTS ........................................................30 7.8. APPENDIX 8– CONSUMERS VIEWPOINT ON HOW ETHICAL BRANDS ARE .....................................31 7.9. APPENDIX 9– CONSUMERS VIEWPOINT ON WHICH BRANDS THEY TRUST...................................31 9.9. APPENDIX 9 – 2012 HARRIS POLL EQUITREND – FULL LINE AUTOMOTIVE BRAND OF THE YEAR...................................................................................................................................................................32 9.10. APPENDIX 10– SURVEY QUESTIONS.................................................................................................33 9.11. APPENDIX 11– SURVEY RESULTS 1..................................................................................................35 9.12. APPENDIX 12– SURVEY RESULTS 2..................................................................................................37 9.13. APPENDIX 13– SURVEY RESULTS 3..................................................................................................39 9.14. APPENDIX 14– SURVEY RESULTS 4..................................................................................................41 9.15. APPENDIX 15– SURVEY RESULTS 5..................................................................................................43 9.16. APPENDIX 16– SURVEY RESULTS 6..................................................................................................45 9.17. APPENDIX 17– SURVEY RESULTS 7..................................................................................................47 9.18. APPENDIX 18– SURVEY RESULTS 8..................................................................................................49 9.19. APPENDIX 19– SURVEY RESULTS 9..................................................................................................51 9.20. APPENDIX 20– SURVEY RESULTS 10...............................................................................................53
  3. 3. Contemporary Brand Management 3 List of Figures Figure 1 – What a brand is…………………………………………………………………………..……………4 Figure 2 – Evolution of a strong brand…………………………………………………………………...…5 Figure 3 – Added value for consumer……………………………………………………………………….5 Figure 4 – Volkswagen Group……………………………………………………………………………………6 Figure 5 –Brand Architecture Strategies…………………………………………………..……………….7 Figure 6 – Perceptual Map………………………………………………………………………………………..9 Figure 7 – Brand Components…………………………………………………………………………..…….11 Figure 8 – Volkswagen’s Brand Identity Prism………………………………………………….…..…13 Figure 9 – Brand Elements………………………………………………………………….......………..…..13 Figure 10 – The Brand Love Curve………..…………………………………………………………….…..14 Figure 11 – Consumer Decision Making Process…………………………………….……………….15 Figure 12- Image Congruence Hypothesis..……………………………………………………………..16 Figure 13 - 2013 and 2014 EquiTrend Rankings for Full Line Automotive Brand of the Year…………………………………………………..……………………………………………………………..…….17 Figure 14 - Brand Equity Pyramid…………………………………………………..………………………18 Figure 15 – Image Loyalty Model Grouping Table.......................................................19 Figure 16 – Brand Personality Pyramid………………………………………………………………..….20 Figure 17 - Aaker’s 5- Dimension Brand Personality Model……………………………………20 Figure 18 - Brand Attitude Strategy Quadrants from the Rossiter-Percy Grid…………22 Figure 19 - Hierarchy of Effects Model………………………………………………………..…………23 Figure 20 - PCDL Model – Building brand identity in competitive markets……………..24
  4. 4. Contemporary Brand Management 4 1.0. The Brand 1.1. What is a brand? De Chernatony & Mcdonald (2003) and Johansson & Carlson (2014) both state that a brand is a name, logo, symbol or design or a combination of them all attached to a product or service. Although this does help display features of the brand, this does not take into account the values of the brand, which De Chernatony (2010) believes value is key for a brand. Godin (2007) agrees in the retrospect that brands are the set of expectations, memories, stories and relationships that taken together account for a consumers decision to choose one product or service of another. A brand essentially is intended to identify the goods or services of either a group of sellers or a seller through differentiating its goods/services from those of competitors (Ghodeswar 2008). In order for a brand to succeed, a strong brand has a sure identity, a positive image and a unique personality, which can be illustrated from Figure 1 (Johansson & Carlson 2014). Figure 1 - What a brand is (Source adapted from Johansson & Carlson 2014, p4) According to Johansson & Carlson (2014), in order for a brand to be successful it should have a unique and distinct identity where the consumers understand what the brand stands for. Figure 2 outlines the process of evolving a strong brand from these three components, which in turn provides added value for the consumer illustrated in Figure 3. Added value is a relative concept that enables customers to make a purchase on the basis of superiority over competing brands (De Chernatony 2006). Identity • Name • Logo • Colours • Products • Services Image • Positive associations • Negative associations • Promises Personality • Traits the brand elicits • Gestralt of these traits
  5. 5. Contemporary Brand Management 5 Figure 2 – Evolution of a strong brand (Source adapted from Johansson & Carlson 2014, p6) Figure 3 - Added value for consumer (Image adapted from Kapferer 2004). 1.2. Difference between a brand and a commodity and a product A brand is a well-established company formed through a concept and not about the product features, for instance Volkswagen whereas a commodity is a raw material with no story told e.g. tyres, oil. The difference between a product and a brand is that at product level this is the way the manufacturer produces this service (Johansson & Carlson 2014). Brand is born & its identityis defined Brand image emerges in consumers' minds Brand personality develops Consumers benefit from consuming brand Firm benefits from the brand Consumer Identification Continuity Ethical Optimization Hedonistic Badge Guarantee Practicality
  6. 6. Contemporary Brand Management 6 1.3. Background of brand Volkswagen is one of the world's leading automobile manufacturer with its strapline "Das Auto" standing for innovative, high-quality and reliable cars (Volkswagen Group 2014). The company has recorded revenues of £197,007 million during December 2013, an increase of 2.2% over 2012 (Volkswagen Annual Report 2013). Volkswagen comprises of 12 brands from 7 European countries (See Figure 4). Each brand has its own character and operates as an independent entity on the market (See Appendix 1). Volkswagen has constantly maintained their brand story in being a global market leader. Chairman of the Board of Management of Volkswagen stated that “Our pursuit of innovation and perfection and our responsible approach will help to make us the world’s leading automaker by 2018 – both economically and ecologically” (Volkswagen Annual Report 2013). Figure 4 – Volkswagen Group (Image taken from Volkswagen Group 2014) 1.4. Brand Strategy According to Interbrand (2014), Volkswagen has made German engineering and reliable technology its hallmark. This can be reiterated and communicated through their brand marketing strategies. Kapferer (2004) identifies six models in the management of brand-product relationships illustrated in Figure 5. Volkswagen adopts mixed approaches but can be clearly identified as adopting an endorsing brand strategy whereby the “brand supports and assumes a secondary position to the product brand” (Kapferer 2004). Endorsing brands allow greater freedom of movement and they each have their own image and personality e.g. Volkswagen: Audi, Seat, Skoda, Bentley, Porsche etc. all act as a guarantor to Volkswagen.
  7. 7. Contemporary Brand Management 7 Figure 5 – Brand Architecture Strategies (Image adapted from Kapferer, 2004). Brand Architecture Strategy Product Line Range Source Umbrella Endorsing
  8. 8. Contemporary Brand Management 8 2.0. Brand Positioning 2.1.What is brand positioning? Positioning is key to a brand’s marketing strategy. It is vital to implement brand positioning, as it is the act of designing company’s offer and image, so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in target consumer’s mind (Keller, 2013). Essentially this means that consumers should have favourable beliefs and positive emotions attached to the brand compared to that of its competitors. Good positioning occurs through emphasizing attributes where the brand has relative advantages and deemphasizes the weak attributes (Johansson & Carlson 2014). 2.2. New Positioning Statement Johansson & Carlson (2014) identify that a brand positioning statement is based upon the company’s objectives and represents the way the brand manager would like the brand to be perceived by consumers. Kapferer’s 2007 model is particularly useful in determining a new positioning statement for Volkswagen. In order to achieve the correct positioning, points of difference and points of parity must be established. Since Volkswagen are not claiming to be the market leaders, they are adopting a differentiated positioning approach as they are looking for a benefit that the brand offers other than the primary category benefit that helps to position the market leader centrally. Points-of-difference are defined as assets of the brand which consumers believe they cannot find within any of its competitors (Keller 2013). Volkswagen adopts this point of difference approach as they are competing with the market leaders (Keller 2013). Kapferer’s model below answers the four questions in determining a new positioning statement for Volkswagen.  A brand for what? Automobile service offering trusted, safe and environmentally sound vehicles  A brand for whom? Female drivers concerned about the environment and interested in reliable automobiles.  A brand for when? Brand to be consumed through daily activities driving to work, shopping and travelling on long distance trips  A brand against whom? Other full line automobiles Ford, Honda, Nissan, Toyota.
  9. 9. Contemporary Brand Management 9 These questions outline that Volkswagen’s position is aimed towards the driver who values trust and sustainability in a car; whereby eco-friendliness and sustainability are key by competing in an increasingly tough market. Volkswagen can also be said to adopt an affective positioning strategy to drive associations towards the brand by focusing on consumers’ emotions and feelings (Mahajam & Wind 2002). Their “Think Blue” campaign is a prime example of how they are trying to connect with the audience’s emotions through trying to establish a relationship with the consumer to identify with the campaign. This can link in with Percy & Elliot (2014) who regard this as a user-orientated positioning strategy whereby the user (i.e. driver) is the focus and the underlying purchase motivation in the category is social approval. 2.3. Perceptual Mapping/Competitor Positioning VW's broad product portfolio means it faces competition from established premium brands, design innovators, and VW's own subsidiaries, SEAT and Škoda (Interbrand 2014). Volkswagen are rising to the competition by emphasising on the brand rather than the products. For instance, to deepen the brand's emotional connection and relevance, the brand launched an exclusive app for fans of the 2014 FIFA World Cup (Interbrand 2014). The brand is also innovating around E-mobility and self-driving cars (Interbrand 2014). Figure 6 illustrates a perceptual map positioning Volkswagen against its competitors in relation to Keller’s (2003) points-of-difference (desirability, deliverability & differentiation) concerned around how ethical it is and trust levels. Figure 6 - Perceptual Map Unethical Ethical High TrustLow Trust Volkswagen Ford Renault Peugeot Vauxhall Fiat Audi
  10. 10. Contemporary Brand Management 10 Overall, Volkswagen is successfully positioning itself as the market leader in its sustainability efforts and trust levels evidenced in their positioning statement. Volkswagen’s main competitor is Audi in relation to consumers’ trust in them, illustrated in Appendix 7.9. with 38% of users voted Volkswagen as the most trusted brand compared to 37% for Audi from Mintel (2014). De Chernatony (2010) p4 stated, “The most trusted brands are those whose behaviour is consistent with their brand values” which links back to Volkswagen’s values outlined in Appendix 7.4 and their vision to be the most successful, fascinating and sustainable automaker in the world (Volkswagen Group 2014). In relation to how ethical Volkswagen are, they have the highest brand image with 30% of users, followed closely by its main competitor Audi with 29% (Mintel 2014) reiterating how Volkswagen is succeeding it beating its competitor Audi in this area.
  11. 11. Contemporary Brand Management 11 3.0. Brand Analysis In this section an analysis of Volkswagen will be undertaken in regards to how the different brand elements are developed, communicated and discussed in relation to identity, image, equity and personality. 3.1. Brand Identity According to de Chernatony (2006), brand identity is the “distinctive or central idea of a brand and how the brand communicates this idea to its stakeholders”. Volkswagen’s brand identity can be categorised in relation to Keller’s (2003) five relative brand components in Figure 7. Figure 7 – Brand Components Name Volkswagen means "people's car" in German. It was started in the 1930s, at the request of the country's leader. Logo Packaging N/A Colour Blue associated with excellence and class. Design N/A The brand name and logo together represent a brand’s identity and image. When recognised and recalled they should evoke, whether consciously or subconsciously, the associations and promises that constitute the brand identity, image and, in the end, personality (Johansson & Carlson 2014). Volkswagen successfully communicates their name well through being a German car company and associating its name with its heritage of ‘people’s’ car’ in German. Primary research conducted identified how 100% of respondents have heard of the brand Volkswagen before (See Appendix 11- 20). Over the years, Volkswagen has been abbreviated to the acronym “VW” whereby when respondents were asked what first comes to mind when they think of Volkswagen, 60% stated ‘VW/the logo’ reiterating how successful the name has been communicated (See Appendix 11-20). Volkswagen’s simple slogan “Das Auto” which is part of the brand name helps consumers identify the brand through translation into “The Car”. It successfully aims this at customers to create memorable taglines that help anchor the brand in consumer’s mind, which is covered more in depth in Appendix 7.2 (Yalch, 1991).
  12. 12. Contemporary Brand Management 12 In regards to colour, the colour blue works well in relation to automobiles and links strongly back to their “Think Blue” campaign as it illustrates connotations of sustainability, class and excellence. This links back to what Volkswagen represents, in which the blue colour in the Volkswagen logo represents excellence and class, while the white colour depicts purity and charm (Famous Logos 2012). Primary research conducted found 100% of respondents answered ‘blue’ when asked what colour first comes to mind when they think of Volkswagen (See Appendix 11-20). This reinforces how strong the colour blue is associated with the brand Volkswagen. 20% of respondents also mentioned the colour silver alongside blue, which is prominent in the logo highlighting how the colours in the logo are highly recognizable. Figure 8 illustrates Volkswagen’s brand identity from adaption of Kapferer’s (1997) brand identity prism. This prism identifies brand attributes of Volkswagen through industry information and prior knowledge. It highlights how Volkswagen successfully communicates their brand identity through their relationship between the consumer and the brand through personal anecdotal experiences they advertise. For instance the “Think Blue” advertising campaign can be depicted as memorable, meaningful and likable illustrated in Figure 9. It establishes a relationship with the consumer by depicting a father trying to get his child to sleep by driving around during the night, which consumers can relate to. This reiterates Aaker and Joachimsthaler’s (2000) viewpoint that an effective brand identity needs to resonate with customers, differentiate the brand from competitors, and represent what the organization can and will do over time. These brand attributes can also be sourced from the answers that the questionnaire participants gave which filters through the pyramid. Brand attributes ‘personality’ and ‘physique’ were the two most relevant attributes to Volkswagen (See Appendix 11-20). In terms of physical attributes, when respondents were asked what comes to mind when they first think of Volkswagen, the colour blue and the logo were amongst the top answers; highlighting the strong association of physical attributes of Volkswagen. In regards to personality, 100% of respondents stated Volkswagen targets primarily at males with 80% describing the brand as masculine, reliable, mature, family-orientated and concerned about the environment (See Appendix 11-20).
  13. 13. Contemporary Brand Management 13 Figure 8 - Volkswagen’s Brand Identity Prism Figure 9 - Brand Elements Memorable Meaningful Likable Transferable Adaptable Protectable Physique:  Product spectrum ranges from motorcycles to low- consumption small cars and luxury vehicles.  Recognisable through the blue and white VW logo, keeping the traditional icon Relationship:  Personal anecdotal experiences  Family orientated  Trust Reflection:  Reliable  Suited for everyone  Person who feels concerned about the environment Personality:  Masculine  Reliable  Mature  Family-orientated  Concerned about the environment Culture:  German  Worldwide  Family values  Offer attractive, safe, environmentally sound vehicles Self Image:  Confident  Safe  Stylish  Self-assured  In control
  14. 14. Contemporary Brand Management 14 3.2. Brand Image Brand image must not be confused with brand identity. According to Keller (1993) brand image can be described “as the perceptions involving both the functionality and the emotions of a brand as reflected by the brand associations held within consumers’ minds”. It is concerned with the perceptions reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory through negative or positive experiences (Keller 2013). Volkswagen is a globally recognised brand thanks to its iconic brand image with 96% of respondents stating they have heard of the brand (Mintel 2014) with 10/10 of respondents agreeing they have heard of the brand from primary research conducted. It can therefore fit into the ‘my beloved brand for life’ stage illustrated in Figure 10 illustrating it is not just a brand that produces quality cars but is a brand that illustrates a unique brand image through emotional associations. Consumers move along the brand curve whereby the focus is now on experience rather than the product, which is evident in the “Think Blue” campaign. This is explored, more in-depth in Section 4.0. Figure 10 - The Brand Love Curve Consumers perceived evaluation of a brand can be linked through key attributes such as image heritage which embodies the consumer’s past brand related experiences about a brand (Rindell et al. 2011). Mintel (2014) identifies how Volkswagen is considered to have a strong reputation, by over 55s and men in particular, which may arise from its German manufacturing and consumers’ previous experiences with the brand. Statistics also show how only 7% perceive Volkswagen as out-dated with 2% perceiving it as unreliable reinforcing how Volkswagen have a high brand image (Mintel 2014). This could be due to having a high image heritage and image-in-use
  15. 15. Contemporary Brand Management 15 which stands for the consumer’s current image construction process influenced by image heritage (Rindell 2007). However, this is dependent upon where a consumer is in the decision making process illustrated in Figure 11. It can be suggested that consumers of Volkswagen will only consider the brand when they identify a need for a car and must compare which brand to choose from competitors. Careful consideration needs to be accounted for through the evaluation of alternatives stage, as this is a high-involvement purchase. Figure 11 - Consumer Decision Making Process (Source adapted from Belch, et al., 2012) Figure 12 identifies where Volkswagen are in regards to their brand image. Primary research shows that the target audience perceive VW in a similar way to how they position themselves in their mission statement that they are mature, family-orientated and concerned about the environment (See Appendix 11-20). Due to the fact that Volkswagen have high trust levels competing against Audi and Mercedes Benz reinforces how they are working towards a positive brand image. These three car brands are all German branded cards suggesting that Germany has a strong positive association with car production and engineering (Mintel 2014). Again, this resonates with the fact that Volkswagen has a positive brand image and relates back to image heritage whereby consumers’ experiences with Germany are clearly positive. Mintel (2014) identifies how Volkswagen are perceived as highly trusted in regards to brand image with 80% of respondents from primary research conducted stating Volkswagen have good loyalty (See Appendix 11-20). However Volkswagen’s brand equity is low, therefore they need to further increase their self-image by working to gain more reach as currently it is perceived as a male brand with 100% of respondents agreeing it is a masculine brand that targets majority at males (See Appendix 11- 20). Problem Recognition Information Search Evaluationof Alternatives Purchase Decision Post Purchase Evaluation
  16. 16. Contemporary Brand Management 16 Figure 12 - Image Congruence Hypothesis Adapted from Heath and Scott, (1998). Positive brand evaluation Brand image Self image Brand image Self image Brand image Self image Brand image Self image Brand image Self image Negative brand evaluation
  17. 17. Contemporary Brand Management 17 3.3. Brand Equity Brand equity is important for brands to uphold through consumers’ perceptions and associations they hold about a brand. Aaker (1996) defines brand equity as a “set of assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol, which add or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or that firm’s connection”. It is evident that consumers’ perceptions of automotive brands continue to climb based on the EquiTrend Brand Equity Index compromising of familiarity, quality and purchase consideration (Harris Interactive 2014). Figure 13 outlines how full line auto brands have made significant gains in continuing to vie for Brand of the Year status with Toyota, Honda, Chevrolet and Ford all claiming top spot at least once in the last nine years. This in comparison with Volkswagen has been ranked below category average in 2013 and 2014 indicating low brand equity. It was however ranked 8th place in 2012, which is illustrated in Appendix 7.9 of 53.39% (Harris Interactive 2012). From my understanding of awareness and not meeting at customer relationship management, Volkswagen are lacking equity, therefore they need to build on this. Primary research conducted found 100% of respondents stated Volkswagen targets at males and mentioned it was a masculine brand (See Appendix 11-20). This can be achieved through positioning the brand more towards females to build brand equity. In order to reach brand equity, it is recommended Volkswagen follow Johansson and Carlson (2014) brand equity pyramid illustrated in Figure 14 by reaching the loyalty stage through consumer bonding. Figure 13 - 2013 and 2014 EquiTrend Rankings for Full Line Automotive Brand of the Year Full Line Automotive Brand of the Year 2013 Harris Poll EquiTrend 2014 Harris Poll EquiTrend 1 Toyota Vehicles Honda Vehicles 2 Honda Vehicles Toyota Vehicles 3 Chevrolet Vehicles Ford Vehicles 4 Ford Vehicles Chevrolet Vehicles 5 Nissan Vehicles Nissan Vehicles Other Full Line Automotive brands in study ranked below category average: Buick Vehicles, Chrysler Vehicles, Dodge Vehicles, Fiat Vehicles, Hyundai Vehicles, Kia Vehicles, Mazda Vehicles, MINI Cooper Vehicles, Mitsubishi Vehicles, Subaru Vehicles, Volkswagen Vehicles Source Adapted from: EquiTrend (2013) and EquiTrend (2014)
  18. 18. Contemporary Brand Management 18 Figure 14 - Brand Equity Pyramid Source Adapted from: Johansson and Carlson (2014) AttitudeEvaluation Image Characteristics Functional Characteristics Awareness Familiarity Loyalty Rational Emotional Consumer Bonding Consumer Response Consumer Perception Consumer Recognition
  19. 19. Contemporary Brand Management 19 3.4. Brand Personality Brand personality is essentially the way the “brand walks, talks and dresses” (Schwartz McDonald, 1990). The UK car industry represents a good example of brand personality. Spandler (1987) identifies how car advertising has undergone a transformation towards adding brand values. The advertising is now appealing to the hearts as well as the heads of potential buyers. Cars are becoming more uniform and it is harder to make them stand out both in terms of product and style of advertising (Spandler 1987). According to Brand Channel (2014) a brand’s personality must resonate intuitively in all who are involved with the brand. For 60 years Volkswagen has successfully branded itself on the democratic values of “for the people”. Despite moving into the luxury car category, it has maintained its down-to-earth values and respectful behaviour through telling a personal story that invites a deeper relationship with consumers (Brand Channel 2014). In subsequent campaigns Volkswagen has shifted the focus more towards sustainability and lifetime values. This elicits sympathy and here the brand and the customers share a common interest in caring for the environment (Brand Channel 2014). An image-loyalty table is useful in establishing where the target audience fits in Figure 15. Customers can be identified as ‘frustrated’ as they are not satisfied with the brand, which is reflected by Volkswagen’s low brand equity covered in Section 3.3. Percy & Elliot (2014) identify that to retain frustrated customers – the main objective is through overcoming their perceived risk in switching, as although they are highly trusted, they are not reaching equity. Figure 15 – Image Loyalty Model Grouping Table Source adapted from Percy & Elliot (2014) p104 Satisfaction Low High Perceivedriskinswitching LowHigh Frustrated Loyal Switchable Vulnerable
  20. 20. Contemporary Brand Management 20 3.5. Brand Personality Pyramid A brand pyramid enables the core promise of the brand to be characterised determining the brand essence through the construction of the pyramid (De Chernatony 2010). From using De Chernatony’s advised method, a personality pyramid has been constructed in Figure 16 from the function benefits working its way up towards the personality traits of Volkswagen as a brand. From identifying two key attributes, the pyramid highlights how this can be illustrated through the stages. Figure 16 - Brand Personality Pyramid: (Source Adapted from De Chernatony, 2006) Volkswagen are trying to illustrate the human characteristics of the brand through conveying an emotive brand personality used throughout their “Think Blue” campaigns, through attributes such as their eco-friendliness and quality service. They are trying to engage consumers that they are concerned about the environment through the quality and eco-friendliness service they provide. This is reflected in their aim to become the global economic and environmental leader among automobile manufacturers by 2018 (See Appendix 7.4). Figure 17 reiterates how Volkswagen fits in with ‘sophistication’ from adopting a slice of life approach through promotional activity comprising of television and magazine advertising, which is explored fully in Section 4.0. Figure 17 - Aaker’s 5- Dimension Brand Personality Model Source Adapted from Aaker (2010) Personality Traits Successful Concerned about the environment Successful Values Luxury Sense of responsibility Luxury Emotional Rewards Confident Caring Confident Benefits High performance car Safety Attributes Quality Service Eco-friendly Sincerity Excitement Competence Sophisitcation Ruggedness
  21. 21. Contemporary Brand Management 21 4.0. Special Interest - Advertising Advertising is a major factoring in leveraging brand equity (Achenbaum 1989). According to Meenaghan (1995), its prime function is to achieve for a brand a particular personality or character on the perception of its market. This can be achieved by imbuing the brand with specific associations or values. To achieve becoming the most innovative and sustainable volume carmaker, Volkswagen created the "Think Blue" campaign aiming to make products and production even more environmentally friendly (Volkswagen Group 2014). The “Think Blue” campaign is concerned around promoting energy-efficient products and technology. 4.1. Application of how Volkswagen uses advertising One of Volkswagen’s “Think Blue” baby campaign promotes technology that switches off a car’s engine when it comes to a standstill featuring a father taking his child out for a drive to get him to sleep (Campaign Live 2013). The ad launched on 27th April 2013, just in time for Father’s Day and is a personal anecdotal experience fathers can relate to (See Appendix 7.6). Through word- of-mouth and trial-and-error, many parents have discovered how the vibrations of a car can soothe their baby to sleep (Patricios 2013). The ad is based on the scenario whereby every parent can relate to; the common tried and trusted trick of driving your baby around in order to get them to sleep (Little Black Book 2013). The ad effectively communicated its fuel-saving Start/Stop technology whereby every time the father stops at a traffic light, the Volkswagen Tiguan’s engine automatically switches off when stationary. This happens several times during the ad disturbing the baby to wake up and start crying. Once the engine starts again, the baby drifts happily back to sleep. The ad ends with the father spotting another father alongside him in another Volkswagen in the same position with his baby also crying. The fathers are able to empathise with one another and the ad ends with the voice-over “At least you’ll save money on fuel”. A transformational attitude was required for this advertising campaign, which Figure 18 illustrates and identifies what is needed based upon the motivation of consumers. It is clearly identifiable how a high-involvement transformational attitude is needed to engage with consumers, as a car is a high involvement purchase. It is essential that a transformational brand attitude strategy must portray an emotional approach that is unique to the brand, which Volkswagens achieves through emotional authenticity (Percy & Elliot 2014). This reiterates Fletcher’s (2014) viewpoint how there is clear evidence that ‘emotional’ advertisements are more effective than unembellished factual advertisements. Fill (2009) agrees that emotions play an important role in advertising when used to build awareness levels and brand strength.
  22. 22. Contemporary Brand Management 22 Figure 18: Brand Attitude Strategy Quadrants from the Rossiter-Percy Grid Motivation Informational Transformational (negative) (positive) Source Adapted from Percy & Elliot (2014) p187 4.2. Performance Evaluation of Volkswagen’s Think Blue Campaign By applying the hierarchy of effects model illustrated in Figure 19, Volkswagen successfully appeals to the affective phase through ‘liking’ as it received many positive reviews including being named ad of the week (Flood 2013). It was also the winner of Thinkboxes May/June 2013 ad (Thinkbox.tv 2014). This was due to parents being able to identify themselves with the ad which is reiterated by Volkswagen’s smart strategy to rebrand its vehicles as family cars, moving away from its previously established image of sporty or fun cars for the young, single person (Patricios 2013). According to Patricios (2013) the ad successfully appeals to those consumers with children and who are energy-conscious/ the ‘greenies’ amongst us to make better choices that will benefit our offspring. National Communications Manager at Volkswagen UK, Kirsten Stagg, stated how happy they were to be able to communicate this technical message in an engaging way (Thinkbox.tv 2014). They wanted to build on the success of their 2012 Polo “Dad” campaign by reflecting their communications strategy to leverage the warm and human side of the Volkswagen brand (Little Black Book 2013). According to Interbrand (2014) it recently won Germany's National Energy Globe Award for the initiative and for its commitment to making its global car plants more sustainable by 2018 which can be from the success of the “Think Blue” campaign. This effectively links in with the affective and conative phase of the hierarchy of effects model illustrated in Figure 19 reflecting consumers positive attitude towards the brand being voted ad of the week. However, Volkswagen does not communicate any information about the product itself in the ad about the features of the Start/Stop technology. It could therefore be suggested that the cognition stage is not reached in Figure 19 since consumers have no knowledge about the features of the think blue technology posing an opportunity for Volkswagen to position itself towards proving more information in their advertising campaigns. Volkswagen Low High Involvement
  23. 23. Contemporary Brand Management 23 Figure 19 - Hierarchy of Effects Model Purchase Conviction Preference Liking Knowledge Awareness Behavioural/Conative Phase Affective Phase Cognitive Phase
  24. 24. Contemporary Brand Management 24 5.0. Brand Management Recommendation After undertaking analysis of Volkswagen, it is evident that Volkswagen are lacking brand equity in regards to being perceived as a masculine brand. Volkswagen as a brand need to build on this problem by positioning towards a more female orientated audience since 100% of respondents stated Volkswagen target primarily towards males (See Appendix 11-20). Employing a credible, recognisable female celebrity ambassador would help leverage the brand equity. Positive female role models such as Gwyneth Paltrow, Keira Knightley, Nicole Kidman amongst a few would be an ideal fit to the brand Volkswagen as they resonate positive associations being a mother and having qualities females idolise with being reliable and sophisticated. In order to guarantee the strengthening of brand equity through celebrity endorsement, it is essential to convey a credible and relevant brand image; reiterating how the ambassador must fit the brand. Findings from primary research conducted found 90% felt Gwyneth Paltrow was a good celebrity ambassador for the brand (See Appendix 11-20). This is due to her ability to appeal to females and mothers, thus fitting in with the target market. Figure 20 highlights how Volkswagen can improve and leverage brand equity through delivering customer satisfaction and customer delight. By positioning itself towards targeting females, this will help Volkswagen deliver customer delight through enhancing customer satisfaction at the female audience. As established in Section 3.3, brand equity is low for Volkswagen, therefore it is evident leveraging the brand equity will help Volkswagen through positioning itself at females to gain a larger reach. Figure 20 - PCDL Model – Building brand identity in competitive markets (Source Adapted from Ghodeswar, 2008) Positioning the brand - Features - TangibleAttributes - IntangibleAttributes - Product Functions - Benefits - Operational Communicating the brand message - Advertising Campaigns - Themes - Celebrities - Events -Shows - Consumer Delivering the Brand Performance - Product Performance - ServicePerformance - Customer Care - Customer Satisfaction - Customer Delight Leveraging the Brand Equity - Line Extension Brand Extension - Ingredient Branding - Co-Branding - Brand Alliance - Social Integration
  25. 25. Contemporary Brand Management 25 6.0. Bibliography Aaker, D.A (1991) Managing Brand Equity. NY: Free Press. Aaker, D.A and Joachimsthaler, E. (2000) Brand Leadership, The Free Press, New York, NY, pp. 13, 27, 40, 48. Achenbaum, A. (1989) How to breathe new life into brands, Advertising Age, Vol. 60 No. 18, pp.24-70. Belch, G, E., Belch, M, A., Kerr, G and Powell, I. (2012) Advertising : an integrated marketing communication perspective. North Ryde, NSW McGraw-Hill Australia Brand Channel (2014) Brand Personality: Communicating Character and Authenticity in a Digital World. DDB [online] Available from: http://www.brandchannel.com/images/papers/406_Brand_Personality_final.pdf [Accessed 8 Dec.14]. Campaign Live (2013) Volkswagen “Think Blue” by Adam & Eve/DDB. 29.04.13 UK [online] Available from: <http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/thework/1180487/> [Accessed 02 Nov.14]. Decision Marketing (2013) Baby gripes fail to get VW off road. UK. 06.11.13 [online] Available from: <http://www.decisionmarketing.co.uk/news/baby-gripes-fail-to- force-vw-off-road> [Accessed 02 Nov.14]. De Chernatony, L. (2006) From brand vision to brand evaluation: strategically building and sustaining brands. London: Butterworth-Heinemann. De Chernatony, L. (2010) From brand vision to brand evaluation: the strategic process of growing and strengthening brands 3rd Ed. Oxford, Elselvier ltd. Butterworth-Heinemann. EquiTrend (2013) Automotive Rankings 2013 [online] Available from: <http://www.harrisinteractive.com/insights/equitrendrankings/2013EquitrendRanki ngs.aspx> [Accessed 8 Dec.14]. EquiTrend (2014) Automotive Rankings 2014 [online] Available from: <http://www.harrisinteractive.com/insights/equitrendrankings/2014EquitrendRanki ngs.aspx> [Accessed 8 Dec.14]. Famous Logos (2012) Volkswagen Logo [online] Available from: <http://www.famouslogos.us/volkswagen-logo/> [Accessed 03 Jan.15]. Feldwick, P. (2002). What is a brand? WARC Monograph. [online] Available from: <www.warc.com> [Accessed Aug.09].
  26. 26. Contemporary Brand Management 26 Fill (2009) Marketing Communications: Interactivity, Communities and Content. FT Prentice Hall. Essex. 5th Ed. Fletcher, W. (2010) Advertising – A Very Short Introduction. Oxford. UK. First published 2010. P12 Flood, V. (2013) Ad of the Week: Volkswagen, ‘Think Blue: Baby’, Adam & Eve DDB 10.05.13. Ad of the Week. UK [online] Available from: <http://www.videoadnews.com/2013/05/10/ad-of-the-week-volkswagen-think- blue-baby-adam-eve-ddb/> [Accessed 02 Nov.14]. Ghodeswar, B, M. (2008) Building brand identity in competitive markets. Journal of product and Brand Management, 17, (1), 4-12. Godin, S (2007) Permission Marketing. London. Simon & Schuster UK LTD. Hall, K. (2007) VW’s new tagline: “Das Auto” O3.10.07 [online] Available from: <http://www.motorauthority.com/news/1026205_vws-new-tagline-das-auto> [Accessed 02 Nov.14]. Harris Interactive (2012) Harris Poll EquiTrend® Automotive Scorecard: Mercedes- Benz and Honda Lead; Kelley Blue Book's KBB.com Debuts as Online Auto Shopping Brand of the Year [online] Available from: <http://www.harrisinteractive.com/NewsRoom/PressReleases/tabid/446/mid/1506/ articleId/1035/ctl/ReadCustom%20Default/Default.aspx> [Accessed 8 Dec.14]. Harris Interactive (2014) Luxury and Full Line Cars Show Post Recession Gains, Finds 2013 Harris Poll EquiTrend® Study [online] Available from: <http://www.harrisinteractive.com/NewsRoom/PressReleases/tabid/446/ctl/ReadC ustom%20Default/mid/1506/ArticleId/1192/Default.aspx> [Accessed 8 Dec.14]. Heath, A. and Scott, D. (1998) The self-concept and image congruence hypothesis: an empirical evaluation of the motorvehicle market. European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 32, Issue 11/12, pp 1110 – 1123. Interbrand (2014) Volkswagen. UK. [online] Available from: <http://bestglobalbrands.com/2014/volkswagen/> [Accessed 23 Oct.14]. Johansson, J.K & Carlson, K.A. (2014) Contemporary Brand Management. London: Sage Publication Inc. Kapferer, J. N. (2004). The new strategic brand management. London: Kogan Page. Keller, K.L. (1993) Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 1-22. American Marketing Association. Available from: <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1252054 .> [Accessed 02 Nov.14].
  27. 27. Contemporary Brand Management 27 Keller, K.L. (2013) Strategic Brand Management (4th Ed). Boston: Pearson. Little Black Book (2013) adam&eveDDB 'Think Blue' for VW [online] Available from: <http://lbbonline.com/news/adameveddb-think-blue-for-vw/> [Accessed 02 Dec.14]. Mahajam, V. & Wind, Y. (2002) Got emotional product positioning? Marketing Management. Chicago: May/June 2002. Vol. 11, Iss. 3; pg. 36, 6 pgs MarketLine Advantage (2014) Volkswagen [online] Available from: <http://advantage.marketline.com.ezproxy.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/Product?pid=BC7E1C A4-BD1F-4180-B98F-436FFDE0A2A5> [Accessed 23 Oct.14]. Meenaghan, T. (1995) The role of advertising in brand image development. Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 4 Iss 4 pp. 23-34 Mintel (2014) Car Purchasing Process. [online] Available from: <http://academic.mintel.com/display/701672/> [Accessed 6 Dec.14]. Patricios, O. (2013) Ad of the Week with Oresti Patricios – Stop, Start. Cry, Sleep. Ornico. 08.11.13 [online] Available from: <http://website.ornico.co.za/2013/11/ad- of-the-week-with-oresti-patricios-stop-start-cry-sleep/> [Accessed 02 Nov.14]. Percy, L. & Elliot, R, R. (2014) Strategic Advertising Management. Oxford University Press, 4th Ed, UK. Rindell, A., Korkman, O. and Gummerus, J. (2011) The role of brand images in consumer practices: uncovering embedded brand strength. Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol 20, 6, 2011, 440-446. Schwartz McDonald, S. (1990) Brand equity: Working toward a disciplined methodology for measurement. Presentation at the 2nd Annual Advertising Research Foundation Advertising and Promotion Workshop, New York. Spandler, R. (1987) Making a marque Marketing, July 30, pp.20-1. Thinkbox.tv. (2014) Thinkbox – The Thinkboxes, May/June 2013. [online] Available from: <http://www.thinkbox.tv/server/show/nav.2654> [Accessed 8 Dec.14]. Volkswagen Annual Report (2013) Annual Report [online] Available from: <file:///C:/Users/c3311957/Downloads/annual-report-2013.pdf> [Accessed 12 Dec.14]. Volkswagen (2014) Brand Diversity [online] Available from: <http://www.volkswagenag.com/content/vwcorp/content/en/investor_relations/W arum_Volkswagen/Portfolio.html> [Accessed 02 Nov.14].
  28. 28. Contemporary Brand Management 28 Volkswagen Group (2014) Our Strategy UK [online] Available from: <http://navigator.volkswagenag.com/index.html#group/vw-group/strategy> [Accessed 23 Oct.14]. Volkswagen Think Blue (2014) Think Blue Technology [online] Available from: <http://www.volkswagen.co.uk/technology/think-blue> [Accessed 23 Oct.14]. Yalch, R. F. (1991). Memory in a jingle jungle: Music as a mnemonic device in communicating advertising slogans. Journal of Applied Psychology, 17(2), 268-275. Youtube (2013) Think Blue. Baby Television Advert. [online] Available from: <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xHOvyQu57cc> [Accessed 23 Oct.14].
  29. 29. Contemporary Brand Management 29 7.0. Appendices 7.1. Appendix 1 – Company Background The product spectrum ranges from motorcycles to low-consumption small cars and luxury vehicles. In the commercial vehicle sector, the products include ranges from pick-ups, buses and heavy trucks highlighting the diverse range of audiences it targets (Volkswagen Group 2014) 7.2. Appendix 2 – Slogan “Das Auto” Throughout the years, Volkswagen have incorporated slogans into their advertising strategies, their most recent slogan “Das Auto” unites the three core messages that distinguish the Volkswagen Passenger Cars brand: innovative, offering enduring value and responsible (Volkswagen 2014). The simple tagline “Das Auto” translates into “The Car” from German. This slogan helps consumers identify the brand through this tagline. It successfully aims this at customers to create memorable taglines that help anchor the brand in consumer’s mind (Yalch, 1991). It is difficult to create a name/slogan for a brand without having global difficulties and interpretations. However, Hall (2007) agrees in the retrospect that unlike the previous slogan, “Das Auto” is effective because it translates to roughly the same meaning in many of the world’s major languages. 7.3. Appendix 3 – Positioning We can guarantee our customers the best service they can ask for in terms of providing professional expertise and offering the smoothest driving experience. Unlike other cars, the sustainability Volkswagen offers ensures the best eco-friendly handling cars. Exceptional service and our best handling cars on the road reiterate how we are the best in the automobile market (Volkswagen Annual Report 2013). 7.4. Appendix 4 – Volkswagen’s Aims The Volkswagen Group aims to increase its unit sales and profitability for the long term. This is why its Strategy 2018 – with which Volkswagen intends to become the global economic and environmental leader among automobile manufacturers by 2018 – has been anchored in the Company (Volkswagen Annual Report 2013).
  30. 30. Contemporary Brand Management 30 7.5. Appendix 5 – Think Blue Campaign “Think Blue” is Volkswagen’s holistic philosophy to promote environmentally- friendly mobility and encourage individuals to act sustainably. Volkswagen’s “Think Blue.” philosophy encompasses technology to create more efficient cars, the development of alternative drives, new mobility concepts such as Quicar, a car-sharing project, and numerous alliances with environmental associations worldwide. Volkswagen launched its “Think Blue. Factory.” program in 2011 on the theme of “More sustainability – less environmental impact!” The aim is to continuously make production more ecologically efficient and to reduce energy consumption, waste, water consumption, solvent and CO2 emissions by 25 percent until 2018. Volkswagen Group (2014) Our Strategy UK [online] Available from: <http://navigator.volkswagenag.com/index.html#group/vw-group/strategy> [Accessed 23 Oct.14] 7.6. Appendix 6 – Think Blue. Baby Television Advert Youtube (2013) Think Blue. Baby Television Advert. [online] Available from: < http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xHOvyQu57cc> [Accessed: 23 Oct.14]. 7.7. Appendix 7 - Think Blue Baby Campaign - Complaints Complaints were issued to the Advertising Standards Authority due to the babies featured in the ad were too young and did not weigh enough to be sitting in front-facing car seats (Decision Marketing 2013). Although the ASA rejected the complaints, the criticisms were not to do with the ad itself; reiterating the success of Volkswagen’s advertising strategy. That being said, the ad did receive negative criticism especially towards the concept around taking the mick out of their own brand, which was a risky move for Volkswagen. However, that being said Volkswagen was able to get away with this with being such an established and recognised brand. It managed to be both self-effacing and to create a charming commercial that beautifully positions its new, green innovation (Patricios 2013).
  31. 31. Contemporary Brand Management 31 7.8. Appendix 8 – Consumers viewpoint on how ethical brands are How would you match the word ‘ethical’ to the brands below Brand Image – macro image, February 2014 % Volkswagen 30 Audi 29 Ford 28 Vauxhall 24 Peugeot 23 Hyundai 23 Citroen 22 Kia 22 Fiat 21 Renault 21 (Source Adapted from: Mintel, 2014) 7.9. Appendix 9 – Consumers viewpoint on which brands they trust Consumers were asked to rate the below brands on ‘A brand that I trust’ Brand Attitude, February 2014 % Volkswagen 38 Audi 37 Ford 39 Vauxhall 25 Peugeot 19 Hyundai 15 Citroen 15 Renault 15 Kia 13 Fiat 12 (Source Adapted from: Mintel, 2014)
  32. 32. Contemporary Brand Management 32 9.9. Appendix 9 – 2012 Harris Poll EquiTrend – Full Line Automotive Brand of the Year (Source Adapted from: Harris Interactive 2012) 62.55 62.51 62.1 61.95 57.29 55.4 53.61 53.39 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 Honda Vehicles Toyota Vehicles Ford Vehicles Chevrolet Vehicles Nissan Vehicles Subaru Vehicles Hyundai Vehicles Volkswagen Vehicles 2012 Harris Poll EquiTrend – Full Line Automotive Brand of the Year
  33. 33. Contemporary Brand Management 33 9.10. Appendix 10 – Survey Questions This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  34. 34. Contemporary Brand Management 34 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Jennifer Anniston Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  35. 35. Contemporary Brand Management 35 9.11. Appendix 11 – Survey Results 1 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Reliability 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  36. 36. Contemporary Brand Management 36 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  37. 37. Contemporary Brand Management 37 9.12. Appendix 12 – Survey Results 2 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? The logo VW 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  38. 38. Contemporary Brand Management 38 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  39. 39. Contemporary Brand Management 39 9.13. Appendix 13 – Survey Results 3 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? The logo 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  40. 40. Contemporary Brand Management 40 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  41. 41. Contemporary Brand Management 41 9.14. Appendix 14 – Survey Results 4 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? The brand VW and Golf 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  42. 42. Contemporary Brand Management 42 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  43. 43. Contemporary Brand Management 43 9.15. Appendix 15 – Survey Results 5 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? VW 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  44. 44. Contemporary Brand Management 44 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  45. 45. Contemporary Brand Management 45 9.16. Appendix 16 – Survey Results 6 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue and silver 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Mother’s car, reliable 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  46. 46. Contemporary Brand Management 46 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  47. 47. Contemporary Brand Management 47 9.17. Appendix 17 – Survey Results 7 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1.What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Reliability and comfort 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  48. 48. Contemporary Brand Management 48 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  49. 49. Contemporary Brand Management 49 9.18. Appendix 18 – Survey Results 8 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Old, middle-aged man in his 50s family car 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  50. 50. Contemporary Brand Management 50 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  51. 51. Contemporary Brand Management 51 9.19. Appendix 19 – Survey Results 9 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Reliable family cars that have been around for many years 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  52. 52. Contemporary Brand Management 52 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No
  53. 53. Contemporary Brand Management 53 9.20. Appendix 20 – Survey Results 10 This survey is intended to research consumer's perceptions towards Volkswagen as a brand in regards to how they view their brand personality and image. This survey is for the sole purpose of Leeds Beckett University and I understand that all data will be completely anonymous. I give my informed consent to take part in this study. 1. What is your gender? Male Female 2. What age group do you fall under? 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ 3. Have you heard of Volkswagen before? Yes No 4. What colour comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? Blue/Silver 5. What first comes to mind when you think of Volkswagen? "Golf" (Type not sport!) 6. Select the words you feel are most relevant and best describes Volkswagen as a brand Masculine Feminine Daring Conservative Family Youthful Ethical Boring Fun Reliable Stylish Out-dated 7. Imagine Volkswagen as a person, what characteristics would they have. Powerful, confident and daring Reliable, trustworthy and conservative Boring, out-dated and safe Mature, family-orientated, concerned about the environment
  54. 54. Contemporary Brand Management 54 8. If Volkswagen were to have a celebrity endorser, out of the following who do you feel fits the brand the best? George Clooney Hugh Jackman Bradley Cooper Tom Hardy Brad Pitt David Beckham 9. Would you say that Volkswagen targets majority at males? Yes No 10. If VW were a female celebrity, who would it be? Angelina Jolie Keira Knightley Nicole Kidman Sarah Jessica Parker Gwyneth Paltrow 11. Do you agree that Volkswagen have maintained a consistent brand image throughout the years and has a good reputation? Yes No 12. Would you recommend a Volkswagen car to a friend, family member or colleague looking to purchase a car? Yes No 13. Do you feel Volkswagen as a brand has memorable advertising e.g. Think Blue campaign with father driving his child around at night to get him to sleep? Yes No 14. Do you trust Volkswagen as a brand in terms of loyalty? Yes No

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