Referencing footnote


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Referencing footnote

  1. 1. Referencing – Footnote styleIn-text referencingThere are many variations of the footnoting system. Always follow information given to you by yourlecturer. Here are some guidelines:• The easiest way to format your footnotes is to use the Microsoft Word referencing tool. (Insert> reference> footnote). If you are not using this application use a superscript—1. Then type the corresponding number at the bottom of the page, citing all the bibliographic information.• The first time a source is cited include the authors full name, the title of the work and publication details (see examples below). Subsequent references to the same work can usually be in a shortened form (but check with your lecturer first about suitable abbreviations).• Include page numbers at the end of the footnote only when quoting, not when you paraphrase.Example In the text Advertisers are very good at ‘putting the hype into hyperbole’, unfortunately often resulting in a sceptical audience.1 Geddes argues that in order to create advertising impact, there needs to be a continually fresh approach 2, and although others point to the impossibility of this 3, a recent study showed that audiences subjected to bland advertising had difficulty in remembering the product.4 The footnotes 1. Jeffrey McQuain, Power language, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1996, p.53. 2. Miranda Geddes, The advertiser’s toolbag, Hudson, Perth, 2003. 3. Peter Henders, Design issues, Chesley Publishing, London, 2001, ; June Sapforth, 1999, The importance of design, Howarth Press, New York. 4. Geddes, loc. cit. The Latin abbreviation loc. cit. has been used to indicate that the source has already been mentioned. Abbreviation: Use: Example: ibid. To indicate the same source as in the 1. Jane Clayden, Design notes, Tegdale Press, (in the same place) footnote immediately above. If referring London, 2000, p.281. to a different page number write ibid 2. ibid p.35. 3. ibid, p.39. loc.cit. To indicate a source and page number 1. Jane Clayden, Design notes, Tegdale Press, (in the place al- already cited, but one not immediately London, 2000, p.281. ready quoted) above. 2. Andrea Jones, A history of art, Blum Press, New York, 1999, p. 38. 3. Clayden, loc.cit. op.cit. To indicate a different page number of a 1. Jane Clayden, Design notes, Tegdale Press, (in the work cited) source already cited, but one not immedi- London, 2000, p.281. ately above. 2. George Thompson, Modern design, Noble Press, New York, 1999, p. 38. 3. Clayden, op.cit., p. 270.Learning Links Tips/footnotes February 2007
  2. 2. Examples of footnotesBook – one authorDunstan, Ewen, Sources of ideas, Sun Press, Boston, 2004, p. 71-78.Book – multiple authorsRaphael, Gerald, Brown Colin and Stewart, Ann, Design ideas Harris, New York, 1998.Chapter in a book by another authorJane, Thompson, Women’s art. Chap. in Art in the 1990’s, eds. Privet, James, and Martin, Peter,Maundie Press, New York, 2003.Article in JournalGerald, King, Design speaks, Signs and symbols, vol. 5, no.1, 1998, p. 25-30.Published conference proceedingsErin, Carter, and Packer, K, eds, Selected Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on ArtStudies, University of Westland, Westland, 1999, p. 139-150.Internet citationIris, Heetman, Early design development, Waters Research Centre, 2004,, Viewed 15 June, 2004.Examples of Reference List itemsBook – one authorDunstan Eric, 2004, Sources creativity, Styles Press, Sydney.Book – multiple authorsRaphael, Georgina, Beaton, Carol and Homes, Stuart, 2003, Art studies, Hartnell, New York.Chapter in a book by another authorThompson, Brenda, Women’s work. Chap. in Women and art , eds. Pinder D.L, and Martin, E, 1997,Mainstream Press, New York.Article in JournalKing, Gerry, 1998, Design matters, Design Quarterly, vol. 5, no.1.Published conference proceedingsCarter, Eric, and Packer, Terry, eds, 1997, Selected Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on Art Studies, University ofWestland, Westland.Internet citationHarvey, Thomas, 1995, Early fabrics, Somer Research Centre, 2004,,Viewed 15 June.Learning Links Tips/footnotes February 2007